Skip to main content

Full text of "Handbook of official and social etiquette and public ceremonials at Washington"

See other formats







GOLDWIN SMITH 



<f HAND-BOOK 

V- _ ,_ 

Official and Social Etiquette 



PUBLIC CEREMONIALS 



\VASHINGTON. 



A MANUAL OF RULES, PRECEDENTS, AND FORMS IN VOGUE IN" 
OFFICIAL AND SOCIAL LIFE AT THE SEAT OF GOVERN 
MENT OF THE UNITED STATES, FOR THE GUIDANCE 
AND INFORMATION OF OFFICIALS, DIPLO 
MATS, STRANGERS, AND RESIDENTS. 

ALSO A GUIDE FOR DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR REPRE 
SENTATIVES OF THE UNITED STATES IN 
FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



By DeB. RANDOLPH KEIM, 

Author of "Illustrated Hand-Book of Washington and Its 
Environs, Society in Washington, Etc., Etc. 



THIRD EDITION. 



WASHINGTON : 
Copyright, 1889, by De B. Randolph Keim. 




PREFACE . 



During the early days, society at the Seat of Government was made up of 
the few resident officials, a small circle of citizens, and occasionally, the fam 
ilies of a few Senators and Representatives. The city was practically a col 
lection of isolated villages widely separated and at certain seasons almost 
inaccessible. In the vicinity of the Navy Yard, the Arsenal, the Capitol and 
the President s House, as many communities had sprung into existence through 
the necessities of public business. Under such circumstances social enter 
tainments were of rare occurrence and imposed upon the participants no small 
degree of inconvenience. This condition of things is now changed. The 
Capital, within a few days ride of the remotest sections of the country, with 
its beautiful parks, broad avenues and magnificent public edifices, its Chief 
Magistrate, its Congress, its Supreme Judiciary, its attractions of art, its libra 
ries, museums, institutions of science and learning, its churches and asylums, 
and its places of amusement, has become a resort for citizens of culture, 
means and leisure from all parts of the country, and a centre of attraction to 
foreigners from all parts of the globe visiting the United States. Official and 
social intercourse at the Capital is governed by rules and usages, some of 
which, in their origin, are contemporaneous with the foundation of the Gov 
ernment, while others have been evolved out of the circumstances and neces 
sities of the occasion. 

In the compilation of the following pages the best sources of information, 
including many early original documents in mannscript and print, have been 
consulted. As a work of this scope is entirely new and its necessity great, 
reducing as it does the etiquette of official and social life at the Capital to some 
what of a formula, the compiler would be pleased at any time to receive by 
corres Dondence any comments or suggestions, with a view to the perfection of 
his labors in future editions. 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



CONTENTS. 



PREFACE 2 

OFFICIAL AND SOCIAL ETIQUETTE (9.) 

Page. Page. 
Society 9 j Titles 15 

Social Relations loj Official Hours; Social Hours 16 

Official Rank 1 1 i Calls of Etiquette 17 

Social Classes at Washington; So- | Cards; Introductions; Official Com- 

cial Recognition; The Co-ordinate munications 18 

Branches of the Government 12 Notes; The Season; Receptions.. 19 

Constitutional Officers; Order of Reception Days; Ihe Etiquette of 

Precedence in each co-ordinate Receptions 2O 

branch 13 Dress 21 

General order of Official Precedence, 14 

THE PRESIDENT.-(2 3 .) 

Title 23 ! Informal Receptions; Public Ap- 

Forms of Salutation ; Prerogatives ; pearances ; Presidential Journeys ; 

Official and Social Status 24 Correspondence 40 

Relations stated 25 i Presidential Equipage ; The Presi- 

Official Hours 26 dent and the co-ordinate branches 

Rules for Calling on the President, 28 of the Government; Inaugura- 
The Executive Household; The Ex- tion of the President 41 

ecutive Office; Social Preroga- Inaugural Procession 42 

tives 29 Ceremonies at the Capitol 46 

Social Duties; Receptions 30 j Inaugural Ball; Departure of the 

Public Receptions 34 Ex-President Death of the Pres- 

State Dinners 35 ident 47 

Drawing Rooms 38; Presidential Succession 48 

State Receptions; Special Audi- j Presidential Obsequies 49 

ences 39 i 

THE CABINET. (57.) 

Official Status ; Official Authority i Departmental Bureau Rank ; Cor- 

Ministerial ; Line of Provisional respondence 65 

Succession 57 Bureau Titles ; Obsequies 66 

No Exceptional Rank; Action of 

the Convention of 1787 58 _ T ? E SECRETARY OF STATE. 

Cabinet Titles; Cabinet Councils.. 59 Of ^ cia !> Ceremonial, and Social 

Official Hours; Official Preroga Duties and Relations and Bureau 

tives; At the Senate S ..6o Precedence 7 i 

Social Obligations ; Receptions 61 THE DIPLOMATIC CORPS. 

Card Receptions 62 Personnel, Diplomatic List, Arrival, 

Cabinet Dinners ; Official Recep- Presentation, Titles, Social Rela 
tions 64 tions, Etiquette, &c., 72 

(3) 



CONTENTS. 



THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE OF THE 
UNITED STATES. 

Rules of Precedence, Arrival at 
Post, Etiquette, Privileges, Pre 
sentation at a Foreign Court, &c., 79 



THE ATTORNEY GENERAL. 
Official and Social Relations 97 

THE POSTMASTER GENERAL. 
Official and Social Relations .. ..08 



THE CONSULAR SERVICE. 
Official Status, Prerogatives, Taking 
Charge, Courtesies, Social Rela 
tions 86 

THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY. 

Official and Social Duties and Rela 
tions ; Deparimental Bureau Pre 
cedence, &c , 89 

THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 
Official and Social Relations and 
Duties and Departmental Bureau 
Precedence 90 

THE ARMY. 

Precedence, Rank, Social Courte 
sies, Military Honors, Salutes, 
Obsequies, &c 91 



THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY. 
Official and Social Relations 100 

THE NAVY AND MARINE CORPS. 
Rank, Social Courtesies, Maritime 
Ceremonials, Naval Honors, 
Ceremonies, Salutes, Honors, 
Courtesies, &c 101 

THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR. 
Official and Social Relations 106 

UNASSIGNED. 

Commissioners and Chiefs of Bu 
reaus, and Social Relations 108 

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DISTRICT 

OF COLUMBIA. 
Precedence and Social Relations.. 108 



THE CONGRESS. (109.) 



Precedence of States; Forms of 

Address 109 \ 

Ceremonial Relations between the 
two Houses of Congress; Par 
liamentary Intercourse no 

The President at the Capital; The 

Opening of Congress 112 

Executive Communications 113 

Congress and the President; For 
malities of Adjournment; Call 
ing at the Capitol, upon a Senator 

or Representative 1 14 j 

Social Obligations ; Ceremonial 

Occasions 1 16 I 

Ceremonial Relations; Ceremonies 

of Inauguration 118 

Arrival at the Capitol 119! 

Assembling of the Senate 120 

The Oath of Office 122 

Obsequies 123 

Joint Obsequies by Congress 126 

Eulogies; Invitations 127 



THE VICE-PRESIDENT. 
Constituiional Status and Powers, 
Title, Ceremonial and Social 
Duties; Presidential Succession 
and Obsequies 129 

THE PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE OF 

THE SENATE. 

Constitutional Status, Precedence, 
Social Relations and Title 131 

THE SENATORS. 

Precedence, Powers, Title, Official 
and Social Duties 132 

THE SPEAKER. 
Precedence, Title, Social Duties.. 135 

THE REPRESENTATIVES. 
Powers, Precedence and Social 
Relations 136 



CONTENTS. 



THE JUDICIARY. (137.) 



Constitutional Status ; Statutory 
Personnel; Judicial Precedence, 137 

Court Precedence; The Robes; 
Forms of Address ; Ceremonial 
Etiquette 138 

THE CHIEF JUSTICE. 
Constitutional Title, Historic Pre 
cedents, Investiture of the Chief 
Justice; The Chief Justice, the 
President and the Senate; Ob 
sequies 141 



THE ASSOCIATE JUSTICES. 
Title, Precedence, Social Rela 
tions, &c 144 

THE JUDGES OF THE UUITED STATES 

COURTS. 

Order of Precedence, Titles, Cere 
monial and Social Relations 145 

THE JUDGES OF THE COURT OF 

CLAIMS. 

Order of Precedence, Titles, Social 
Relations, &c 146 



THE STATE (147.) 

Precedence of State Officers ; Ti- ] Social Relations 
ties 147 I 

SOCIAL ETIQUETTE. (149.) 




Importance of Etiquette at Wash 
ington; Formative Period of 
Social Institutions at the Capital, 149 

THE SEASON. 

The Social and Ceremonial Sea 
sons 152 j 

RECEPTION DAYS. 
Drawing- Room Days 153 

THE ETIQUETTE OF CALLING. 

Rules ; Social I lours 153 i 

Length of Calls ; First Call; Call- 
i g Lists ; Form of making Calls, 1 54 

When to Return a Call 15 

Rules to be Remembered 15 

THE STRANGER AND RESIDENT. 

Their Reciprocal Duties 157 j 

How to Enter Society 158 

THE ETIQUETTE OF CARDS. A 
Styles of Cards ; How to Use f 

Cards; Classes of Cards 159 

Special Forms of Cards 160 \ 

General Forms of Cards 161 

Turning Card Corners ....163 



Leaving Cards 164 

Cards by Mail 165 

THE ETIQUETTE OF INTRODUCTIONS. 
Rules governing Introductions. . . 165 
How to Introduce; Common Law 
of Introductions 168 

THE USE OF TITLES. 

Social Titles 1 70 

Social Official Titles 171 

Professional Titles; Foreign Titles, 1 72 

THE ETIQUETTE OF SALUTATIONS. 

Common Forms 1 72 

I recedence of Recognition 1 73 

The Bow 1 73 

Shaking Hands; The Hat 174 

The Glove 1 75 

THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS. 
Fashion _ 175 

The Toilet; Personal Attractions ; 
Dress 176 

A Lady s Dress; What to Wear, 177 

A Gentleman s Dress 178 

The Glove... ..180 



CONTENTS. 



THE ETIQUETTE OF CONVERSATION. 
General Rules of Conversation. .. 1 80 
Gossip . 182 

THE ETIQUETTE OF SOCIAL ENTER 
TAINMENTS. 

Classes of Social Entertainments; 

y Hours; At the Door; Arriving, 183 

Entering; The Host and Hostess; 

As Guest 184 

Departure; Return Calls 185 

INVITATIONS. 

Forms of Invitstions and Declina 
tions 185 

French Phrases; General Rules.. 187 
Taking a Lady 188 

THE DEBUT IN SOCIETY. 

The Presentation 189 

Social Duties ; Entree of a Gentle 
man 190 

RECEPTIONS AND DRAWING-ROOMS, 
BALLS AND PARTIES. 

New Year s Receptions 191 

Routine of Receptions 192 

General Receptions 194 

Drawing- Rooms 196 

Dancing Parties and Balls 197 

General Rules 200 

Fashionable Dancing 201 

Opera and Theater Parties 202 

Fancy Dress Parties; Card Parties, 204 
Musical and Literary Entertain 
ments 205 

Matinees and Soirees 206 

Garden Parties; Children s Parties,2O7 

THE ETIQUETTE OF DINNER 
PARTIES. 

Invitations 208 

Dress; Hours; The Guests 210 

Arrangement of Guests; The An 
nouncement, 2il 

Table Precedence; Serving the ! 

Dinner 214 

The Order of Dishes 216 

V How to Eat 217 



Leaving the Table 218 

Table Manners 219 

Return Call 220 

THE ETIQUETTE OF BREAKFASTS, 
LUNCHEONS, COFFEES, TEAS, AND 
SUPPERS. 

Breakfasts 221 

Luncheons 222 

Coffees 223 

Teas 223 

Suppers 224 

THE ETIQUETTE OF WEDDINGS. 
Last Calls; Wedding Cards and 

Invitations 226 

What the Family of the Bride Fur 
nish 228 

What the Bridegroom Furnishes, 228 

The Best Man 228 

The Bridesmaids 229 

Dress; Presents; The Hour; The 

Ceremony 230 

The Bride; The Relatives; The 

Bridal Procession ; At the Altar, 231 
Leaving the Church; The Recep 
tion; Wedding Breakfast; Re 
turn Calls; Honeymoon; Gen 
eral Rules 232 

Wedding Anniversaries 233 

CHRISTENINGS AND BIRTHDAY 
CELEBRATIONS. 

Christenings; Caudle Parties 236 

Birthday Celebrations 23 7 

VISITING. 
General Rules 237 

GIVING AND RECEIVING PRESENTS. 
General Rules 238 

ETIQUETTE IN PUBLIC. 

On the Street 239 

Seats in Public ; Regard for Others, 24 1 

At a Place of Amusement 241 

In Church 242 

Chewing, Smoking 242 



CONTENTS. 



THE ETIQUETTE OF RIDING, DRIV 
ING, AND CYCLING. 

Carriage Etiquette 243 

Horseback Riding 243 

The Mount; The Horse Equip 
ment; The Habit 244 

A Gentleman s Mount; Mounting 
and Dismounting; The Groom, 247 

Saddle Etiquette 248 

Rules of the Road 249 

Cycling Etiquette; The Mount; 

Costume 249 

How to Mount; Rules of the 

Road 250 

Traveling 252 

The Etiquette of Traveling 254 



THE CHAPERON; HER CHARGE 
AND DUTIES T 255 

-RULES OF DECORUM 257 

FUNERAL CUSTOMS AND SEASONS 
OF MOURNING 261 

SOCIAL AND OFFICIAL CORRESPOND 
ENCE. 

Letters in General 265 

Fashionable Stationery; Materials 

of Letters ... 266 

Structure of Letters 268 

Social Notes 277 

Phrases and Abbreviations 277 

Common Law of Correspondence, 277 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

The illustrations in this work are in part after engravings in those artistic 
publications The Cosmopolitan, Harper s Weekly, Frank Leslie s Illustrated 
Newspaper, and The National Capital, by Stilson Hutchins and Joseph West 
Moore, from sketches by such eminent artists as Thulstrup, Renouard, Up- 
hem, Delorme, and Rogers. 

The portraits of the chief ladies of the three co-ordinate branches of the 
government are from the latest photographs. 





WIFE OF THE 23d PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. (8) 



ml nnh jSury JHnptslb* 



HERE are many who deride good manners as antagonistic to the spirit 
of liberty. The autocracy of the mob is to them the bulwark of free in- 
stitutions and necessary to the preservation of American freedom. In the 
United States the people is the sovereign; and while it is not essential to 
imitate the forms aijd pageantry which invest royalty, it is possible to ob 
serve the recognized 7 rules of decency, if not of refinement and culture, without 
being aristocratic. It is not the splendor of outward forms, but an inherent 
sense of the fitness of things, which leads to gentility. It is not empty gestic 
ulations nor the blandishments of complimentary epithets that constitute good 
manners, but/dignity tempered with freedom, reserve mingled with affability 
and conversation softened with geniality and enlivened with wit./ The Ameri 
can should possess the elements of genuine politeness in the highest degree. 
The spirit of our institutions rightly interpreted, leads to self respect and an 
emulation of the good in all things. The highest offices of State are open to 
the lowliest of its citizens. An exalted ancestry is a circumstance which 
should be regarded only as a stimulus to worthy imitation, but it should af 
ford no claims to social distinction not exemplified in actual life. 

Etiquette is a protection against the impertinent and vulgar, and is indis 
pensable to the welfare of society, whether that society be under a govern 
ment of the people or of an hereditary sovereign. 

SOCIETY. In its generic sense, what is known in human affairs as Society, 
might be said to mean any body of individuals united by a common bond of 
interest or affinity and for some defined object whether of government, busi 
ness or pleasure. In the present use of the term, however, Society comprises 
those who recognize each other as associates, and among whom cultivation 
and refinement are the controlling influences, and who give and receive formal 
social entertainments mutually. In the exercise of social relations in this 
sense, each person admitted to such enjoyments and benefits, has assumed 
certain obligations and is expected to conform to them. These obligations 
constitute the observance of the customs, usages and proprieties, or, in a 
word, the etiquette, required by good breeding, correct principles or authority. 

9 



IO SOCIAL RELATIONS. 

SOCIAL RELATIONS. Refined and intelligent society at the Seat of 
Government of the United States is guided not only by the conventional 
decorum recognized under similar circumstances at other centres of learning, 
wealth and fashion, but is largely influenced in its forms and ceremonies by 
the proprieties of official rank and occasion. 

The social problem was one of extreme delicacy in the beginning of the Gov 
ernment. The republican principle presented many embarrassments in this 
particular, and instead of democratic, the Government was threatened with 
mobocratic domination. In this situation of affairs the first President, in 
May, 1789, submitted the whole subject to John Adams, Vice- President of 
the United States, John Jay, Secretary for Foreign Affairs, General Alexander 
Hamilton, and Representative James Madison, whose prominence and experi 
ence in official and social life, and relations of friendship towards the President, 
rendered them competent advisers. At that time there was no Cabinet to whom 
the President might turn for counsel. The replies of the gentlemen formed 
the basis of a code of manners to govern the official and social surroundings 
of the Executive office. It reflected the stately dignity of the old colonial 
etiquette more or less modified by the averaging tendencies of the continental 
school which grew and strengthened with the struggle for Independence, and 
took definite form in the deliberations of the Convention and provisions of the 
Constitution of 1787. 

The adoption of certain elementary principles of ceremony and etiquette 
in harmony with republican ideas soon became in practice part of the work 
ings of the Government. The President, the head of the official, as well 
as the social superstructure, gave the new rules that initial force neces 
sary to their success. Jefferson, who arrived at the seat of government in 
the spring of 1790, took exception to the social practices in vogue in govern 
ment circles, and indulged in criticisms which were unjust and in bad taste. 
Fresh from France, and associations with the leading spirits of the French 
Revolution, his theory of a social state was modeled on the license of the 
Boulevards of Paris, rather than upon the requirements of the intelligent and 
conservative sentiment of a people, who, from colonial dependency had 
lifted the yoke of foreign dictation, had established a free and independent 
government, distinctive, exalting, and American in every sense, and had ele 
vated the standard of government and society upon the doctrine of the rational 
free agency and merits of their several members. 

Mr. Jefferson s idea of a social code for the regulation of official and social 
affairs at the seat of government were formulated in a series of propositions 
extant in his own hand-writing, as follows : 

I. In order to bring the members of society together in the first instance, 
the custom of the country has established that residents shall pay the first 



OFFICIAL PRECEDENCE. II 

visit to strangers, and among strangers first comers to later comers, foreign 
and domestic. 

The character of strangers ceases after the first visit. 

To this rule there is a single exception. Foreign Ministers, from the neces 
sity of making themselves known, pay the first visit to the Ministers of the 
nation, which is returned. 

II. When brought together in society all are perfectly equal, whether for 
eign or domestic, titled or untitled, in or out of office. 

All other observances are but exemplifications of these two principles. 

I. The families of Foreign Ministers arriving at the Seat of Government 
receive the first visit from those of the National Ministers, as from all other 
residents. 

The members of the Legislature and of the Judiciary, independent of their 
offices, have a right as strangers to receive the first visit. 

II. No title being admitted here, those of foreigners give no precedence. 

Differences of grade among the Diplomatic members give no precedence. 

At public ceremonies, to which the Government invites the presence of For 
eign Ministers and their families, a convenient place or station will be pro 
vided for them, with any other strangers invited, and the families of the 
National Ministers, each taking place as they arrive and without any prece 
dence. 

To maintain the principle of equality or pele mela, and prevent the growth 
of precedence, out of courtesy, the members of the Executive will practice 
at their own houses and recommend an adherence to the ancient usage of the 
country, of gentlemen en masse giving precedence to the ladies en masse, in 
passing from one apartment where they are assembled into another. 

The third President applied his communistic code of manners in practice, 
when his will was law within the walls of the Executive mansion. The cere 
monial and social complications, and incessant controversies with members of 
the Diplomatic Corps and society in general, which he experienced during 
his eight years experiment, demonstrated the impracticability of a social state 
presided over by the Chief Officer even of a popular government, founded on 
the principle of social equality, regardless of the inequalities of human condi 
tions, instincts, motives, aspirations, feelings, and tastes inherent or acquired. 

The election of James Madison put an end to the Jeffersonian code, and 
restored the dignified social institutions of the American school of the admin 
istrations of Washington and Adams, which have been maintained ever since 
without material modification or change. 

OFFICIAL RANK. The term officials, under the National Government, 
strictly speaking, means such persons in office who ate appointed by and hold 
their commissions from THE PRESIDENT. These offices are recognized by 



12 OFFICIAL PRECEDENCE. 

certain gradations which have been determined by constitutional provision, 
legislation, or seniority of enactment, and the persons or officials exercising 
their chief functions, from the same sources derive precedence or rank. The 
term civil officer designates an officer selected from private life and represent 
ing civil authority, and not one acting by assignment from the army or navy. 
The existence of rank is essential to order, and prompt acquiescence in the 
commands of superiors is necessary to discipline. Respect for those in au 
thority is indispensable to successful administration, and should be observed 
upon all occasions, whether in the exercise of official duties or enjoyments of 
social intercourse. 

SOCIAL CLASSES AT WASHINGTON. The social world of the Cap 
ital may be divided into three classes: 

FIRST. The Official Class, embracing all officers chosen by the people or 
appointed by THE PRESIDENT in the three co-ordinate branches of the Gov 
ernment, and the Presidential appointees belonging to the administrative de 
partments. This includes officers of the Army, Navy and Marine Corps on 
duty permanently or temporarily at the Capital, and civil officers of the Gov 
ernment whose places of employment are in the different States of the Union, 
or officers of the Diplomatic or Consular services of the United States and 
visiting the city. 

SECOND. The Quasi-Official Class, which embraces the Foreign Diplo 
matic and Consular Corps, Officers of Foreign Governments, and Officers of 
State or Munici^ al Governments in the United States, in the city. 

THIRD. The Un-official Class, which includes residents from other localities, 
sojourners or visitors in the city who are entitled by social status at home to 
recognition in good society, and permanent residents of independent means 
or engaged in professional or mercantile affairs. 

SOCIAL RECOGNITION. The consideration which mainly governs the 
position of individuals in the official society of Washington is rank ; and in 
this there are degrees regulated and circumscribed by the proprieties of occa 
sion. In ordinary social intercourse official station has its recognition, but 
learning, genius, personal accomplishments and wealth have theirs. 

THE CO-ORDINATE BRANCHES OF THE GOVERNMENT. The 

three grand divisions of the Government are : 

1. THE EXECUTIVE The Executive power shall be vested in a President 
of the United States of America. [Article II, Sec. I, Constitution of the 
United States. J 

2. THE CONGRESS All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in 
a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a SENATE and HOUSE 
OF REPRESENTATIVES. [Art. I, Sec. I, Constitution of the United States.] 



CONSTITUTIONAL OFFICERS. 13 

3. THE JUDICIARY The judicial power of the United States shall be vested 
in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from 
time to time ordain and establish. * * [Art. Ill, Sec. I, Constitution 
of the United States. ] 

CONSTITUTIONAL OFFICERS. The members of the government 
mentioned by name, and deriving their rank and powers directly from the 
Constitution, are the constitutional officers of the United States. They are 
as follows : 

1. The President The constitutional chief officer of the Executive 

2. The Vice- President The constitutional heir presumptive to the Execu 
tive, and constitutional President of the Senate. 

2. The President of the Senate, pro tempore. The constitutional presiding 
officer of the Senate in event of a vacancy in the Vice- Presidency. 

3. The Chief Justice of the United States The constitutional head of the 
Judiciary. 

4. The Senators The members of the constitutional upper branch of Con 
gress, representing the States of the Union, and exercising with legislative 
powers certain constitutional executive, and judicial duties. 

5. The Speaker The constitutional presiding officer of the lower branch 
of Congress. 

6. The Representatives The constitutional members of the lower branch 
of Congress representing the body of the people. 

The wives of these constitutional officers are entitled among the ladies of 
official society to the same rank and social recognition enjoyed by their hus 
bands. 

ORDER OF PRECEDENCE WITHIN EACH CO-ORDINATE 
BRANCH OF THE GOVERNMENT. In the event of each co-ordinate 
branch of the Government appearing in its distinctive character on occa 
sions of public ceremonial, the fcllowing order of precedence is established 
by law, usage or propriety : 

THE EXECUTIVE. 

The PRESIDENT. 

The Members of the Cabinet in order, A. Jan. 19, 1886 as follows: 

The Secretary of State. 

If the occasion be suitable, the Diplomatic Representatives of Foreign 
Governments should accompany the Secretary of State in the order of presen 
tation of credentials to THE PRESIDENT. 

The Secretary of the Treasury. The Post Master General. 

The Secretary of War. The Secretary of the Navy. 

The Attorney General. The Secretary of thelnterior. 



14 OFFICIAL PRECEDENCE. 

Assistant Secretaries follow in the order of their rank, First, Second or 
Third, in their respective departments, according to the rank of their chief 
officers, and Bureau officers the same. 

Private Secretaries in the order of their chief officers. 

The Assistant Private Secretary to THE PRESIDENT. 

The Executive and Departmental clerks have no status in official society. 

THE CONGRESS. 

THE SENATE The Vice President of the United States, ex-officio Presi 
dent of the Senate. 
Senators in the order of Seniority. The Senator filling the office of President 

pro tempore of the Senate has no special rank by virtue of that choice of 

his fellow Senators, unless in actual occupation of the office. 

The Secretary of the Senate, and other elective officers. 

The Librarian of Congress, Public Printer, Architect of Capitol. 

The non-elective employe s have no official or social status in the Senate. 

THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

The Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

Representatives. The arrangement of the Roll of the House is alphabetical, 
and the same applies with respect to the order of the States. Within each 
State the arrangement is according to the number of the districts respec 
tively. On occasions of ceremony, after the Officers of the House and the 
four eldest Representatives in duration of continuous service, no formal 
disposition is observed. 

The Clerk of the House, and other elective officers. 
The non-elective employes have no official or social status in the House. 

THE JUDICIARY. 

THE SUPREME COURT The Chief Justice of the United States. The As 
sociate Justices in the order of Seniority. The Clerk of the Court and De 
puty Clerk. The Marshal and Assistants. The Reporter. 
Judges of Circuit and District Courts of the United States, if in the city, 
take rank on occasions of ceremony after the Associate Justices. 

THE COURT 3F CLAIMS The Chief Justice. The Judges. The Chief 
Clerk. The Bailiff. 

THE GENERAL ORDER OF OFFICIAL PRECEDENCE. Estab 
lished by constitutional recognition, law, seniority, usage or propriety, as 
follows : 

1. The PRESIDENT. 

2. The Vice-President and President of the Senate. The President of the 
Senate pro tempore, in event of a vacancy in the office of Vice-President. 



TITLES. 15 

3. The Chief justice of the United States. 

4. Senators. 5. The Speaker. 6. Representatives in Congress. 
7. Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. 

8 The members of the Cabinet in the order of succession to the Presidency, 
act January 19, 1886. 

The members of the Foreign Diplomatic Corps in the order of the presen 
tation of their credentials to THE PRESIDENT, and Foreign members of In 
ternational Commissions, and official counsul with the legation of their coun 
tries, take their places with the Secretary of State. 

9. The General of the Army and Admiral of the Navy. 

10. The Governors of States. 

11. The Chief Justice and Associates of the Court of Claims. Circuit and 
District Judges of the United States. The Chief Justices and Associates of 
Territories and District of Columbia. 

12. The Lieutenant General and Vice Admiral. 

13. Diplomatic Representatives of the United States. 

14. Major Generals, Rear Admirals, and officers of the Staff of equal rank. 

15. Brigadier Generals and Commodores. 

16. Chiefs of Quasi-independent Civil Bureaus. Chiefs of Departmental 
Bureaus in the order of their chief officers. 

17. Colonels, Captains of the Navy, Staff Officers of equal rank, the Col 
onel of the Marine Corps. 

18. Consuls General and Consuls of Foreign Governments, according to 
date of exequator, and the same of the United States, according to seniority 
of service. 

19. Lieutenant Colonels and Majors of the Army, and Commanders and 
Lieutenant Communders of the Navy, and Staff officers of equal rank. 

20. The Commissioners of the District of Columbia ; Governors of Terri 
tories, Lieutenant Governors and other elective State officers in their accepted 
order at home. 

21. Captains, First Lieutenants and Second Lieutenants of the Army, and 
Lieutenants, Masters and Ensigns of the Navy, and Staff Officers of equal rank 

22. Assistant Secretaries of Executive Departments, Secretaries of Lega 
tions, Secretaries of the Senate and House of Representatives and Clerk of 
the Supreme Court. 

The order of precedence within each branch of the Executive, Legislative, 
Judicial, Military, Naval and Marine services is governed by the order of rank 
and regulations, and will be found under their respective heads. 

The wives of persons occupying these degreess of rank, take precedence with 
their husbands. 

TITLES. The spirit of American institutions is averse to titles, though 



1 6 OFFICIAL HOURS. 

popular favor sustains their use by courtesy, profession or rank. Official or 
professional titles are essential to that ready distinction of rank or duty which 
alone prevents confusion and humiliating mistakes. The title Honorable is 
only proper for grades of officials below THE PRESIDENT of the United States 
or Governor of a State, thus applying to heads of Executive Departments, 
National or State, the members of The Congress, and also the Judges of 
the Courts and the Mayors of cities. These are entitled to its use for life. 
All below are simply entitled to Mr. or Esq., and to apply the title Honorable 
is an assumption. This rule applies to Governors of Territories. 

The use of Military or Naval titles is regulated by the commission. 

"When a person has a right to several title? and but one is used, always 
select the highest. 

Any person having official rank may be addressed by any title belonging to 
him above the one to which he is entitled by virtue of his present rank, bnt to 
address him by any title below that rank would be inappropriate. 

Professional titles may be used in the same manner, but not scholastic 
titles, unless they are professional also. 

Usage at the National Capital has authorized the form Mr. and Mrs. below 
THE PRESIDENT, as Mr. Speaker . 

The general rule governing official titles is never to abbreviate those of 
THE PRESIDENT, the Vice President, the Chief Justice, the Speaker, the 
Governor, or Mayor ; below these it is proper. " 

The right of an individual to the title of office under the supreme government 
expires with his retirement from that office. This rule applies to all official 
titles, whether belonging to the Executive, Legislative or Judicial branches of 
the Government, excepting military or naval titles. These continue during 
life. It is customary to address retired officials by the titles to which they 
had a right before entering the service of the General Government. 

The titles and form of address for officials will be found under the heads of 
their respective grades. 

OFFICIAL HOURS. The public business begins at 9 a. m., and closes 
to the general public at 2 p. m., in order to afford time without interruption 
to complete the business of the day, which terminates at 4 p. m. The De 
partments are open every day except Sundays, January 1st and July 4th (or 
the day celebrated if either of them fall on Sunday), Thanksgiving Day, and 
such other holidays declared National by act of Congress. Upon such days 
public business is suspended and the Departments are closed. Upon other 
exceptional occasions public business may be in whole or in part suspended in 
the Executive Departments by Executive order. 

SOCIAL HOURS. The social and domestic routine of Washington is 



CALLS OF ETIQUETTE. 17 

regulated and controlled entirely by official duties. The day is divided into 
two parts, socially speaking, all that portion before the dinner hour which is 
after the close of official hours, being regarded as morning; and that portion 
of tine thereafter as evening. Hence in afternoon receptions it is generally 
customary to say good morning, although it is really afternoon. This applies 
only in conversation. In notes ar.d invitations the usual divisions of time are 
used, mentioning the hour and either a. m. or p. m., as the case may be. 

CALLS OF ETIQUETTE. The routine of official as well as social life 
at Washington is regulated by certain conventionalities. 

THE PRESIDENT receives calls of ceremony, but never returns them, ex 
cept in the case of a Sovereign, President or Ruler of an independent Govern 
ment, who should make the first call. He does not make social calls in the 
strict sense of the term. His official relations are also regulated by certain 
proprieties of station, as will be seen under the head of The President. 

The Vice President and Senators who exercise legislative and ce:tain exec 
utive and judicial powers, receive first calls from the Associate Justices of the 
Supreme Court of the United States, the Cabinet and Foreign Ministers, and 
others below them. Their families call in the same manner. 

Representatives in Congress make the first call upon all persons in the higher 
grades. This rule applies also to the Speaker of the House. 

The Associate Justices of the Supreme Court receive the first call from all 
officials except THE PRESIDENT and Vice President, and all other constitu 
tional officers upon whom they make the first call. Their families hold the 
same relation. 

The Secretary of State and other members of the Cabinet receive the first 
call from Foreign Ministers. While Foreign Ministers are here as represent 
atives of a Foreign nation, their official relations are not supreme. The fami 
lies of Cabinet Ministers, however, call first upon the families of Diplomatic 
Ministers. 

A stranger of distinction visiting the Capital should make the first call 
upon a resident official of equal rank. 

A newly appointed official, of whatever rank, makes the first call of office 
or courtesy upon those occupying grades above, and receives the first calls from 
those below him. 

These calls of etiquette, however, save in exceptional cases, are confined 
to the branch of the service or department to which the official belongs. 

Strangers arriving in Washington should call first and leave a card, to ad 
vise those to whom they wish to make their arrival known. The party should 
then return the call or leave a card within two days, otherwise the person 
making the call will know that his call will not be returned. This will also 
apply to calls on officials by persons entitled to do so. 

2 



1 8 CARDS INTRODUCTIONS. 

The rules regulating the calls of etiquette of persons in official rank also 
apply to the ladies of their families, excepting in the case of the ladies of the 
families of Cabinet Ministers, who call first upon the ladies of Diplomatic 
Ministers. 

CARDS. In official calls cards should always be used, as it will prevent 
mistakes by subordinates, and may save the annoyance of a refusal of an audi 
ence through misapprehension of name and station. The chief officers of 
the Executive branch of the Government, Senators and Representatives, are 
usually admitted without card in all official places during official hours. This 
also applies to Bureau officials within their respective departments. 

Those not entitled by rank or duty to these privileges hand their cards to 
the usher at the door, who will deliver them to the official and bring back his 
wish. Public duties sometimes interfere with immediate recognition of the 
cards of officials or friends, in which case it will be necessary to be seated in 
the ante room. If the card be that of a personal friend or simply to pay re 
spects it takes precedence, as such callers are readily disposed of. The fact 
"To pay respects" should be noted on the card, as it may save delay. (See 
General Etiquette of Cards. ) 

INTRODUCTIONS. In official life, as a rule, an introduction carries no 
more weight than that it may open the way to future intercourse. The fact 
that discriminations are seldom made by public men in introducing their friends, 
has made personal introductions to officials, as a rule, of little consequence. 

For an introduction to have any weight it is well to couple it with some 
personal remarks explanatory of the reason for the occupation of the official s 
time. (See Forms of Introduction.) 

OFFICIAL COMMUNICATIONS. All persons in communicating offi 
cially, with the chief of any branch of the Government should observe the 
following rules : 

All communications should be written in a clear and legible hand, in concise 
terms, without erasures or interlineations, and on one side only of each half 
sheet. 

If the subject matter can be completed on one page, and no communica 
tions or papers are inclosed with the letter, a half sheet only should be used; 
but if communications or papers are inclosed with the letter, a whole sheet 
should be used, and such communications or papers should be placed between 
the leaves. 

Inclosures should be separately numbered, and referred to accordingly. 

The paper used should, if official, be white foolscap; stop-ruled on the first 
and third pages only, leaving one-inch margin back and front, top and bottom. 



THE SEASON RECEPTIONS. 19 

Separate letters should be written on separate subjects. 

Letters should be folded twice, parallel with the ruling, indorsed with the 
name and rank of the writer, place and date, and brief statement of the con 
tents. 

Signatures should be legible, and the writer should annex his address if a 
reply be needed. 

Official letters, relating solely to subjects with which a Bureau is intrusted, 
should be addressed to the Chief of the Bureau. All other correspondence 
must be with the Head of the Department. 

NOTES. In official intercourse notes are indispensable. They are more 
informal in some respects than letters, and are particularly used to convey 
some sudden information or request, as between officials of equal rank or 
others in official or social relations. (See Forms of Notes.} 

THE SEASON. The social season at the Capital begins with the general 
receptions at the Executive Mansion and by the Cabinet Ministers on New 
Year s Day, and terminates with the beginning of Lent. During Lent, as a 
rule, there are no important public entertainments, although quiet dinners and 
less conspicuous social gatherings are indulged in by some. The observance 
of Lent, however, is sufficiently recognized to make a marked difference in 
the gayeties of the city. 

The Congressional Season, when there is more activity in official and social 
life at the Capital than at other periods of the year, begins regularly on the 
first Monday in December, and usually ends with the session, or earlier when 
the session is protracted into the summer. From June until September, 
owing to the heats of summer, the prominent members of the Government 
and residents generally leave the city on their vacations. 

RECEPTIONS. During the season the formal social demands upon the 
higher members of the Government, the convenience of the ladies of their 
iamilies, and of friends and visitors in the city who wish to call, have given 
rise to what are known as Receptions. As a rule these begin and end with 
The Season. There are several classes of Receptions : 

Afternoon Receptions or Drawing Rooms. Usual hours from 3 to 5 p. m.; 
no invitations required ; held on stated days by the ladies of the higher 
officials and ladies prominent in society, and to which all persons of reputable 
character and becoming dress are admitted. Although specially attended by 
ladies of all classes in official or social standing, and whose social engagements 
may occupy the evenings, gentlemen may attend with or without ladies. The 
head of the house may be present, but this is optional. 



20 RECEPTION DAYS. 

Evening Receptions Except THE PRESIDENT S Levee. Usual hours, 8 to 
II p. m. Always by card, unless otherwise announced in the newspapers. 
As a rule these are given by the Vice-President, Senators, the Speaker, Rep 
resentatives, and Members of the Cabinet who entertain, and sometimes by 
distinguished private citizens. At these the gentleman of the house is always 
present, and receives with his lady and others whom she may invite to assist her. 

RECEPTION DAYS. Usage has set apart certain days when the ladies 
of the households of receiving officials are "at home." The designation of cer 
tain days for certain classes of officials, was adopted as a matter of convenience 
to the public, and to give the lady of the house time to attend to her own social 
duties on other days, without interruption or disappointment to her friends. 

The Rule for days " at home" now in vogue is : 

Mondays Ladies of the families of Justices of the Supreme Court of the 
United States and "Capitol Hill." 

Tuesdays Ladies of the families of The Speaker and Representatives in 
Congress and General of the Army. 

Wednesdays Ladies of the families of Members of Ihe Cabinet. 

Thursdays Ladies of the families of the Vice-President and Senators of 
the United States. 

Fridays Ladies of the "West End " or fashionable quarter of the city in 
and out of official life. 

Saturdays The Drawing Rooms of the Presiding Lady of the Executive 
Mansion. 

Ladies not in official life may adopt any of the above days as a convenience 
to those making calls on the families of officials in the same neighborhood. 
There is a disposition to change this custom, by certain persons receiving 
calls by grouping localities and without regard to official rank or classification. 
There is much to be said on this subject on both sides, but for the convenience 
of those unacquainted with localities the present custom is preferable. It 
also preserves those distinctions of rank and station which are so necessary 
to the proper order and decorum of refined society. Besides, usage is against 
the change. 

THE ETIQUETTE OF RECEPTIONS. A person calling during af- 
terncon receptions hands a card to the usher at the entrance to the room in 
which the hostess receives, and the name will be announced; enter and ex 
change courtesies in the usual form. When there is no usher in attendance 
leave the card on the receiver in the hall and enter the room, and if not ac 
quainted with the hostess announce your own name distinctly. A few expres 
sions of civility are sufficient, unless the hostess be not engaged in receiving 
then it is proper and desirable to enter into conversation on appropriate sub- 



THE ETIQUETTE OF RECEPTIONS. 21 

jects, to relieve the rigidity of the occasion, but as others arrive withdraw to 
give them opportunity. There is nothing so embarrassing to a kindly host 
or hostess as a person presuming on acquaintance putting in the last word, 
whilst others are waiting to be received. The only formality necessary is to 
extend the compliments of the season and move on. 

At Evening Receptions invited guests are shown to the dressing and coat 
rooms. After removing wraps, proceed to the drawing room, the lady resting 
on her escort s left arm. 

It is customary at ladies receptions to have refreshments. After offering 
the compliments of the season to the host and hostess and exchanging a few 
words, it is proper to withdraw to the refreshment room. A cup of coffee, a 
salad, an ice or sandwich or cake is sufficient. It is not suitable to set in for a 
"square meal." Not unfrequently the hostess calls the attention of visitors to 
the refreshment room. Upon withdrawing, always take leave of the host and 
hostess in the same manner in which you appeared. It is inelegant for a 
gentleman to rush out for his hat and overcoat and then return to take leave. 

At an Afternoon Reception a gentleman may carry his hat in his hand, but 
he should not wear his overcoat nor take it with him into the Drawing- 
Room, if there are conveniences to leave it. Ladies always wear their bonnets 
and light wrappings. 

At Evening Receptions both gentlemen and ladies should be in full dress, 
though elderly ladies especially calling at the Executive Mansion may wear 
bonnets. 

DRESS. For visiting and at all afternoon receptions, ladies and gentle 
men should appear in such dress as is recognized in good society for morning 
calls, as a frock coat and light shade of pantaloons, dark cravat and sombre 
shade of gloves for gentlemen, and street costume of appropriate material -and 
fashion for ladies. 

At all evening receptions and dinner parties, full evening dress for ladies 
should be rigidly observed. Gentlemen should appear in black, full dress 
coat and pantaloons, white or black vest, and whiLe necktie and gloves. (For 
Dress and Toilettes see General Etiquette. ) 



S Chief Magistrate of the people, THE PRESIDENT is the head of the 
political and social superstructure of the Republic. "The Executive 
Power shall be vested in the President of the United States. " ( Consti 
tution of the United States, Art. u, Sec. I.) 

Before entering on the execution of his office, THE PRESIDENT takes the 
oath or affirmation required in terms by the Constitution of the United States, 
to "preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States " 

He is the constitutional " Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of 
the United States, and of the militia of the several States when called into the 
actual service of the United States." 

He has power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United 
States, except in cases of impeachment. 

He has the constitutional power with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
to make treaties, and appoint and commission all officers of the United States, 
whose appointments are not otherwise provided for in the Constitution, and 
which shall be established by law, and can fill vacancies temporarily, during 
the recess of the Senate. 

He communicates to Congrers information on the state of the Union, and 
recommends measures he may deem necessary and expedient. He can call 
both or either House of Congress on extraordinary occasions. He can in 
event of a disagreement between the two Houses on the time of adjournment, 
adjourn them to such time as he may think proper. 

He receives all Ambassadors and oiher public Ministers. He executes the 
laws. 

No bill becomes a law without his approval, positive or tacit, or being ve 
toed by him, must receive a two thirds vote of each House before it can be 
come a law without his consent. 

TITLE. In the convention of 1787, which framed the Constitution of the 
United States, the subject of the President s title was elaborately discussed. 
Among other forms suggested was His Excellency the President of the United 
States. It was finally decided that " No title of nobility shall be granted by 
the United States." (Art, I, Sec. 9, Constitution of the United States.) No 

(23) 



24 THE PRESIDENT. 

exception was made regarding the title of THE PRESIDENT. It was agreed 
that he should be addressed officially simply as THE PRESIDENT. The sub 
ject was again discussed in Congress in 1789. The designation "His Ex 
cellency," was negatived. The Senate Committee reported, "His Highness 
the President of the United States of America and Protector of their Liber 
ties." This was also negatived. Whereupon, the Senate accepting the title 
already adopted by the House, in presenting an address to the President, 
Resolved, That the present address be To THE PRESIDENT of the United 
States without addition of title. This form has since been used in all official 
communications. 

FORMS OF SALUTATION. When addressed in person, the form proper 
to use upon all occasions is, MR. PRESIDENT, and nothing more. Mrs. 
Washington, contemporary history informs us, always addressed General 
Washington as THE PRESIDENT. Sometimes a military title, when entitled 
to the same, is used when addressed by a friend, but this is in bad taste. 

No honorary titles should be used, but simply the full name. The right 
to use the title of President ceases with the retirement of the individual from 
office. There can be but one President, and the title belongs to the office and 
not to the man. It is proper to use the title Ex-President, and this should 
always be used in speaking or writing of a retired President. In conversation 
the highest title to which the retired President is entitled should be used. 

PREROGATIVES. The Presidential office, in its official and social en 
vironments, enjoys certain prerogatives not recognized in other stations in 
public or private life. These are essential to the proper exercise of its high 
functions and to that seclusion and privacy which otherwise would make the 
President nothing more than the slave to every demand upon his time and 
attention to the exclusion of public business. In the social world he is re 
leased entirely from its many and exacting obligations. 

OFFICIAL AND SOCIAL STATUS ESTABLISHED. The first Pres 
ident had not resided at the Capital, then New York City, long, before he 
found it absolutely incumbent upon him to enforce rules for the transaction 
of business and the entertainment of company. The social status of the Pres 
ident was as crude and illy understood or appreciated as was his Executive 
capacity and administrative authority. The people generally were unaccus 
tomed to the conventionalities of high official station, and often waived all 
ceremony in pursuit of their personal ends. It is said that the President s 
House was thronged at all hours of the day and night, and that frequently the 
crowd pressed into the private apartments of Mrs. Washington before she had 



OFFICIAL AND SOCIAL RELATIONS STATED. 25 

arranged her toilette, and on several occasions the President himself com 
plained, before she had arisen from her bed. This primitive state of affairs 
about the President s House was not only annoying from a domestic point of 
view, but official business, which at this time was pressing owing to the whole 
machinery of government being new and untried, was set at naught. 

Under these circumstances, and in view of the entire absence of prece 
dents, the President, May 17, 1789, about a month after his inauguration, 
addressed a note to Vice President Adams statingthat he wished to avail 
himself of his views on the points named. The same inquiries were made of 
Jay, Hamilton, and Madison. 

RELATIONS STATED.. It may be interesting to incorporate here the 
reply of the Vice President as it constititutes the corner-stone of the social 
regime of the Executive Mansion even to this day. In his reply dated New 
York, 17 May, 1789, Mr. Adams stated: The Vice President has the honor 
to present his humble opinion on the points proposed for his consideration. 

Intercourse ivith the people. That an association with all kinds of company 
and a total seclusion from society are extremes, which in the actual circum 
stances of this country, and under our form of government, may be properly 
avoided. 

Adaptation to popular forms. The system of the President will gradually 
develop itself in practice, without any formal communication to the Legislature 
or publication from the press. Paragraphs in the public prints may, however, 
appear from time to time, with out any formal authority that may lead and 
reconcile the public mind. 

Visits of compliment. Considering the number of strangers from many 
countries and of citizens from various States, who will resort to the Seat of 
Government, it is doubted whether two days in a week will not be indispensa 
ble for visits of compliment. A little experience, however, will elucidate this 
point. 

Personal audience. Under the fourth head, it is submitted to consideration 
whether all personal applications ought not to be made, in the first instance, 
to a Minister of State. Yet an appeal should be open by petition to the 
President, who, if he judges the subject worthy of it, may admit the party to 
a personal interview. Access to the Supreme Magistrate not to be rigorously 
denied in any case that is worthy of consideration. Nevertheless, in every 
case the name, quality, and, when these are not sufficient to raise a presump 
tion in their favor, their business ought to be communicated to a chamberlain 
or gentleman in waiting, who should judge whom to admit and whom to ex 
clude. Some limitation of time may be necessary, too ; for example, from 8 to 
9 or 10 ; for without it, the whole forenoon or the whole day may be taken up. 

Invitations. There is no doubt that the President may invite what official 



26 THE PRESIDENT OFFICIAL HOURS. 

characters, members of Congress, strangers or citizens of distinction he pleases, 
in small parties, without exciting clamors, but this should always be done 
without formality. 

Public entertainments inappropriate. The entertainment mentioned in this 
article would much more properly be made by a Minister of State for Foreign 
or Domestic Affairs, or some other Minister of State or the Vice-President, 
whom, upon such occisions, the President, in his private character, might 
honor with his presence. But in no case whatever, can I conceive it proper 
for the President to make any formal public entertainment. 

May receive informal visits. There can be no impropriety in the President s 
making or receiving informal visits among his friends or acquaintances at his 
pleasure. Undress, and few attendants, will sufficiently show that such visits 
are made as a man, a citizen, a friend or acquaintance. But in no case, what 
ever, should a visit be made or returned in form by the President ; at least, 
unless an Emperor of Germany or some other sovereign should travel to this 
country. The President s pleasure should absolutely decide concerning his 
attention at tea parties in a private character ; and no gentleman or lady ought 
ever to complain if he never or rarely ever attends. The President s private 
life should be at his own discretion, and the world should respectfully ac 
quiesce. As President, he should have no intercourse with society but upon 
public business or at his levees. This distinction, it is with submission, ap 
prehended, ought to govern the whole conduct. 

President s journeys. A tour might, no doubt, be made with great ad 
vantage to the public if the time can be spared ; but it will naturally be con 
sidered, as Foreign Ministers arrive every day, and the business of the Ex 
ecutive and Judicial Departments will require constant attention, whether the 
President s residence will not be confined to one place. 

OFFICIAL HOURS. The official routine, as all other matters con 
nected with the internal administration of the Executive Mansion, is regulated 
to suit the convenience of THE PRESIDENT. 

The apartments in the Executive Mansion used for Executive offices, are 
open from 9 a. m. to 2 p. m., every day except Sunday. 

THE PRESIDENT usually enters his office, or the Cabinet Room, for the 
transaction of public business between 9 and 10 a. m. 

Members of the Cabinet are admitted to an audience without card and 
without restriction during official hours. In cases of urgency an audience can 
be requested by card, unless present by invitation of THE PRESIDENT. 

Senators and Representatives ate received without card during official hours, 
on days designated by the President, usually every day except Mondays, 
from 10 a. m. until 12 m. 

Any person calling upon the President on business during official hours, 



OFFICIAL ROUTINE. 27 

enters the Executive Mansion by the North door, and is met by an usher 
who directs him to the stairway leading to the ante-room above. Arriving 
there the caller hands a card to the person in charge, who will hand it to the 
usher, who will submit it to the attention of the President. The caller should 
be seated and await a reply. The cai d should contain the name of the party 
and residence. If simply to pay respects, he should write on the upper left- 
hand corner "T0 pay respects." This will be more certain to receive atten 
tion. If this is not mentioned and the person is not known to the Presi 
dent the inference is that the call is on business and must take its turn, and 
may result in disappointment in seeing the President at all. Ask information 
from the Ushers at the door. 

All calls of ceremony by officials or official bodies, are by previous arrange 
ment, THE PRESIDENT designating the day and the hour. 

The presentation or departure of Foreign Ministers or other Diplomatic 
Representatives or presentation of Foreign personages of high rank, is usually 
by previous arrangement through the Secretary of State, THE PRESIDENT 
indicating the day and hour for such visits of ceremony, which are held in the 
Blue Parlor or Audience Room. 

The higher officials of States are received by card any time during official 
hours except on Cabinet days, and then only before 12 m. 

Diplomatic Representatives of the United States departing for or returning 
from their posts, Bureau and other officials, for special reasons desiring an 
audience, are announced by the usher and a time is set by THE PRESIDENT 
to see them. 

The general public are received on days, and at hours designated by the 
rules of the President s own direction, at present on Wednesdays and Thurs 
days, between I and 2 p. m. It has generally been customary to receive on 
Mondays, Wednesdays and Thursdays, and by many Presidents, also, on Sat 
urdays from 12 m. to 3 p. m. 

Audience on business. Excepting in special cases, or where the parties are 
personally known to the President, or are accompanied by some influential per 
son, personal audiences on business are not granted. THE PRESIDENT refers 
all matters of business properly belonging to the Heads of the Executive De 
partments, to those officers. In matters of appointments to office, THE PRESI 
DENT will converse only with those entitled to be heard, and in reference to 
those offices as are strictly in the class termed " Presidential." 

The Cabinet. The Cabinet assembles at 12 meridian, on Tuesdays and 
Thursdays of each week. The Heads of Executive Departments who occupy 
places in the Cabinet, alone attend. 

The special sessions of the Cabinet are subject to the call of the President, 
formally communicated through the Secretary of State. (See Ceremonial Du- 



28 CALLING ON THE PRESIDENT. 

ties, Secretary of State.) This formality has been abandoned in some in 
stances by the use of the telephone from the Executive Office directly to the 
Departments, the call being communicated directly from the President through 
his private Secretary. This innovation does not add to the formality, though 
it facilitates the assembling of the Council of state. 

The rules as to official hours and days, except as regards Cabinet days and 
Sundays, vary according to the habits and convenience of the President. As 
a matter of history it may be interesting to state that the official and social 
routine put into practical operation by the first President was as follows : 

First. Every Tuesday from 3 to 4 p. m., the President received such per 
sons as chose to call. Foreign Ministers, strangers of distinction and citizens 
were privileged to come and go without ceremony. 

Second. Every Friday afternoon, Mrs. Washington received visits. The 
President was always present. These were in the nature of Levees. 

Third. Affairs of business by appointment were in order at any time. 

Fourth. The President accepted no invitations to dinner, but invited to 
his own, Foreign Ministers, officers of the Government and strangers, in such 
numbers at once as he could accommodate. On these occasions there was no 
great formality. 

Fifth. No visits were received on Sundays. In the morning the President 
attended church. In the afternoon he remained in private. The evening he 
spent with his family and perhaps in receiving an intimate friend. Promi s _ 
cuous company was excluded. 

RULES FOR CALLING ON THE PRESIDENT. A person or stranger 
unfamiliar with the routine of calling upon THE PRESIDENT will repair to the 
ante-room of the Executive office, which will be indicated by an usher, hand 
his card to the officer in charge, who will see that it is delivered at the proper 
moment, and be seated to await announcement as to whether THE PRESI 
DENT can receive him. This may require some minutes, perhaps not that day, 
if the President be engaged on public business. 

Should a visitor simply desire to meet THE PRESIDENT, he should mark on 
the upper left-hand corner, "To pay respects" This will secure recognition 
at the earliest moment. 

When ushered into the presence of THE PRESIDENT, enter the Executive 
office, and upon approaching THE PRESIDENT, if not known to him, mention 
your name and residence, offer your hand, make a respectful bow, exchange 
the compliments of the season and make room lor those who follow. There 
is no objection to remaining in the room a moment to note its proportions and 
furnishings, or if THE PRESIDENT feels disposed, to indulge in a few words 
of conversation not on personal matters. Should several persons in one party 



SOCIAL PREROGATIVES. 29 

enter together, the first should introduce himself, and then present all his 
companions and state who they are, if of any local importance, and their object 
in visiting the city, if it can be said in a moment. THE PRESIDENT has no 
time, however, to listen to an elaborate statement; better say nothing. 

Those calling on business must await their turn, and when admitted remain 
standing, unless invited to a seat, and state in as few words as possible the 
objeci of the call. The answer will be prompt and pointed, and the person 
will probably be referred to the proper department. THE PRESIDENT has no 
time for the details of personal matters. There are sixty millions of people 
who have equal claims. 

THE EXECUTIVE HOUSEHO LD. The household of THE PRESIDENT 
of the United States of America consists of the members of his immediate 
family, or those persons who reside with him in social equality for the time 
being, by his own invitation. 

The official family of the President consists of the Ministers or Heads of 
the Great Executive Departments constituting the Cabinet, and the President s 
Private Secretary. The ladies of the immediate families of the Cabinet Min 
isters are in close social relations with the President s family. 

THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE. This consists of the Private and Assistant 
Private Secretaries to THE PRESIDENT, and the clerks who have, however, 
no official or social relations on account of their positions. 

The Private Secretary to the President, or his assistant, keeps the record of 
the President s invitations, and the steward of the President s household is 
the custodian of the plate and other effects of the Executive Mansion. 

SOCIAL PREROGATIVES. The wife of the President, or the Presiding 
Lady of the Executive Mansion, is accepted socially as the first lady of the land 
and therefore, in society, takes precedence over all others. 

The wife of the President does not return calls formally, although she may 
make a friendly visit to the ladies of the Cabinet and her most intimate lady 
friends. 

The social obligations of the wife of the President, or the Presiding Lady of 
the Executive Mansion, have at different times been a matter of consideration 
on account of the constantly increasing numbers of officials, residents and 
visitors at the Seat of Government who are entitled to recognition. Mrs. 
Madison devoted three hours of each day, except Sunday, of each week to re 
turning calls. During the Presidency of John Tyler this social duty had in 
creased to such an extent that it became a subject of doubt whether the Pre 
siding Lady of the Executive Mansion "must return visits in person or by 
card." 



30 PRESIDENT S RECEPTIONS. 

THE PRESIDENT makes no calls officially or socially, nor does he accept 
formal invitations to dinner. As an individual, he may consult his pleasure; 
but such appearances are the exception rather than the rule, and then have 
reference to the dignity of the office. He may invite to dinner to suit his own 
wishes, and his guests must be accepted upon terms of social equality. 

It is his duty to return the call of one of his predecessors in office or of a 
President-elect. He is also expected to return the call of a visiting Ruler 
or a member of the Royal Family of a Foreign State. He frequently calls 
informally upon the members of his Cabinet at their offices or residences, 
or occasionally upon an intimate friend, but this is no part of his obligations. 
THE PRESIDENT, when convenient, accepts invitations to appear on public 
occasions such as the inauguration or the dedication of some great National, 
State or corporate enterprise ; or any other formal and appropriate gathering 
of the people. These appearances are quasi-official, and are regarded as of 
consistent dignity. He may, in his convenience, be present at a suitable social 
entertainment or accept the hospitality of a friend, or attend the opera, theater, 
concert or lecture. In these cases his presence is more in the light of a pat 
ron than of a participant or spectator. 

The wife of the President may accompany him upon public occasions where 
ladies are expected to participate. She may also give her patronage to ap 
propriate enterprises of women, but such appearances of the President s wife 
in public are, as they should be, the exception rather than the rule. 

SOCIAL DUTIES. Usage, since the days of Washington, has presented 
Card Receptions, Levees and State Dinners as part of the formal and social 
routine of the Executive Mansion. These last two entertainments are ex 
pected to continue only during the sitting of Congress. The first only as re 
quired by proper occasion. 

RECEPTIONS. The receptions of ceremony are always by card and are 
properly given in honor of Sovereigns, Presidents, Members of Royal Fami 
lies, Members of the Diplomatic Corps, retiring Presidents and Presidents- 
elect of the United States. Invitations are limited to officials or private per 
sons of sufficient importance to entitle them to such consideration, and should 
take precedence of all other engagements. The rules of conduct upon such 
occasions are substantially the same as for Public Receptions, and Levees 
with the exception that the distinguished guest receives with the President 
the homage of those present, and refreshments are served. 

During a ceremonial reception of this character the gates of the drives ap 
proaching the Executive Mansion are closed, in order to prevent the passers- 
by from congregating within the grounds and in front of the building. 

The ceremonies attending the visit of a Royal Personage to the Capital, were 
well exemplified in the presence of the Prince of Wales during the adminis- 



RECEPTION TO A ROYAL PERSONAGE. 3! 

tration of President Buchanan. His Royal Highness arrived at the Capital 
by special train, and was received in behalf of THE PRESIDENT by the Secre 
tary of State, who was presented to His Royal Highness by the Diplomatic 
Representative of his Government. As soon as practicable, after his arrival, 
the Secretary of State having arranged the hour beforehand to suit the conve 
nience of the President, His Royal Highness, accompanied by the chief 
members of his suite, the Diplomatic Representative of his Government, and 
the Secretary of State, made the first call of ceremony, which THE PRESIDENT 
returned the same day. 

THE PRESIDENT, who re:eived his distinguished visitor in the audience 
room, was attended by his Cabinet Ministers. TheSecretary of State presented 
His Royal Highness to the President, while the Diplomatic Representative of 
his Government presented the members of his suite. 

When the wife of the President or Presiding Lady of the Mansion is pres 
ent, the wives of the members of the Cabinet only should be in attendance. 
All present should be in full dress. 

At 12 m. on a day designated by the President, a Public Reception in honor 
of the Royal visitor was given at the Executive Mansion, to which only the 
chief officers and representatives of the co-ordinate branches of the Govern 
ment and a few citi/ens and their ladies were invited. The President and His 
Royal Highness, surrounded by a brilliant assemblage, received the invited 
guests. As the latter passed, they were presented by the Secretary of State 
to His Royal Highness who bowed in return. All the guests were in full 
dress or the uniform of their rank. The Diplomatic Representatives appeared 
in Court dress. On the same evening a Diplomatic dinner was given by the 
President, followed by a reception to a limited number of guests. The rest 
of the time during the visit was occupied in drives about the city and sur 
roundings, and in such other manner as suited the convenience of His Royal 
Highness. The Secretary of State and the Diplomatic Representatives of that 
Government had charge of the arrangements. 

The following is ihe/orm of invitation to a reception in honor of a royal 
guest : 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES requests the company of 

, at the reception in honor of His MAJESTY THE KING 

OF , on evening, 1 8 , at o clock. 

Upon the visit of the Queen of Hawaii and suite in 1887 Her Majesty 
was received at Baltimore by the Hawaiian Minister and representatives of 
the Departments of State, War, and Navy, and escorted to the Capital. On 
the following day Her Majesty and suite made a call of ceremony upon the 
President. She was received within the entrance to the Executive Mansion 
by the Secretary of State and Assistant Secretary, was shown into the 



32 PUBLIC LEVEES. 

Audience Parlor and was presented to the President and his wife by the Sec 
retary of State. Several friends were present. At 2 p. M. of the same day 
the wife of the President accompanied by the ladies of the Cabinet and at 
tended by the Engineer in charge of Public Buildings made the return call of 
ceremony upon Her Majesty. The same day a diplomatic reception was held 
at the Hawaiian Legation. Several days were passed in visiting points of in 
terest. A trip was made on a United States vessel to Mount Vernon. The 
marines were paraded and a royal salute was fired as the royal party entered 
the Navy Yard and embarked. A small number of invited guests of suitable 
rank were present. On the third day the President gave a State banquet at 
7.15 P. M. The President and wife entered the East Room in advance 
where they welcomed the Royal guest upon her arrival attended by her 
suite. The guests in addition to the President and wife and Her Majesty 
and suite were the Chief Justice, the members of the Cabinet, the Lieuten 
ant General, the Admiral, the Hawaiian Minister, the Dean of the Diplo 
matic Corps and their ladies and several distinguished unofficial guests. 

The Royal party left the Capital the next day. 

The following is the form of invitation to a reception at the Executive 
Mansion in honor of the Diplomatic Corps: 

The PRESIDENT AND MRS. , request the pleasure of the company 

of , on evening, , 

18 , from eight until eleven o clock, to meet the Members cf the Diplo 
matic Corps. 

The same form is used for all card receptions whether of a Representative or 
special character. In the latter case the object is generally stated. 

In a reception of the Diplomatic Corps, the members, preceded by the 
Dean, with their ladies, all in court dress, enter the Blue Parlor in a body. 
After being recognized by THE PRESIDENT they constitute part of the re 
ceiving party. 

These invitations are engraved and printed on the best quality of paper, with 
the arms of the United States embossed at the top. They are enclosed in 
envelopes which receive the sheets in one fold and are delivered to the address 
by messenger or mail. 

The regulations governing Card Receptions of THE PRESIDENT are very 
rigid. The cards must be represented by the persons to whom they are ad 
dressed. Any violation of this stringent rule would properly subject the in 
truder to an invitation to retire. 

Unless personally known it would be well for guests to bring their cards 
of invitation with them. 

Upon these occasions there is music in attendance. Refreshments are 
always served. Both for ladies and gentlemen full dress is required Mem- 




l/?&ri42^ 

BRIDE OF THE TWENTY-SECOND PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. (33} 



34 STATE DINNERS. 

bers of the Diplomatic Corps and Officers of the Army and Navy, when in- 
vited, are expected to appear in the full dress of their rank. The invitations 
are usually limited to 500, although as many as 1200 have been issued for the 
same entertainment. 

The invitations to a Diplomatic Reception are limited to officials holding 
the commission of the President, military and naval officers of the rank of 
Colonel and Captain, respectively, and above, and such private citizens and 
their ladies as the President desires to honor. This limitation was approved 
by President Hayes. 

PUBLIC RECEPTIONS OR LEVEES. These are generally held on 
Thursdays from 8 to II p. in. No invitations are issued. The doors of the 
Executive Mansion are thrown open to all officials and the people at large. 
No regulation dress is expected other than the taste or means of the individual 
may suggest. Those who are accustomed to good society should appear in 
full evening dress. There are no refreshments, but music. The rules of con 
duct at levees are as follows : 

Upon arriving at the main entrance the ushers will show the ladies and 
gentlemen to the cloak rooms, where they will leave their wrappings and hats, 
and receive a check for the same. Thence they will proceed in the direction 
pointed out by the ushers or follow in the train of the moving throng. Upon 
entering the Blue or East Room) where THE PRESIDENT and lady receive, 
each person should announce the name of himself and lady, if so accom 
panied, to the official in attendancsuponthe President, generally the Engineer 
in charge of Public Buildings and Grounds or the Marshal of the District of 
Columbia, who acts as Master of Ceremonies. He will present you and your 
lady to THE PRESIDENT, to whom you will extend your hand simultaneously, 
making some expression of the compliments of the evening and turn promptly 
and present your lady. Then pass on to the chief lady receiving, who 
stands on the President s right. An official or other designated person 
will here present you. Hand your lady forward, presenting her by name, 
when she should bow or shake hands. The gentleman should also bow 
simultaneously, but should not shake hands. Pass on immediately to permit 
those who follow to advance. It is inelegant and annoying to attempt a con 
versation with THE PRESIDENT or his lady on such an occasion simply to 
show that you are acquainted. It would be better to return later, when there 
may be less claim upon their time. Should ladies be receiving with the Lady 
of the House, she will call your attention to their presence, and unless per 
sonally acquainted with them, you simply bow and pass on. You are ex 
pected to pass out of the Reception Room without delay. You may now 
enjoy & promenade in the great throng of distinguished personages of the Capi 
tal, and as the hour of departure arrives, quietly return to the cloak rooms 



STATE DINNERS. 35 

secure your wrappings and leave the building. The President withdraws as 
soon as the hour of closing arrives. On these occasions no refreshments are 
served. 

It is not unusual for THE PRESIDENT to invite ladies of proper rank to as 
sist in receptions. 

The following is the form used : 

THE PRESIDENT presents his compliments to Mrs. and re 
quests the pleasure of her company to assist at the reception on , 

the day of , 18 , at o clock. 

Washington, 18 

In shaking hands with the President or his lady, it is not necessary for 
those in full dress to remove their gloves. 

STATE DINNERS. During the season it is customary for the President 
soon after the New Year s receptions, to entertain at a series of formal dinners, 
the Members of his Cabinet, and the Diplomatic Corps and their ladies, the 
Justices of the Supreme Court and their ladies, and Senators and Representa 
tives and their ladies. The Senators and Representatives are selected alpha 
betically from the list of those whom the President wishes to invite. The 
President sometimes invites one or two personal friends who may be in the 
city. Though, as a rule, these dinners are confined to the higher members 
of the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches of the Government. 
The time and frequency of State Dinners rests entirely with THE PRESIDENT, 
who also alone designates who shall be invited. Custom has assigned between 
the hours of 8 and 1 1 . 

The following is the form of invitation most frequently used for State 

Dinners : 

( The Arms of the United States embossed in gold.) 

THE PRESIDENT AND MRS. request the pleasure of 

company at dinner on , 18 , at o clock. An 

answer is desired. 

This is printed on best quality paper and enclosed in a suitable envelope 
which is addressed to the party for whom intended, and delivered by mes 
senger. 

This was the form used by the first President, and practically by all of his 
successors. A few have used the words, "honor" or "favor" instead of 
"pleasure. " The latter is preferable for the Chief Magistrate of the Nation 
for obvious reasons. 

There have been instances in which the name of the President s wife has 
been omitted from invitations. This would, however, seem inappropriate 
where ladies form part of the guests. When the Presiding Lady is not 
the wife of the President, the President s name should appear alone. 



36 THE ETIQUETTE OF STATE DINNERS. 

An invitation to dine at the Executive Mansion should be accepted in writ 
ing within two days. It should supersede all previous engagements, even 
though already accepted. 

The following are the usual forms of acceptance : 

The Chief Justice and Mrs. have the honor to accept the invita 
tion of THE PRESIDENT to dinner, on the day of , 18. 

The same form should be used by the Vice President and the Speaker. All 
other acceptances should be in the same form, except using the official or dis 
tinguishing title in the form, General and Mrs. , Senator and Mrs. 

, &c. 

The declination of an invitation to a State dinner is not permissible except 
on account of sickness, the death of a very near relative or absence from the 
city. An invitation from the President of the United States may be regarded 
in the nature of an order, which cannot be disobeyed except in a most extreme 
emergency, and then the reason must be given. The announcement of an in 
ability to accept should be in the usual form with the addition of the reason 
for not being present. 

To arrive late would be without excuse ; and would, in the future, cause 
the name of the person to be omitted from the list. It would not only be an 
indignity to the President, but to each of his distinguished guests. 

The invited guests should arrive from fifteen to thirty minutes before the 
hour appointed in the invitation. They will be shown to the cloak rooms, 
and having deposited their wrappings in the custody of a person to receive 
them, join their ladies and descend to the apartment in which the President 
*s receiving his guests, whence they will be ushered into his presence and 
pay the compliments of ths season. If not engaged in receiving guests or in 
an unfinished conversation, it would be proper to converse upon some appro 
priate subject to be dropped instantly upon the arrival of a later guest. 

The order of precedence at a State dinner, with respect to persons of official 
rank, conforms to the general rule. 

This rule, however, does not apply to the official, citizen or other eminent 
person and lady whom the President desires to honor for some reason agreea 
ble to himself. A controversy over a question of precedence occurred during 
the Presidency of Andrew Jackson which resulted in so much feeling in official 
and social circles at the time, that the President was called on to determine 
the dispute. It appears at a State dinner Count Serrurier, the French Minis, 
ter, claimed precedence of a Minister of the President s Cabinet. This was 
disputed by the latter, and the question was referred to the President, who de 
cided that a Member of the Cabinet took precedence of a Foreign Minister. 
The Minister declined the invitation. 

Ladies must be in grand toilette and gentlemen in full dress. Each gentle. 



DRAWING ROOMS. 



37 



man after received by the President, will be handed by the usher a small en 
velope addressed to himself, enclosing a card containing a diagram of the 
dinner table with the number of the seat he will occupy at the table checked, 
and also the name of the lady he will escort to the table, written in the centre 
of the card and the seat she will occupy. The following is the form of dia 
gram of the State Dinner Table : 



W 



MRS. 



3 

~ w 
3 



* THE PRESIDENT. || The Presiding Lady. 

To prevent indelicate haste, if not confusion, the gentleman immediately 
after receiving this notification should seek out the lady whose name is on the 
card handed him and whom he is to escort to the table, and apprise her of the 
fact, and offer her his left arm. If he still have his own lady with him she 
should remain with him, taking his right arm until her escort appears, other 
wise she would be subject to isolation and great embarrassment. It would be 
more gallant for a gentleman to escort two ladies to the table than to permit 
one to suffer any mortification on account of the absence of her pre-arranged 
escort. 

The President, having selected his guests, the Private Secretary gives direc 
tions respecting the seating of them at a State dinner, and also names the 
lady whom each gentleman shall escort. At a Diplomatic dinner THE PRESI 
DENT escorts the wife of the Dean or Doyen of the Corps, who occupies the 
seat on his right. The Dean of the Corps escorts the lady of the Executive 
Mansion and sits on her right. In this manner the guests alternate, according 
to their rank or social distinction. The guests are usually received by the 
President and the Presiding Lady in the East Room. 

Upon the announcement of dinner the President and the chief Lady hon 
ored by the occasion lead off under the direction of the steward of the house- 



38 STATE RECEPTIONS. 

hold, followed by the guests, entering the State dining room by the entrance 
on the side of their seats as designated on the table diagram. THE PRESI 
DENT, with the lady whom he honors, enters the State Dining Room on 
the right side of the table, as does the Lady of the House with her escort, 
on the opposite side. As the guests pass along the table they will carefully 
observe the plate cards, and upon reaching the cards corresponding with their 
own name and that of their lady they will take their positions opposite and 
remain standing until the President and his lady seat themselves, when all 
will be seated. 

The form of the plate card is, (Arms of the United States) 

(name of person) . 

As a State dinner is a formal affair it might be well for those who have not 
had much experience in conventional dinners to act on the defensive, and 
where they have any doubts, wait lor some one more familiar with such things 
to set the example what to do, otherwise they may make themselves conspicu 
ous. The wishes of the President governs the scope of the entertainment and 
regulates the routine of serving and general tenor of the conversation. 

The Presiding Lady gives the signal for retiring from the table, and all the 
gentlemen are expected to withdraw at the same time unless the President 
should invite delay. 

After dinner the guests may pass a brief time, not to exceed from fifteen to 
thirty minutes, in promenading in the spacious parlors of the Mansion, which 
will afford opportunity to each gentleman to return the lady in his charge to 
the escort with whom she came when he will take leave ; and then receive his 
own and withdraw. 

The practice of giving State Dinners originated in the first days of Wash - 
ington s administration. 

DRAWING ROOMS. On Saturdays during the season the Presiding 
Lady of the Executive Mansion holds receptions from 3 to 5 P. M. These 
Deceptions are more particularly intended for ladies, or ladies escorted by 
gentlemen, though gentlemen without ladies are not excluded. The dress 
suitable for such occasions is afternoon or street dress for ladies, and evening, 
but not full dress, for gentlemen. Ladies and gentlemen leave their wrap 
pings in their carriages or in the ante-room. On passing into the Red Parlor 
leave a card on the receiver, usually standing in the corridor, and proceed to 
the Blue Parlor, in which those calling are received. The officer in attendance 
for that purpose makes the presentation, those desiring to be presented giving 
him their names. They should bow and pass on. 

The general rules governing Drawing Rooms are the same as for the recep 
tions by The President. 



STATE RECEPTIONS. 39 

As the parlors of the Executive Mansion are open it is proper for callers to 
pass some minutes in promenading in the East room and visiting the conser 
vatories. 

STATE RECEPTIONS. THE PRESIDENT receives the officers of the 
Government, the members of the Diplomatic Corps, and the public, at stated 
hours on New Year s and Independence Days. The order of receiving the 
various grades of officials and civic organizations is announced in the daily news 
papers. 

Promptly at n A. M. THE PRESIDENT accompanied by his wife or the Pre 
siding Lady, and preceeded by the officer designated to present the arriving 
guests, enters the Blue Parlor, from the private stairway. The Vice President 
escorts the principal lady guest and the other ladies who have been invited 
to receive. They enter and greet the President. The Cabinet Ministers with 
their ladies then follow in turn, and are presented by the Secretary of State _ 
Next enter the members of the Diplomatic Corps in court dress, accompanied 
by their ladies, and present by special invitation from the Secretary of State. 
(See ceremonial duties of the Secretary of State.) 

They are presented to THE PRESIDENT and the Vice President in turn by 
the Secretary of State and to the ladies receiving, by the officers assigned to 
that duty. Next enter the Justices of the Supreme Court, preceded by the. 
Chief Justice, accompanied by their ladies and followed by retired members o 
the court, and the Justices of the Court of Claims. Then follow in turn 
Senators, the order of precedence on these occasions being varied to suit the 
ceremonial relations of the Cabinet and Diplomatic Corps to the Executive; 
Representatives, officers of the Army and Navy, in full uniform, led by their 
ranking or senior officer respectively, officers of the Executive Departments 
and members of civic, military or professional organizations. At the close of 
these receptions the Executive Mansion is thrown open to the people, who 
enter by the main door, and passing through the Red Parlor are received by 
THE PRESIDENT and immediately withdraw, making their exit by the way 
pointed out by the ushers. It is proper for ladies to call on these occasions. 
Ex-officials or others are entitled to be received with officials of the grade to 
which they belonged when in the service. These receptions usually termi 
nate at 3 P. M. 

The reception on Independence Day is held when The President is in the 
city. The same order is observed as laid down for New Year s Day. 

SPECIAL AUDIENCES. Special audiences are accorded by THE PRESI 
DENT as circumstances require, and with more or less formality, as the 
occasion suggests. These apply to delegations from conventions, societies or 



40 CORRESPONDENCE. 

organizations of different kinds, excursionists in large bodies, or any number 
of people in a representative capacity waiting upon the President as a matter 
of courtesy, congratulation or business. 

Private audiences, such as the reception of an arriving Diplomatic Repre 
sentative, are conducted by the Secretary of State. (See Diplomatic Corps.) 

INFORMAL RECEPTIONS. It has long been customary for the family 
of THE PRESIDENT to receive informally such persons as are privileged to 
call from 8.30 to 9.30 P. M. upon a designated evening of the week. It is not 
out of place for acquaintances to call, when no evenings are specially set apart 
for the purpose, and hand in a card, The usher will know or ascertain 
whether they can be received. 

PUBLIC APPEARANCES. THE PRESIDENT extends his patronage or 
recognition, by his presence, to gatherings of a public character in honor of 
some National, State or corporate enterprise, or appears upon other suitable 
occasions under proper auspices. (See Social Prerogatives). At such times 
it is necessary for the parties authorized, to tender to him a formal invitation 
in writing, which shonld be presented by a person deputed for that purpose. 

The invitation should be addressed to THE PRESIDENT, and after stating 
concisely the nature of the occasion time and place, should be signed by the 
proper officers or committee. The acceptance or declination is in writing. 

PRESIDENTIAL JOURNEYS. The practice of making tours into differ 
ent parts of the country was established by the First President, who was 
greeted along the line of his journeys by State, municipal and rural deputations, 
military and civic bodies and the people. Public addresses of welcome were 
delivered, salutes were fired and other demonstrations were had in honor of his 
presence. 

The same practice has been continued with eminent propriety since. It is 
due to the Chief Magistrate, irrespective of political affiliations, that the citizens 
of the principal towns he may visit upon such occasions should make appro 
priate manifestions of welome. 

CORRESPONDENCE. THE PRESIDENT carries on all official correspon 
dence connected with his administration of public affairs through the Heads 
of the great Executive Departments. Correspondence relating to official or 
other matters, but in which the President for reasons of his own takes a personal 
interest, is carried on under his own direction by his Private Secretary. 
"Where the parties are personal friends, or are specially distinguished, the 
President frequently honors them with autograph letters. 



INAUGURATION OF THE PRESIDENT. 41 

In official correspondence the only form of address is, "THEPRESIDENT 
Sir: It is not proper for minor officials to address the President on official 
business except through the channels of the department to which they belong. 
In general correspondence of a personal character by persons authorized by 
acquaintance, friendship or other sufficient reason, it is allowable to use this 
form: , The President, but this should be the exception. 

THE PRESIDENT never makes use of the complimentary closing of a commu 
nication. He simply signs his name. 

The forms of correspondence are the same as in ordinary use. 

It is quite common for persons to address The President directly on official 
business. Except in rare cases and for special reasons such correspondence is 
opened by an Executive Clerk, read and referred to the Department to which 
it belongs for consideration and action. The transaction of public business 
admits of no other course. 

In addressing the ruler of a foreign State, whether an Emperor, Empress, 
King, Queen or President, THE PRESIDENT uses the salutation "Great and 
Good Friend," and closes "Your Good Friend." The special titles of sov 
ereigns differ. 

In all other correspondence he employs the usual forms adapted to the char 
acter, or degree of acquaintance with the person addressed. 

PRESIDENTIAL EQUIPAGE. As a rule the Presidential Establish 
ments have been maintained with reference to the dignity of the Presidential 
office. President Washington s State coach upon all official or ceremonial oc 
casions, was drawn by six horses. In his tours about the country he used 
four horses, and upon attendance at church, two. His coachman and servants 
were in livery of white with scarlet trimmings. President Grant appeared on 
official or ceremonial occasians in a barouche drawn by four horses. 

THE PRESIDENT AND THE CO-ORDINATE BRANCHES OF 
THE GOVERNMENT. Official and ceremonial intercourse between the 
Executive and the co-ordinate branches of the Government are regulated by 
certain orders and precedents and are considered under their proper heads. 
(See the President and Congress.) 

INAUGURATION OF THE PRESIDENT. It has always been cus 
tomary for THE PRESIDENT elect to arrive in the city one or two days before 
the time designated for his formal induction into office. He takes suitable 
quarters at one of the hotels or at the residence of a friend. 

Upon the arrival of the President elect at the Capital the national colors 



42 INAUGURAL PROCESSION. 

should be floated from all public buildings during each day between sunrise 
and sunset until after the inaugural ceremonies. 

Preliminary courtesies. As soon as practicable after his arrival the Presi 
dent elect should call upon the PRESIDENT, having previously sent a messen 
ger to ascertain his convenience as to time, to pay his respects and to exchange 
views with reference to the ceremonies attendant upon his succession and tak 
ing possession of the Executive office. If more agreeable a time is named 
for a special consultation on these matters after the formal call of courtesy. 

THE PRESIDENT returns the call of the President-elect on the same day. 

The President-elect. The President-elect receives any intimate, political or 
social acquaintances, if the preparations incident to his entering into office 
will permit. He summons to his counsel such personal or political advicers 
as he may see fit to consult with, respect to the ceremonials of inauguration 
or the organization of his administration. He declines to receive any officials 
of the Government save THE PRESIDENT, Vice President and Chief Justice, 
until after his inauguration. 

7$i? Retiring President. The retiring President invites the President elect 
and members of his Cabinet and ladies to dinner before the expiration of his 
term of office. He also holds a levee at a convenient time before his retire 
ment. 

Popular Demonstrations. It is customary to issue a call for a public meet 
ing, with a view to appropriate public demonstrations on the occasion of the 
of the inauguration ot the President-elect. For this purpose officers are se 
lected and proper committees appointed to take charge of the details of the 
work. The residents and business establishments show their interest in the 
occasion by suitable decorative display. The expenses of the public display 
are met by subscriptions and sales of tickets to the closing ball. 

INAUGURAL PROCESSION. The inauguration of THE PRESIDENT 
is attended by more or less pomp. The order of arrangements for the inaugu 
ral procession is properly assigned to a military officer. The following is the 
official programme adopted and promulgated for the inaugural ceremonies of 
March 4, 1881, which in point of display was exceptionally elaborate, and 
therefore furnishes an excellent guide to any future demonstrations of a simi - 
lar character. 

OFFICIAL PROGRAMME INAUGURAL MARCH 4, 18 . 

WASHINGTON, D. C., 18 

The following will constitute the programme of the inaugural procession : 

Two platoons of City Police (mounted. ) 

Grand Marshal and Aids. 

First Division. (Massed on Pennsylvania and New York avenues, N. side, 



INAUGURAL PROCESSION. 43 

facing south, right near i;th street); Chief Officers, Aids, U. S. Artillery > 
Marine Battalion, Troops (if any) which accompanied the President-elect to the 
seat of Government; THE PRESIDENT and President-elect and party in car- 
riages, attended by three aids ; Cavalry, Portion of the visiting military or 
ganizations. 

Second Division (Massed around the square east of the Capitol, r. near 
N. Capitol street, 1. near New Jersey avenue S. E. and massed to the rear) ; 
the Chief Officer and Staff, Visiting Military designated. 

Third Division. (Massed on South side of Pennsylvania avenue facing 
N. ; r. near New Jersey avenue S. E. ; 1. near 7th street massed to the rear) ; 
the Chief Officer, Staff, Grand Army of the Republic; Miscellaneous military 
organizations from different States. 

Fourth Division. (Massed on south side of Pennsylvania avenue ; r. near 
7th street ; 1. near the Treasury and massed to the rear) ; the Chief Officer, 
Staff, Miscellaneous military organizations. 

Fifth Division. (Massed in and about City Hall and Judiciary square, to 
follow the Fourth Division); the Chief Officer, Staffer Aids, Civic Societies 
Political Organizations, Fire Department, &c. 

Salutes. The artillery, Captain , will post a gun and detachment 

in the mall south of the Treasury, and another in the Capitol grounds to fire 
the signal guns when so required. 

General Directions. The foregoing divisions embrace every organization, 
civic and military, which has signified to the proper committee an intention 
to be present. Should, however, other bodies arrive, they may report for a 
place in line or column to either the Third, Fourth or Fifth Divisions at 
pleasure. 

Posts of Marshals. The Post of all marshals during the march will be at 
the head of their respective divisions, and their aids in ranks of ten or less, 
two paces in the rear or between the ranks. 

Hour of Moving. The procession will move towards the Capitol at 10 15 a. 
m., so as to allow ample time. At that hour, Pennsylvania avenue, or the 
principal thoroughfare along the route, will be cleared of vehicles. 

Order of March. The troops will be in colamns or companies for foct artil 
lery and infantry ; of sections for mounted artillery, and platoons for cavalry, 
all at full distance. Should any reduction of front be necessary, to surmount 
obstacles break one or more sets of fours to the rear until passed, then move 
back into line. 

Upon nearing the east front of the Capitol column of companies of artil 
lery, infantry and cavalry break into columns of fours and mounted artillery 
from sections to column of pieces. 

The infantry, foot artillery and cavalry will file into the plaza opposite 
the eastern front of the Capitol and take position under the supervision of the 



INAUGURAL PROCESSION. 45 

aids to the Grand Marshal in parallel lines of battalion in line of battle, the 
lines massed upon each other. 

A National Salute. A light battery of artillery will be detached from the 
column and stationed in battery on the open space north of the Capitol and 
await orders from the Grand Marshal to fire a national salute equal to the 
number of States in the Union. 

formation of Civic Bodies. The civic portion of the procession will move 
in the usual order for such bodies, and will be massed by the Deputy Grand 
Marshal in rear of the troops. 

Return March and Review. On the conclusion of the inaugural ceremonies 
at the Capitol, to be indicated by firing the National salute, the procession will 
march via the north of the Capitol, and proceeding along Pennsylvania avenue 
.in the same formation of approach will pass the grand stand in front of the 
Executive Mansion. The President and party, as soon as the ceremonies of 
inauguration are over, proceed hastily to the grand stand in advance of the 
head of the column, :nd there re view the troops and civic organizations as they 
march by. 

End of March. The rest of the route of march should be covered to the 
terminating point fixed upon in the line of march so as to avoid confusion. 
Upon reaching the end of the route each organization will be considered as 
dismissed and be marched to its quarters by its own commader. 

The Grand Marshal. The chief officer charged with the formation and 
marching of the Inaugural Procession establishes headquarters at a central 
point and makes public announcement of its location so that he maybe conve 
niently found for instructions and consultation. He should not leave his head, 
quarters from the time of formation of the procession until he takes his posi- 
tion at its head. 

Aids. The aids to the President-elect report to him and remain subject to 
his orders until relieved by his command. 

Designating CoLrs of Marshals. The following designations have been 
appropriately adopted on several occasions, so that certain officers in the parade 
may be readily distinguished. 

The Grand Marshal, if a military officer, wears the uniform of his highest 
rank, brevet or otherwise, with yellow sash as General Officer of the Day, with 
rosette of red, white and blue on the left breast. If a civilian, he wears a 
plain black suit, silk hat and yellow sash and rosette as above. 

The Deputy Grand Marshal wears a rosette of red, white and blue on the 
left breast, with yellow sash. 

The Marshals of Divisions, white rosettes on left breast, with the uniform 
of their grade, if officers ; if citizens, plain black suit, with silk hat -and blue 
sash. 



46 CEREMONIES AT THE CAPITOL. 

Aids to the Grand Marshal, red rosette on their left breasts, with uniform 
of their rank if officers ; if civilians, plain black suit, silk hat and white sash 

Aids to the Daputy Grand Marshal, rosette of red, white and and blue on 
left breasts, with red sash. 

Aids to the Marshals of Divsions, light blue rosette on left breast, with the 
uniform of their rank, if officers ; if civilians, plain black suit, silk hat and blue 
sash. 

The Grand Marshal appoints a suitable number of Adjutants General and 
Aids to carry out his orders. 

Selection of Marshals and Aids. In the selection by the Grand Marshal of 
Marshals and Aids, military officers or persons of unquestioned skill and ex 
perience in the movement of bodies of men, should be selected in order to 
avoid marring the success of the display. 

All Deputy and Division Marshals and Aids should report to the Grand 
Marshal s headquarters at 9 a. m. to receive orders. 

CEREMONIES AT THE CAPITOL. Ariiving at the Capitol THE 
PRESIDENT and President-elect are escorted to the Senate Chamber, while the 
troops and civic organizations mass in front of the building. 

The ceremonies attending the administration of the oath of office to the 
President-elect are under the direction of the Senate. (See the Senate Inaugu 
ral Ceremonies. ) 

Departure from the Capitol. After the conclusion of the ceremony of inaugu 
ration in the Senate THE PRESIDENT is conducted to his carriage and attended 
by the guard of honor drives hastily to the reviewing stand erected for the 
purpose on Pennsylvania avenue north of the Executive Mansion. Should 
the weather be unfavorable or for any reason should there be no review, THE 
PRESIDENT is conducted, to the Executive Mansion, if that be ready for his 
reception, or if not, to his temporary residence. This is arranged before hand 
between the outgoing and incoming President, and is simply a matter of con 
venience to the former. 

Taking Possession of the Executive Mansion. If the PRESIDENT takes im 
mediate possession of the Executive Mansion, the retired President with his 
lady awaits his arrival to welcome him into the mansion, and formally yields 
up its possession. A lunch is usually prepared by direction of the retired 
President at which THE PRESIDENT presides, after which the retired President 
and his lady withdraw from the Mansion to their temporary residence in the 
City. 

Presidential Courtesies. After the new President has returned to his resi 
dence or taken possession of the Executive Mansion, the ex-President pays 
him a visit of ceremony and congratulation. This is done immediately as 
the visit will also afford THE PRESIDENT an opportunity to express any re- 



DEATH OF THE PRESIDENT. 47 

quest or desire for suggestions for information that he may have to make of 
his predecessor before his departure from the City. 

INAUGURAL BALL. It is customary to close the ceremonies of Inaugu 
ration with a grand ball, which is generally conducted under the auspices of a 
citizens committee of arrangements, appointed at a public meeting. Upon 
such occasions the de f ails are entrusted to sub committees. (See Forms of 
Invitations.} 

DEPARTURE OF THE PRESIDENT. President Washington upon 
his retirement from the Presidential office, published a farewell address, re 
viewing some features of his administration. The citizens of Philadelphia, 
then the Capital, later gave him a banquet. He then returned to Mount 
Vernon, being everywhere received with tokens of applause and respect by 
the people. 

It is now customary for the retiring President to review the principal acts 
of his administration in his last annual message to Congress, preceeding the 
expiration of his term of office. 

His departure from the Capital is attended with no ceremony, other than 
the presence of the members of his late Cabinet and a few officials and per 
sonal friends. THE PRESIDENT leaves the Capital as soon as practicable after 
the inauguration of his successor. 

DEATH OF THE PRESIDENT. Upon the death of THE PRESIDENT 
the members of the Cabinet assemble at the earliest moment in an adjoining 
room and prepare an official announcement of the fact, with relevant particu 
lars, for formal and official promulgation, and to accompany the official notifi 
cation of the Vice- President of the vacancy in the Executive office. 

All messages of condolence from foreign governments are received by the 
Secretary of State, in behalf of the nation and the family of the late President. 
He also makes suitable responses in the name of both. 

If Congress be in session, each House after formal announcement of the 
event, and the passage of suitable resolutions of condolence and authorization 
of the appoin ment of a Committee to attend the remains to the place of in 
terment; adjourns for that day and also on the day of interment. If Con 
gress be not in session any Senators or Representatives in the City show 
their respect by being present at the obsequies. 

The Secretary of War and Navy make appropriate announcements to their 
respective branches of the service, and direct the Commanding General of the 
Army and officers of the Navy to give the necessary instructions in general 
orders, so that all proper honors may be paid to the memory of the late Chief 
Magistrate of the nation, at head-quarters of each military department, di- 



48 PRESIDENTIAL SUCCESSION. 

vision and station, and at all naval stations, and on all vessels in commission 
in accordance with the regulations of the service. (Sec Military and Naval 
Funeral Ifonots.} The Executive Departments are closed by order of their 
respective heads, flags are placed at half staff and public business is sus 
pended, as far as practicable until after the interment. The Executive Man 
sion and buildings are draped in mourning- for a period of sixty days. 

It is proper to use mourn ing stationery in all official correspondence emanat 
ing from the Executive office and Department of State for a period of three 
months. 

PRESIDENTIAL SUCCESSION. - The induction of the Vice- President 
into the office of PRESIDENT, upon the demise of its duly elected possessor, 
admits of no delay, and has always, and appropriately, been attended with as 
little display as possible. 

The Vice- President having received the official notification from the mem 
bers of the late President s Cabinet of the death of the President, it is his 
duty, without delay to take the oath prescribed by the Constitution for the 
President. If absent from the Capital he summons the nearest United States 
judge for that purpose and repairs to the seat of government at the earliest 
moment. 

Having arrived at the seat of government, on the same day, if practica 
ble, at an hour previously arranged, and attended by a few distinguished 
friends, the Vice- President repairs to his official quarters at the Capitol where 
the Cabinet of the late President and such Senators and Representatives as 
are in the city are in waiting. 

The Attorney General, who has charge of the ceremony, repairing to the 
Robing Room of the Supreme Court, notifies the Chief Justice that the Vice- 
President is ready to take the oath. The Chief Justice, attired in his judicial 
robes, attended by the Attorney General, Associate Justices in the city and 
the clerk of the court, proceeds to the Vice President s room. Approaching 
the Vice- President the Chief Justice greets him, after which, at his direction, 
the clerk of the court holds forward the Bible, upon which THE PRESIDENT 
resting his hand takes the oath prescribed by the Constitution and receives the 
congratulations of the Chief Justice and others assembled. The Chief Justice 
and associates, preceded by the officers of the court, then withdraw. THE 
PRESIDENT may follow the taking of the oath by delivering a brief address 
referring to the grief of the nation and giving an assurance to the people of his 
purpose to carry forward the wise measures of public policy inaugurated by 
the late President. 

A meeting of the members of the Cabinet of the late President is called, at 
which THE PRESIDENT may request their services until their successors shall 
have been appointed. 



PRESIDENTIAL OBSEQUIES. 49 

As soon as practicable afier the official announcement of the death of the 
President, an official notification of the succession of the Vice-President is 
p-omulgated. The succession is also announced by the Secretary of War 
through general orders from headquarters and issued to the army. The same 
form is observed by the Secretary of the Navy. 

The form of announcement is as follows ; 

"The Secretary of War announces to the Army that upon the death of 

, President of the United States, , Vice-President, on 

the day of , 1 8 , at in the city of , took the oath 

of office as President of the United States, to which office he acceded by virtue 
of the Constitution 

THE PRESIDENT allows a suitable time to pass to enable the family of the late 
President to make preparations to retire from the Executive Mansion. 

In the event of the death of the Vice-President while filling the office of 
President, the same form of notification and induction into office would be 
observed for the Secretary of State or other heir presumptive to the Chief 
Executive office of the Nation. 

Out of respect, on the demise of an ex- President, the Executive Mansion 
and Buildings are draped in mourning for thirty days, and flags are placed at 
half mast on all public buildings, forts and vessels, until after the interment. 
Public business is suspended on the day of the funeral. In other respects the 
same form is observed as suitable for the interment of a distinguished citizen. 

PRESIDENTIAL OBSEQUIES. Upon the death of THE PRESIDENT 
the remains lie in state either at the Executive Mansion or the Capitol, and 
an opportunity is accorded the public to view them. The casket is placed on 
a dias of suitable height, and floral and other mourning emblems are disposed 
so as to produce the desired effect without inconveniencing those who have 
come to pay their last tribute of respect. The public arrive by one entrance 
and leave by another. A guard of honor remains in charge of the body and 
is told off in reliefs of six hours duty each. 

When \hzfuneral ceremonies are held at the Capitol it has been customary 
to close the building and issue tickets to persons entitled to receive them in 
order to restrict the number present to the accommodations at command and 
to enable the representatives of the different branches of the government and 
the Diplomatic Corps to take their appropriate places free from the confusion 
incident to a promiscuous crowd. ( See form s of invitation.} 

When the Rotunda of the Capitol is selected for the purpose, on the day 
set apart all the entrances to the building are closed. At the hour designated 
persons holding tickets, 1,200 being the maximum issued, under the direction 
of the Sergeants-at-Arms, enter and take the seats assigned them as follows t 

By the North Doot. The relatives of the deceased. THE PRESIDENT and 



50 PRESIDENTIAL OBSEQUIES. 

Cabinet, ex-Presidents, ex-Vice-Presidents, the Chief and Associate Justices 
of the Supreme Court, Senators and the officers of the Senate and ex- Senators. 
Each of these groups should enter in a body. 

By the South Door. Members and ex Members of the House of Repre 
sentatives and the Officers of the House. 

By the Main Bronze or East and West Doors all others holding tickets. 

The minor officials and public should enter promptly and at least twenty 
minutes before the time fixed for the services to begin. 

The Representatives and ex- representatives and officers of the House should 
enter in a body fifteen minutes before the hour fixed, and be received by the 
committee on arrangements, and shown to the seats assigned to them. 

The Senate should enter in similar manner twelve minutes before the hour. 

The Diplomatic Corps should enter and be received and seated ten minutes 
before the hour. 

The Chief and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court should enter and 
be received and seated five minutes before the hour. 

The Ex-Presidents and Ex- Vice- Presidents shculd enter and be received 
and seated three minutes before the hour. 

THE PRESIDENT, attended by his cabinet, should be received by the Ser- 
geant-at-Arms, and announced and shown to his seat. Upon the entrance of 
the President, the entire assemblage should rise in token of respect, and re 
main standing until he is seated, when all should be seated and the ceremo 
nies begin. 

The Ceremonies. The assemblage of high officers of state and the mem 
bers of the co-ordinate branches of the Government, the Diplomatic Corps, 
and others in attendance, being seated, the officiating clergyman with those 
associated with him, render the services for the dead, in accordance with 
the ritual or forms of the church of the deceased, or according to the wishes 
expressed by the members of the family. 

The Secretary of State, as soon as the time for the obsequies is determined 
upon, issues the following announcement : 

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, WASHINGTON, , 18... 

To the People of the United States : 

The Secretary of State announces that the funeral ceremonies of the late 

Chief Magistrate will take place at the Executive Mansion (or Capitol) at 

o clock, on , the inst. The respective religious denominations 

throughout the conntry are invited to meet in their places of worship at that 
hour for the purpose of solemnizing the occasion with appropriate ceremonies. 



Secretary of State. 
The Funeral Cortege. The arrangements for the funeral procession are 



PRESIDENTIAL.OBSEQUIES. 5 1 

carried out under the direction of the Secretary of War, and are officially pro 
mulgated, as follows : 

Order of arrangements for the funeral, at Washington City, of 

, late President of the United States. 

The remains of the late President will lie in state in the rotunda of the 

Capitol until o clock P. M. on , the inst., when they will be 

borne to the depot of the railroad, and thence conveyed to their final 

resting place at . 

Order of Procession ; Funeral escort, under command of , Battalion 

of National Guard of the District of Columbia, Battalion ot Marines, Battalion 
of Foot Artillery, Battalion of Light Artillery, Battalion of Infantry, and 
Squadron of Cavalry. 

Civic procession under command of Chief Marshal , Clergymen in 

attendance, physicians who attended the late President. 

* ***# * 

1 * ~ 

1 t- 2 

o * L * f 

# * -^ 

* **** * 

The officers of the Army, Navy and Marine Corps in the city and not on 
duty with the troops forming the escort, in full dress, will form, right in 
front, on either side of the hearse the Army on the right and the Navy and 
Marine Corps on the left and compose the Guard of Honor. Familv of the 
late President, relatives of the late President, Ex- Presidents of the United 
States, THE PRESIDENT, the Cabinet Ministers, the Diplomatic Corps, the 
Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, the Senate of the United States, members of the House of Repre 
sentatives, Judges of the United States Courts, Governors of States and Terri 
tories and Commissioners of the District of Columbia, the Judges of the 
Court of Claims, the Judiciary of the District of Columbia, the Assistant 
Secretaries of State, Treasury and Interior Departments, the Assistant Post 
master-General, the Solicitor General, and the Assistant Attorneys General, 
and Chiefs of Bureaus, Organized Societies, Citizens and Strangers. 

The troops designated to form the escort will assemble on the east side 
of the Capitol, and form line fronting the eastern portico of the Capitol pre 
cisely at o clock , on , the instant. 

The procession will move on the conclusion of the religious services at the 
Capitol (appointed to commence at o clock), when minute guns will be 
fired at the navy yard, by the vessels of war that may be in port, at the forts, 



52 PRESIDENTIAL OBSEQUIES. 

and by the battery of artillery stationed near the Capitol for that purpose. 
At the same hour the bells of the several churches, fhe engine houses and 
school houses will be tolled. 

The civic procession will form in accordance with directions to be given by 
the Chief Marshal. 

The officers of the Army and Navy selected to compose the guard of honor 
and to accompany the remains to their final resting place will assemble at 

, at the railroad depot, where they will receive the body of the late 

President and deposit it in the car prepared for the purpose. 

This order of arrangements is signed by the Secretary of War, Secretary 
o the Navy, and President of the Board of Commissioners of the District of 
Columbia. 

The General of the Army issues the necessary orders respecting the assem 
bling and participation of officers and troops in the funeral cortege and 
firing of guns from the forts. 

The Secretary of the Navy issues similar orders respecting the participa 
tion of officers of the navy, officers and men of the marine corps and the 
firing of minute guns from vessels of war off the city. 

The commanding officer, if any, of the District of Columbia National Guard 
issues similar orders to such organizations as are under his jurisdiction, 

A committee of citizens should make arrangements for a participation of 
civic organizations and strangers, and report to the representative of the Dis 
trict government on the committee of arrangements or to the officer author 
ized to act in his stead. 

Funeral Honors. The Flags on all public buildings, forts, barracks or 
military or naval stations and ships in or near the city are displayed at half 
staff from the time of the official announcement of the death of President until 
sunset of the day of interment. Public buildings throughout the country 
should be draped in mourning for sixty days. It would be appropriate for 
citizens of Washington to display emblems of mourning from their residences 
on the day of the funeral. Orders should also be issued immediately by the 
Heads of Departments to fly flags at half staff on all Government buildings, 
military, naval or customs stations, ships of war at home or abroad, legations 
and consulates of the United States in foreign countries, as directed. Each 
branch of the Government should designate a suitable number of its members 
or officers to represent it in the guard of honor, to proceed with the remains 
to the place of interment. 

The Funeral Train. If the remains are taken from the city the ar ange- 
ments by the railway company should be measured by the requirements of the 
occasion. There should be a funeral car for the remains and guard of honor; 
a car for relatives and mourners, and a car for representatives of each of the 
three co-ordinate branches of the government. 



PRESIDENTIAL OBSEQUIES. 53 

Memorial Services. The following is the form of memorial services estab 
lished by Congress upon the death of THE PRESIDENT: 

The following is the form of concurrent resolution adopted by the two houses : 

WHEREAS, The melancholy event of the death of , late President 

of the United States, having occurred during the recess (or session) of Con 
gress, and the two houses sharing in the general grief ar d desiring to mani 
fest their sensibility upon the occasion of the public bereavement ; therefore, 

Be it resolved by the {the concurring}, That the two Houses of 

Congress will assemble in the Hall of the House of Representatives on a day 
and hour to be fixed and announced by the joint committee, and that in the 
presence of the two Houses there assembled an address upon the life and 
character of , late President of the United States, be pronounced by 

, and that the President of the Senate and the Speaker 

of the House of Representatives be requested to invite THE PRESIDENT and 
ex-Presidents of the United States, the heads of the several departments, the 
judges of the Supreme Court, the representatives of the foreign governments 
near this Government, the Governors of the several States, the General of 
the Army, and the Admiral of the Navy, and such officers of the Army and 
Navy as have received the thanks of Congress, who may then be at the seat 
of Government, to be present on the occasion, 

And be it further resolved, That the President of the United States be re 
quested to transmit a copy of these resolutions to Mrs. (if the widow 

be living), and to assure her of the profound sympathy of the two Houses 
of Congress for her deep personal affliction, and of their sincere condolence 
for the late National bereavement. 

The Joint Committee of the two Houses of Congress having fixed upon a 
date, the following form of concurrent resolution is adopted: 

Resolved, That the day of , 188 , be set apart for the 

memorial services upon the late President . 

On the morning of the day selected the Capitol is closed to all persons 
except the members and officers cf Congress and persons holding tickets. 

The execution of the order of arrangements determined upon by the Joint 
Committee is assigned to the Architect of the Capitol and the Sergeant-at- 
Arms of each House of Congress. 

By reason of the limited capacity of the galleries the number of tickets is 
necessarily restricted, and distributed as follows : 

To each Senator, Representative t and Delegate, 3 tickets. 

No person is admitted to the Capitol except on presentation of a ticket, 
good cnly for the place indicated. 

At o clock the east door leading to the Rotunda is opened to those to 
whom invitations have been extended under the joint resolution of Congress 



54 PRESIDENTIAL OBSEQUIES. 

by the presiding officers of the two Houses, and to those holding tickets to the 
galleries. (See forms of invitations. ) 

The Hall of the House of Representatives is opened for the admission of 
Representatives and to those who have invitations, who will be conducted to 
the seats assigned to them, as follows : 

THE PRESIDENT and ex- Presidents of the United States and special guests in 
front of the Speaker. 

The Chief-Justice and associate justices of the Supreme Court next to the 
President and ex- Presidents and special guests, on the right of the Speaker. 

The Cabinet officers, the General of the Army and Admiral of the Navy, and 
the officers of the Army and Navy who, by name, have received the thanks of 
Congress, seats on ths l^ft of the Speaker. 

The Chief- Justice and judges of the Court of Claims and the Chief- Justice 
and associate justices of the supreme court of the District of Columbia directly 
in the rear of the Supreme Court. 

The Diplomatic corps the front row of seats. 

Ex- Vice Presidents, Senators, and ex-Senators occupy seats in the second, 
third, fourth, and fifth rows, on east side of the main aisle. 

Representatives occupy seats on west side of main aisle and in rear of the 
Senators on east side. 

Governors of States, Commissioners of the District and Governors of Terri 
tories, assistant secretaries, Bureau officers, and invited guests occupy seats 
in rear of Representatives. 

The Executive gallery is reserved exclusively for the familiej of the Su 
preme Court and the families of the Cabinet and the invited guests of THE 
PRESIDENT. Tickets thereto are delivered to the Private Secretary of the 
President. 

The diplomatic gallery is reserved exclusively for the families of the mem 
bers of the diplomatic corps. Tickets thereto are delivered to the Secretary of 
State. 

The reporters gallery is reserved exclusively for the use of the reporters 
for the pre;s. Tickets thereto cjre delivered to the press committee. 

The official reporters of the Senate and of the House occupy the reporters 
desk in front of the Clerk s table. 

The order and time of entree, under the direction of the Sergeant-at-Arms 
of the House, are the same as indicated under Presidential obsequies. The 
Government band is in attendance. 

In the Senate, after prayer, a motion is in order that the Senate as a body 
proceed to the hall of the House of Representatives in pursuance of the pro 
gramme of arrangements for the memorial services in honor of the late Presi 
dent. 



PRESIDENTIAL OBSEQUIES. 55 

The Senate, preceded by its Sergeant-at-Arms, then proceeds to the Hall 
of Representatives. 

Having assembled, the President of the Senate occupies the Speaker s chair. 

The Speaker of the House occupies a seat at the left of the President of the 
Senate. 

The Chaplains of the Senate and of the House occupy seats next to the pre 
siding officers of their respective houses, 

The chairmen of the joint committee of arrangements occupy seats at the 
right and left of the orator, and next to them the Secretary of the Senate and 
the Clerk of the House. 

The other officers of the Senate and of the House occupy seats on the floor 
at the right and the left of the Speaker s platform. 

Prayer is offered by the Chaplain of the House of Representatives, or 
some other proper person. 

The presiding officer then presents the Orator of the day. 

The benediction is pronounced by the Chaplain of the Senate, or some other 
designated person. 

After the close of the ceremonies those assembled withdraw. THE PRESI 
DENT and Cabinet first, the Chief Justice and Associates second, the Diplo 
matic Corps third, the Senate fourth, the remaining invited guests following. 
All persons remain in their places until this order is carried out, so as to pre 
serve the decorum of the occasion. 

The Speaker then calls the House to order. 

On motion of a member a resolution of thanks to the orator of the day is 
adopted. The exercises close by the adoption of a resolution to adjourn as a 
further testimonial of respect to" the deceased President of the United States. 

The invitations to all Memorial Services at the capitol are issued by the 
chairman of the committees of arrangements, on behalf of the two Houses 
of Congress. They are handsomely engraved and are also regarded as sou 
venirs of the occasion. The usual form is 

Memorial services of . 

(Vignette. Date of birth and death of the deceased and the name of the orator 
and date of the occasion.) 



Chairman Senate Committee. Chairman House Committee. 



EMBERS of the Cabinet of THE PRESIDENT take precedence within 
the Executive circle as follows : 

i. The SECRETARY OF STATE. 4. The ATTORNEY GENERAL. 

2. The SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY. 5. The POSTMASTER GENERAL. 
3 The SECRETARY OF WAR. 6. The SECRETARY OF THE NAVY. 

7. The SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR. 

In Cabinet deliberations the same arrangement is observed at the Cabinet 
Board. 

This order is in conformity with the chronological sequence of creation of 
the Departments of the Ministerial branch of the Supreme Executive by act 
of January 19, 1886, "to provide for the performance of the duties of the 
office of President in case of the removal, death, resignation, or inability 
both of the President and Vice-President." 

OFFICIAL STATUS. The Cabinet or Council of Ministers of the Presi 
dent is not a Constitutional body. It exists solely by legislative enactment. 
Its members are therefore of statutory rank and title. 

The functions of the Government under the present Constitution had been 
in operation nearly three months before the creation of Executive Depart 
ments, with chiefs, who inferentially became members of that body of advisers 
of the President termed by usage The Cabinet. 

OFFICIAL AUTHORITY MINISTERIAL. The powers of a member 
of the Cabinet are purely ministerial. He has no share in the responsibility 
of the President ior executive acts even though recommended by him. His 
powers are defined by statute. He "is authorized to present regulations, not 
inconsistent with law, for the government of his department, the conduct of 
its officers and clerks, the distribution and performance of its business, and 
the custody, use, and preservation of the records, papers, and property apper 
taining to it." 

LINE OF PROVISIONAL SUCCESSION. The statutory enactment 

(57) 



58 THE CABINET PROVISIONAL SUCCESSION. 

of 1792 for the succession to the Presidential office by the President of the 
Senate, or, if none, by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, by act 
of 1886 was repealed, and the line of provisional succession in case of "re 
moval, death, resignation, or inability of both the President and Vice-Presi 
dent" was vested in 

1. The Secretary of State, or if there be none, or in case of his removal, 
death, resignation, or inability, then in 

2. The Secretary of the Treasury, and with similar stipulations in 

3. The Secretary of War; 

4. The Attorney General; 

5. The Postmaster General; 

6. The Secretary of the Navy; 

7. The Secretary of the Interior. 

In the exercise of the powers of such statutory provisional executive suc 
cession the officer is only authorized to " act as President until the disability 
of the President or Vice-President is removed, or a President shall be elected, 
as stipulated in the act. 

NO EXCEPTIONAL RANK. The statute of provisional succession 
gives no exceptional rank or authority to a member of the Cabinet while ex 
ercising his restricted official functions as chief of an Executive Department. 
In event of succession to the supreme executive office he would exercise, for 
the time being, all its powers and enjoy its prerogatives. 

ACTION OF THE CONVENTION OF 1787. The dominant sentiment 
of the framers of the present Constitution was in favor of a single executive, 
and hostile to the creation of a Constitutional body, which should divide its 
responsibility. It was proposed by Edmund Randolph, in his original draft 
of the Constitution, to create a Council of Revision, composed of the Execu 
tive and a certain number of the judiciary, to pass on all laws. This was 
negatived. 

Another proposition was a Council of State, to be composed of 

i. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court," who should be president of 
council in the absence of the President. 

2 A Secretary of Domestic Affairs. 3. Of Commerce and Finance. 4. 
Of Foreign Affairs. 5. Of War. 6. Of Marine. 7. A Secretary of State, 
to be Secretary of the Council of State and public Secretary to the President, 
to prepare all public dispatches from the President, which he should counter 
sign. 

All these officers, except the first, were to be appointed by the President, 



CABINET TITLES. 59 

and hold during his pleasure. The President might submit matters to the 
council and require written opinions, but he was "in all cases to exercise his 
own judgment." Every officer was made responsible only for his opinion on 
affairs of his own department. This was negatived. 

Another fruitless effort was made, in a committee report, to give the Presi 
dent a Privy Council, to consist of 

1. The President of the Senate. 

2. The Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

3. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; and 

4. The principal officers in the respective Departments of Foreign Affairs, 
Domestic Affairs, War, Marine, Finance, as established, but declaring that 
such "advice shall not conclude him, nor affect his responsibility for the 
measures he shall adopt." 

The last effort, a few days before the final report of the form of Constitu 
tion, was a proposition to create a Privy Council (of six members) to the 
President, chosen for six years by the Senate, two from the east, two from 
the west, and two from the South. 

Maryland, South Carolina and Georgia, three States, voted for it, and New 
Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela 
ware, Virginia and North Carolina, eight against it. 

Ten days after the Constitution was signed without provisions for an execu 
tive council. 

CABINET TITLES. A member of the Cabinet has no other official title 
than that of the Department over which he presides, as the Secretary of State, 
&c. The foim of addressing the head of any of the great Executive Depart 
ments of the Goverment in conversation, is by the simple title Mr prefixed to 
the official title, Secretary, as Mr. Secretary, without designating the Depart 
ment, or Mr. Postmaster- General, or Mr. Attorney-General. Sometimes the 
distinguishing title of former rank, if of sufficient prominence, is used, but this 
is only warrantable where the parties were previously on terms of intimacy 
The form in speaking of the wife of a Cabinet Minister as established by 

custom is Mrs. Secretary ; but in addressing the lady in person, it 

is proper to use Mrs. only. The forms employed in correspondence 

appear under that head. 

CABINET COUNCILS. The duties of the chiefs of the great Executive 
Departments as members of an advisory board to the President are infer 
ential from the organic statutes of such Departments. The first President 
called them into his counsels, which precedent has since been accepted as re- 



60 OFFICIAL PREROGATIVES. 

fleeting the spirit of those act?. Their powers are purely advisory and do not 
affect or divide the official responsibility of the President for his executive and 
administrative acts. 

The meetings of the Cabinet are held on stated days, at II a. m. or 12 m , 
and usually on Tuesdays and Thursdays or Fridays, as may be designated by 
the President. Special meetings, formerly called by the Secretary of State, 
are now summoned by telephone from the Executive Mansion. 

OFFICIAL HOURS. The official hours of the Executive Departments 
begin at 9 a m. and end at 4 p. m. every day, except Sundays, or on 
National holidays, on which days no public business is transacted. The hours 
for the public are from 9 a, m. to 2 p. m. After that only by appointment or 
in special cases by card at the main entrance, through the captain of the 
watch. The chief officer of the Department, upon the authority of THE 
PRESIDENT, may in whole or in part, suspenl the business of his department 
for sufficient reason, of a public character, stated in the order announcing 
that the Department will be closed. It has not been uncommon, in the dis 
cretion of the President, to authorize the termination of official hours during 
the months of July and August at 3 p. m, Legislation, however, establishes 
4 p. m. as the closing hour. 

OFFICIAL PREROGATIVES. A member of the Cabinet of the Presi 
dent is limited in his official authority to his own department, and possesses 
no distinctive official relations outside of the Executive circle. He is part of 
the Executive, and all his acts are subject to the supreme authority vested in 
THE PRESIDENT. 

He is entitled to certain special honors during visits of an official or cere 
monial character to any military or naval station, the nature and extent of 
which are given in their proper places. 

AT THE SENATE. Among the duties of a Cabinet officer during the 
earlier administrations was his attendance upon the Senate to furnish infor 
mation essential to their action upon matters of Executive business. 

In 1 789 the Senate, in Executive session, ordered that the Secretary for 
Foreign Affairs attend the Senate and bring with him papers requisite to full 
information relative to a consular convention. The Secretary attended the 
Senate and made the necessary explanation. 

Such duties are now performed by the attendance of the Cabinet officer 
upon the proper committees of either house by request. 

The first President frequently sent messages to the Senate by the officers of 
his Cabinet. 



SOCIAL OBLIGATIONS. 6 1 

SOCIAL OBLIGATIONS. A member of the Cabinet makes calls of 
ceremony upon: I, The Vice-President, or the President of the Senate, pro 
tempore, if a vacancy; 2, The Chief Justice of the United States; 3, Senators; 
4, The Speaker; 5, Representatives; 6, Associate Justices of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, first. All others call upon him first. 

During the season the members of the Cabinet and their ladies, unless in 
mourning, or exempt for other sufficient reasons, give some attention to the 
social obligations of official position. This consists of Drawing- Rooms as a 
courtesy to officials, visiting strangers, or residents in good society who may 
desire to make calls of etiquette, and Card Receptions or other suitable 
entertainments in return for courtesies accepted from others in official or 
social life. 

A Cabinet Minister returns all calls of ceremony, either in person or by 
card, as they were made. 

The members of the Cabinet and their families are regarded as shaiing 
in the social privileges enjoyed by the President. 

RECEPTIONS. The ladies of the families of Cabinet Ministers hold 
Drawing Rooms on stated days (usually Wednesdays) during the season from 
3 to 5 p m., which are generally attended by ladies, though gentlemen call, 
either with ladies or without them. No invitations are issued, thus affording 
strangers in the city an opportunity to meet the ladies of the Cabinet. It is 
expected that all ladies in society in Washington will call at least once during 
the season upon the ladies of the Cabinet. Visitors in the city call as oppor - 
tunity offers. 

It is not necessary, but convenient, for strangers to secure a conveyance for 
the occasion, especially if their time be limited and they desire to make the 
round in a single day. 

The ceremony of calling is, upon reaching the residence of the Cabinet 
minister to enter and hand a card with your name and place of home residence 
and address in the city to the usher at the door or deposit it in the receiver. 
The usher will announce your name, or do so yourself, when you meet the 
lady of the house. A short conversation on relevant matters is proper if the 
throng of arrivals is not too great, otherwise wait for an opportunity if de 
sirable. Refreshments are usually served and open to all callers. Upon 
leaving the house it is well to say a parting word, unless a large number are 
calling, then leave quietly. 

The cards left at a Drawing Room usually entitle the person to one return 
call in person or by card during the season by the ladies of the family, who 
also leave the card of the Cabinet officer. Unless personally known, it could 



62 RECEPTIONS. 

hardly be expected that every call should be returned in person. The 
visiting list of the ladies of a Cabinet Minister s family may number several 
thousand. 

CARD RECEPTIONS. The card receptions of a Cabinet Minister usually 
occur on Thursdays, from 8 to 1 1 p. m. The time, however, is fixed so as 
not to clash with any of the entertainments at the Executive mansion. Per 
sons without cards of invitation, are not expected to be present. Before 
entering the house the usher at the door will direct you to the rooms set 
apart for wrappings. Proceed to them without delay. The gentleman being 
ready to descend to the receiving apartments below, will take a place near 
the door to the ladies rooms and there await the appearance of his lady. 
The two will then descend, the lady resting on the gentleman s left arm, 
and thus enter the reception room. They will be presented by an usher, 
otherwise the gentleman himself advancing towards the Cabinet Minister, 
will, if not personally known, pronounce his name, and extend his hand, or 
not, as % the Minister may select. The gentleman will then turn and present 
his lady, who will bow. The Cabinet Minister will then present them to his 
lady in a simple word, the two passing on, will make a bow before the lady 
of the house and to each of the other ladies, if any, receiving with her. The 
couple will again move on without delay, so as not to obstruct the way of 
those who are waiting to be received, and join in the promenade of guests. 

At these receptions refreshments are served. The refreshment rooms are 
sometimes opened at an early hour to allow guests to partake at any time 
after presenting their addresses to the host. At other times they are opened 
at a fixed hour, when all partake at once. In either case, the gentlemen are 
served by waiters in attendance at the tables, and wait upon their own ladies. 
In retiring it is well not to wait until the last moment, but guests should with 
draw as the hour for closing approaches, so as to avoid a rush The house 
should be cleared of all guests within fifteen minutes after the hour for the 
reception to close. The Cabinet Minister will remain until the last guest has 
left the house. His lady may retire at the closing hour named. 

The following is the usual form of invitation to a Cabinet cird reception : 

The Secretary of and Mrs request the pleasure of your 

company on evening, the of , at o clock. 

(Residence.) 

To this invitation an answer should be sent. 

When there are no ladies in the family, the Cabinet officer issues the invi 
tation in his own name, and it is customary to invite a lady relative to receive 
with him. 



RECEPTIONS. 63 

Another form is : 

The Postmaster General and Mrs at home on 

evenings, at o clock. 

(Residence.) 

These invitations are engraved and printed on cards and enclosed in en 
velopes, sometimes a personal card bearing the official title of the Cabinet 
Minister receiving and another card bearing the name of his wife are also 
enclosed. This is not necessory. The invitations are either delivered by 
messenger or by post, and require no reply. 

The cards of a Cabinet Minister and his wife are as follows : 

THE SECRETARY OF 

THE POSTMASTER GENERAL 
Mrs 

(Receiving day.) (Residence.) 

As a rule persons calling upon a member of the Cabinet, on New Year s 
day, and leaving a card, if known, are invited to one of his Card Receptions. 

A person who is known and who would naturally be entitled to such con 
sideration, but who was not in the city at the time indicated, or was otherwise 
prevented from leaving a card, might properly enclose his card to the minister 
after returning to the city, or might make a personal call, leaving a card. His 
ladies should leave their own and his cards at one of the Cabinet Lady s 
Drawing Rooms. 

As an exception to the rule and for some special reason of acquaintance or 
otherwise, it would be proper for a person, of suitable social relations at 
home, to ask an invitation. It would be better to have some well-known 
official, or other person, to make the request, as it is important to know the 
peculiar circumstances which cause the request to be made, and these could be 
better stated than written. It is customary to reserve a few invitations for 
such cases, but their issuance is exceptional and only made proper by the 
supposed or conceded proprieties of the occasion for asking them. 

To avoid over-crowding at the card receptions of a Cabinet Minister, the 
plan has been frequently adopted of dividing up the number of invitations to 
be sent out, so as to have in attendance at one time only a sufficient number 
to conveniently suit the accommodations at command. The few more inti 
mate personal friends receive cards to all the receptions given. By thus 
taking up the list in regular sequence everyone suitable to be invited has 
recognition, and the enjoyment of the evening is greatly increased. 

The number of people of good society at home, who visit the Capital during 
the fashionable season, has grown to such dimensions that some plan will be 
necessary, sooner dr later, to meet the emergency of over-crowding. 



64 CABINET DINNERS. 

It has been suggested as a means of relief to Cabinet Ministers, and 
especia^y those who occupy limited quarters, to use the suite of apartments 
set apart for their official quarters These, with the spacious corridors adja 
cent, would afford ample accommodations, without trespassing upon the 
rooms used by the administrative offices. The custom of giving state balls, 
dinners and entertainments in the public Departments is the rule rather 
than the exception, at the capitals of foreign nations. As these receptions are 
for the social enjoyment of the people, residents or visitors, the use of the 
public Departments at Washington as suggested, certainly would not be out 
of place. 

CABINET DINNERS. The members of the Cabinet entertain each other 
at a formal dinner at least once during the season. These entertainments 
also frequently include Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States 
and Senators and Representatives, and persons in official and unofficial life, as 
the host may select. While the season of gaiety begins with the New Year s 
calls and ends with the first day of Lent, the giving of dinners continues as 
occasion may suggest. 

The forms of invitations most in vogue in the Cabinet circle for dinners , 

The Secretary of and Mrs request the pleasure of your 

company at dinner evening, at o clock. An early answer 

is desired. (Residence.) 

The words "an early answer is desired" is not necessary for those accus 
tomed to good society, and might be omitted. 

When there is no lady to do the honors of the house, no ladies are in 
vited, and the invitation is in the name of the Cabinet Minister only. 

These invitations are sent out at least a week in advance, and should be 
accepted or declined, without being requested to do so, within two days after 
received. 

The \isualf0rtn of acceptance is ; 

Secretary or Mr. and Mrs have the honor to accept the invitation 

of the Secretary of and Mrs to dinner on evening. 

Or if declined some reason should be succinctly given. 

It is not exceptional for a Cabinet Minister to give a dinner during the sea 
son to the President. On such an occasion the guests must be of appropriate 
rank or social eminence. The President is present in his individual char 
acter. 

OFFICIAL RECEPTIONS. Each member of the Cabinet, after the re 
ception of the Cabinet and Diplomatic Corps by THE PRESIDENT on New 
Year s day, receives calls of officials and others at his own -residence. 



DEPARTMENTAL RANK. 65 

DEPARTMENTAL BUREAU RANK. The order of precedence of a 
Bureau in an Executive Department is fixed by the order of its organization, 
and where the chief office is filled from civil life, the officer takes rank accord 
ingly. If the chief office is filled by a military or naval officer by assignment, 
the order of the chief officer on ceremonial occasions is regulated by his 
military, naval, or assimiliated rank. 

An assistant or deputy Bureau officer unless holding the President s com 
mission, or the chief clerk of a Bureau has no official or social status by virtue 
of his position. If acting in the chief place by authority of the President, 
the person so acting is entitled, for the time being, to all the official and social 
privileges and prerogatives of the chief officer. 

A chief clerk of an executive Department in the scale of departmental pre 
cedence while enjoying only a quasi-official status, would naturally take posi 
tion if invited in the suite of the Department to which he belongs. The 
chief clerk is practically the executive officer in matters of the internal routine 
of the Department, and frequently acts directly in such matters where there 
is no assistant secretary, " By order of the Secretary. " 

It is not unusual for a Committee of Congress to recognize a chief clerk in 
the consideration of estimates, but only however with the acquiescence or 
assent of the Head of the Department. 

The later claims for recognition in official society are based on the inclusion 
of chief clerks of Departments in the invitations to four receptions given by 
President Hayes to the members of the Executive and Legislative branches 
of the government. This applied, however, to Departmental recognition only, 
and was unusual and exceptional. 

CORRESPONDENCE. All official communications addressed to the head 
of any of the great Executive Departments, as well as enclosures, should be 
free from abbreviations, and written on cap paper, leaving an inch margin 
on each side of the page. If there be any enclosures, the fact should be 
noted at the upper left hand corner of the first page of the sheet, as follows : 
(Number of Enclosures) 

(Place) (Date) 18 * 

Sir: (Or if more than one person addressed) Gentlemen; 

(Body of letter.) 

I have the honor to be your obedient servant, or 
Very respectfully, (or Respectfully,) 



To the Secretary of 

Washington, D. C. 



66 BUREAU TITLES. 

The form of official superscription is by official title only. 

To the Secretary of Washington, D. C. 

To the Postmaster General, 

In correspondence combining an official and personal character, the address 
should be 

To the Honorable 

Attorney General, 

Washington, D. C. 

In replying to an official communication always give the date of the com 
munication being answered, and avoid abbrevfations. 

BUREAU TITLES. It is improper, though quite common, to address 
the Chief of a Bureau, or any other official holding a subordinate office, by 
the title Honorable. This alone belongs to the chief of the Department. It 
is equally improper to address any official by name, in an official communi 
cation. The official designation established by the law creating the office, 
should alone be used, for instance, the Treasurer of the United States; The 
Assistant Secretary of ; &c., Washington, D. C. 

This saves delay and misunderstanding. It frequently occurs that an 
official communication addressed to the official by name is treated as personal, 
arid in his absence delays public business. If addressed to the official title of 
the officer, as it should be, the communication would receive immediate 
attention. Should the communication have a personal character, it would be 
proper to use the simple name of the individual, followed by the official title 
of his office, as 



First Assistant Postmaster General, 

Washington, D. C. 

A Bureau officer, if a civil appointment, may be addressed in conversation 
by the official designation of his office, as Mr. Commissioner, Mr. Comp 
troller, &c. It is less formal to address him by the title to which he had a 
right before entering official life. 

OBSEQUIES. Upon Ihe demise of the head of any of the great Execu 
tive Departments of the National Government in office, it is customary to in 
form the President at the earliest moment, and by his direction an official 
public announcement of the fact is made. The Department over which he 
presided is closed until after the interment, the main entrances to the building 
are draped in mourning, which remains for thirty days. The flags on all Ex 
ecutive buildings are placed at half staff until after the funeral. On the day 
of the obsequies in the city and final interment all Executive Departments are 



OBSEQUIES. 67 

closed. THE PRESIDENT makes a visit of condolence or sends an appropriate 
note of condolence by his private secretary to the family of the deceased. The 
members of the Cabinet and other high officials, as well as a committee of the 
two houses of Congress, if in session, should leave cards of condolence. 

The funeral services are at the residence or church, as the family may de 
cide. The pall bearers are selected with reference to the rank of the deceased. 
The escort of honor from the military and marine garrisons at the Capital are 
ordered out to participate with the civil, military and naval officers oi the Gov 
ernment, committees of Congress, if in session, civil organizations and citizens 
in the funeral cortege. (See Military and Naval Funeral ffcnors.) 

In the event of the death of an ex-member of the Cabinet, THE PRESIDENT, 
upon being apprised of the fact, directs, through the Head of the Depart 
ment or Departments over which the deceased at any time presided, that pub 
lic business be suspended on the day of the funeral, the placing of the flags 
at half staff on all Executive buildings until after the funeral, and the draping 
of the Department in mourning for thirty days. 

The form of public announcement is : 

DEPARTMENT OF , WASHINGTON, 18.. . The President 

directs me to perform the sad duty of announcing to the people of the United 

States that , formerly Secretary of , and distinguished by 

faithful services in various public trusts, departed this life at o clock on 

the instant. 

As a mark of respect, it is hereby directed by the President that the De 
partment of be closed on , the day of the funeral, that the 

building be draped for thirty days, and that the flag be placed at half staff 

until after the funeral. f 

Secretary of State, 
or other officer designated by the President. 

It is also proper to review in succinct form the most important public 
trusts the deceased had filled. A member of the Cabinet should be present at 
the funeral to represent the Executive. 



THE PREMIER OFFICIAL AND CEREMONIAL DUTIES. 69 



THE SECRETARY OF STATE. 

The great Executive Departments of the National Government enjoy cer 
tain official prerogatives and social relations of a ceremonial character. 

OFFICIAL STATUS. "There shall be at the seat of government an Ex 
ecutive Department to be known as the Department of State, and a Secretary 
of State, who shall be the head thereof." Statutes, July 27 and September 
15, 1789. 

The Secretary of State is the head of the first of the Executive Depart 
ments and is The Premier of the administration. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES. The Secretary of State by statute performs such 
duties as may be entrusted to him by the President, relating to the U. S. 
Ministers and Consuls, negotiations with Foreign Public Ministers, has charge 
of the seal of the U. S., promulgates the laws of the U. S., and amendments 
to the Constitution, adopted, reports Consular commercial information, and 
furnishes authentic copies of acts and treaties for publication. 

CEREMONIAL DUTIES. In addition to the obligations, official and 
social, which the Secretary of State holds in common with his colleagues of the 
Executive arm of the Government, he has also charge of all State ceremonies, 
such as the greeting in the name of THE PRESIDENT of all Royal visitors, 
arranges the audiences accorded by the President to the Diplomatic Repre 
sentatives of Foreign Governments, upon the presentation of their creden 
tials, or upon their calls of leave or withdrawal, also the audiences accorded 
Foreign visitors in a representative capacity. He is also the medium of 
correspondence between the President and the Chief Executives of the several 
States of the United States. 

He also performs such other ceremonial functions in which THE PRESIDENT 
is the principal. In fact he is, in a Republican sense, the High Chamberlain 
of the Executive. 

The Secretary of State issues in behalf of the President the invitations to 
the Diplomatic Corps to attend the New Year s reception at the Executive 
mansion. 

The following is the form he observes for such an occasion : 

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, 1., 1.8.. 

The Secretary of State presents his compliments to the Minister, 

and has the honor to inform him that THE PRESIDENT would be pleased to 



70 THE SECRETARY OF STATE CEREMONIAL DUTIES. 

see the members of the Legation at a reception to be given to the 

members of the Diplomatic Corps, at the Executive mansion, at 1 1 o clock on 
New Year s day. 

The Secretary of State has at times issued in the name of the President the 
invitations to the receptions in honor of the Diplomatic Corps given at the 
Executive Mansion. Sometimes, however, these have been issued directly, 
in the name of the President, from the Executive Mansion. The form of in 
vitation is the same in either case. 

The invitations are extended to those entitled to receive them "to meet the 
Diplomatic Corps " as the guests of the nation through the Executive, and not 
to meet THE PRESIDENT. 

President Hayes, in his invitations to a reception given to the Diplomatic 
Corps, included only high officials holding his commission, the presiding 
officers of the Senate and House of Representatives, Senators and Represent 
atives of the Committees on Foreign Relations and Affairs, and military offi 
cers of the rank of Colonel, and naval officers of the rank of Captain and 
above. The official social honors due to a Diplomatic Minister representing 
a sovereign government on a ceremonial occasion should be in keeping. The 
limitation was due to the ceremonial relations of a Diplomatic Minister. This 
was an excellent discrimination, and greatly added to the dignity and enjoy 
ment of the occasion. 

The Secretary of State formerly issued calls for a special meeting of the 
Cabinet in the following form ; 

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, WASHINGTON, D. C., 18... 

SIR: The President desires a meeting of the Heads of Departments at the 

Executive Mansion at o clock, 18 

To the Honorable 

An irregular method of calling a special meeting of the Cabinet is by tele 
phone directly from the President s office. 

DEPARTMENTAL BUREAU RANK. In its internal organization the 
Department of State is divided into two branches. 

The Diplomatic and Consular, and Departmental, as follows : 
The Foreign Diplomatic and Consular Service, including the Diplomatic Rep 
resentatives of Foreign countries in the United States in the order of 
precedence incident to the presentation of their credentials to THE PRESI 
DENT, and the consular officers of foreign governments, according to rank 
and date of exequators in that rank under their respective governments. 
The Diplomatic and Consular officers of the United States temporarily at the 
Capital, in accordance with their rank and the date of their commissions in 
such rank. 



THE SECRETARY OF STATE SOCIAL RELATIONS. J I 

The Departmental service includes the administrative officers in the follow 
ing order : 

The Secretary of State. 

The Assistant Secretaries in the order of their rank. 
The Assistant Attorney General for the Department of State. 
The Private Secretary to the Secretary of State. 

The chiefs of Bureaus in the Department and clerks have no official or 
social recognition by virtue of their positions. This is optional and ex 
ceptional. 

SOCIAL RELATIONS. The Secretary of State, by reason of the peculiar 
nature of his duties, has imposed upon him certain social duties not expected 
of his colleagues. During the season he entertains the Diplomatic Represent 
atives of Foreign governments and their ladies. This is either by a Diplo 
matic Reception or several Diplomatic Dinners, at which the guests are usually 
invited in the order of their length of residence near this government. In 
the discretion of the Secretary a few personal friends in official or social life 
may be invited. 

On these occasions the members of the Diplomatic Corps appear in full 
dress. 

The following is the form of invitation to a Diplomatic Dinner; 

The Secretary of State and Mrs request the pleasure of your com 
pany at dinner on evening, at o clock. 

These invitations are sent out at least one week in advance, and should be 
accepted or declined within twenty-four hours. 

The Secretary of State on New Year s day, after the conclusion of the cere 
monies at the Executive Mansion, retires to his own residence, where he en 
tertains at noon the members of the Diplomatic Corps and ladies at a break 
fast, after which he holds a reception. 

The following is the form of invitation sent to each Legation in Washington 
by the Secretary of State on these occasions : 

The SECRETARY OF STATE presents his compliments to the Minister of 

, and has the honor to inform him that he will be happy to 

receive the members of the Diplomatic Corps at his residence, on 

next, the 1st proximo, at twelve o clock noon. 

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, , 18.. 

For title, general prerogatives, honors, and official and social relations, etc., 
of the Secretary of State, see The Cabinet. 

CORRESPONDENCE. All official communications addressed to the 



72 THE DIPLOMATIC CORPS. 

Secretary of State, as well as inclosures, should be written in official form. 
(See Correspondence, The Cabinet. ) 

All dispatches from a legation or consulate of the United States must be 
numbered consecutively, beginning with the acknowledgment of the receipt of 
the commission and the acceptance of office, and continue during the term of 
the incumbent. 



THE DIPLOMATIC CORPS. 

On occasions of ceremony the Representatives of Foreign Powers in rela 
tions of amity with the United States are near THE PRESIDENT. Under his 
patronage they enjoy special privileges. 

The general rules governirg the prerogatives, powers and privileges of all 
Diplomatic Ministers which are reciprocal between nations will be found un 
der the head of Diplomatic Representatives of the United States. 

SOCIAL PRECEDENCE. The Diplomatic Corps in social affairs at the 
Capital constitutes a class of itself, and rarely mingles in the ordinary official 
society except within the circle of the Executive. There may be individual 
exceptions, but as a body the Diplomatic Corps confines its social relations to 
its own members, THE PRESIDENT, and Secretary of State. 

PERSONNEL. The personnel of the Diplomatic representation at Wash 
ington comprises all the principal and many of the lesser powers of the world. 

THE LEGATIONS. To prevent national rivalries the different foreign 
legations are officially designated in alphabetical order. 

The order of individual precedence is determined by seniority of residence 
at Washington. The representative having the longest period of consecutive 
residence dating from the time of presenting his credentials is known as the 
Dean or Doyen of the Diplomatic Corps, and wherever this brilliant assemblage 
appears in a body his place is at its head. He also presents his colleagues 
upon official or ceremonial occasions. 

DIPLOMATIC LIST. The Department of State issues an official list of 
the powers having regularly accredited representatives near the government of 
the United States, which is entitled "Foreign Legations in the United States," 
which is corrected whenever any change in the personnel of the Diplomatic 
Corps is made. This list, tabularly arranged, gives the names of the countries 
and dates of the presentation of the credentials of the Diplomatic Represent 
ative; full names and titles of the Ministers, Secretaries and attaches; 



THE DIPLOMATIC CORPS. 73 

their rank, their residences, and official location of the Legations. The names 
of all the ladies in the families of the Ministers and other members of the 
Legation in society are also given. 

The grade of the chief officer of a Foreign Legation is subject to changes 
under certain circumstances. There are no Diplomatic Ministers of the grade 
of Ambassador residing at Washington. The most usual grade is 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. 

There are also Ministers Resident and Charges d Affaires. 

The consular officers of a foreign state, temporarily in Washington, rank 
within their own Legations, and are governed by the social relations of their 
legations respectively. 

ARRIVAL OF A DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATIVE. Immediately 
upon his arrival the Diplomatic Representative of a foreign State communi 
cates the fact officially to the Secretary of State through his Secretary of 
Legation, or his representative in the Legation, who submits a copy of the 
letter of credence of his principal and asks an audience of THE PRESIDENT. 

A Diplomatic Representative of less grade and not accredited to THE 
PRESIDENT, such as Charge d Affaires, simply requests an audience of the 
Secretary of State, and when granted leaves his letter of credence with him. 

An Audience. The preliminaries having been arranged by the Secretary of 
State, and the time having been fixed for an audience, that official joins THE 
PRESIDENT at the Executive Mansion, generally in the Blue Parlor, on the 
day and at the hour named, usually meridian. The new minister is expected 
to arrive at the exact time. To have any delay which could be avoided would 
be an indignity to the President, or any delay at the Executive Mansion 
would be an indignity to the sovereign whose representative is to be received. 

Upon reaching the Executive Mansion the new Minister, accompanied by 
his suite in full dress, is ushered into the apartments in which THE PRESI 
DENT holds receptions of ceremony. He is received at the door by the 
Secretary of State, who presents him to THE PRESIDENT. After a bow of 
salutation and the presentation of his letters of credence to the President, the 
Minister delivers, in English or French, or the language of his own country, 
if not familiar with either of the two first named, a brief addres, referring to 
the friendly relations existing between his sovereign and the United States 
and other matters of a complimentary character, to which THE PRESIDENT 
replies in the same spirit. These addresses of etiquette are, as a rule, pre 
pared before hand. 

It is not uncommon on special occasions, such as the reception of an 
Embassy, for the ladies of the Executive Mansion and members of the 



74 THE DIPLOMATIC CORPS. 

Cabinet and their ladies to be present, but as a rule the President is attended 
only by the Secretary of State and perhaps one or two of the members of his 
Cabinet. 

The new minister and his suite, after a few moments conversation of a 
general character, withdraws, being accompanied to the door of the room 
by the Secretary of State, and to his carriage by the ushers. 

Termination of a Mission. When a Diplomatic Representative retires for 
any cause, an official notification is sent to the Secretary of State enclosing 
a copy of his letter of recall and asking an audience of the President for the 
purpose of taking leave. The same ceremony is then observed as for the 
arrival of a new minister. The retiring minister presents his letter of recall 
to THE PRESIDENT, accompanied by a suitable address, to which the Presi 
dent replies. Should the minister leave under a cloud these ceremonies are 
dispensed with. 

GENERAL PREROGATIVES OF DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTA 
TIVES. The general rules governing the Foreign Diplomatic Corps at 
Washington are substantially the same as those regulating the relations and 
intercourse of the Diplomatic officers of the United States at foreign courts. 
(See Diplomatic Corps of the United States.} 

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSIONS. Foreign members of an Inter 
national Commission upon their arrival call at the Department of State and 
present to the Secretary of State, through the Diplomatic Representative of 
their country, their authority to act. Upon the first meeting, immediately 
after organization, the members of such commission as a body call upon the 
Secretary of State, who accompanies them in a call of courtesy upon THE 
PRESIDENT. The day and hour of such a call is arranged before hand by the 
Secretary of State. The members of the Commission in their social relation 
are regarded as part of the legation of their country and rank with them. 

TITLES. The general official title to which a foreign Diplomatic Repre 
sentative is entitled is "Your Excellency" in conversation or correspondence, 
or "To His Excellency the ," in correspondence. 

The safest guide to the proper title of official and social address of a foreign 
Minister is that adopted by the official Diplomatic list of the Department of 
State, which is prepared from data furnished from the Legation itself. Diplo 
matic Representatives who have no title of royal orders, nobility, or of rank 
in the naval or military service of their own country are properly addressed 
as Mr. , or Mr. Minister, if the name is not used. 



THE DIPLOMATIC CORPS. 75 

SDCIAL RELATIONS. There are certain obligations of etiquette which 
are observed within the circle of the Executive and the Diplomatic Corps. 
The members of the Diplomatic Corps make a call of ceremony in a body 
upon a new President soon after his inauguration, also on New Year s day, 
and if occasion offers, such as are in the city, on Independence day. A 
newly arrived minister makes the first call upon the first opportunity after 
presenting his credentials in person, upon the Vice President, the Chief 
Justice, Senators, if he pleases, and members of the Cabinet, and receives the 
first call from all others. They make their annual calls, which, however, are 
optional, soon after the meeting of Congress. It is usual to attend the 
Drawing Rooms of the ladies in official life and leave a card, which answers 
for a formal call of etiquette 

The members of the Diplomatic Corps, in accordance with established rules 
of etiquette towards a sovereign, or member of a Royal family, make no per 
sonal calls upon such visitors at Washington, but simply leave a card. 

A Diplomatic Representative of a foreign country never calls upon THE 
PRESIDENT unless invited to do so or by special appointment. Intercourse 
with THE PRESIDENT must be through the Secretary of State. The Presi 
dent usually entertains the Diplomatic Corps once during the social season 
at a State Dinner. Tnis is in honor of the sovereigns of friendly States 
having a representation near this Government, and is not given to the Diplo 
matic Representatives as individuals. THE PRESIDENT accepts no invitation 
in return. 

All persons, exaept THE PRESIDENT, return the calls of newly arrived 
ministers, and ministers should return all calls of etiquette received from 
persons entitled by official rank or social or other marks of distinction to 
call upon them, 

SOCIAL INTERCOURSE. The members of the Diplomatic Corps are 
also governed by certain rules of etiquette, which usage has established among 
all Diplomatic ministers resident at the same court towards each other and 
towards the members of the Government near which they reside. Prominent 
among these are visits of etiquette exchanged between each other, and the 
omission of which might lead to embarrassments in the performance of their 
duties. 

DIPLOMATIC CODE OF ETIQUETTE. The following general rules 
of etiquette are observed by the members of the Diplomatic Corps at Wash 
ington : 

i. The rule of precedence among Diplomatic Representatives of the same 



76 THE DIPLOMATIC CORPS. 

grade is determined by seniority of presentation of credentials. The prece 
dence of the ladies of the corps follows the same rule. 

2. The last Minister to arrive calls upon all other Ministers of the same 
grade first, and receives the first call from all other* below his grade, who are 
entitled to call. A Diplomatic Agent of a lower grade than Envoy Extraor 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary calls upon those of higher grade first, 
without regard to his own arrival. The same rule is observed by the ladies 
of the family of the last arrival. 

3. When a Secretary of Legation or an attache arrives he is expected to 
leave his own card with the card of the Minister or Chief of his Legation on 
each member of the Diplomatic Corps. The card is returned by card or in 
person, according to grade and circumstances. The ladies of the families of 
Secretaries make the first call upon the wives of the Ministers or the presiding 
lady of the Legation. 

4. In ordinary social intercourse, interest, pleasure, rank, or congeniality 
regulates the social intimacy of members of legations. There are no rules 
of etiquette other than those in vogue in polite society. 

5. At dinner parties precedence is given to American guests. Members of 
the Diplomatic Corp take precedence according to seniority of residence at 
Washington. 

6. Secretaries of Legation and their ladies form part of the official house 
hold according to their rank. 

7. At the opening of the season it is optional but not customary for Diplo 
matic Ministers and their ladies to exchange formal visits among each other 
according to seniority of diplomatic residence near the Government of the 
United States. Sometimes international relations affect the social intercourse 
of Diplomatic Ministers. 

LEGATION LADIES. The social intercourse of ladies of Legations is 
regulated primarily within the Diplomatic circle, according to the seniority of 
Diplomatic residence of the Minister, or any contingent circumstances of rank 
or international relations which may produce exceptional conditions. 

The ladies ot the Diplomatic Corp, unless some exceptional reasons super 
vene, make cal s of etiquette upon each other at the beginning of each season, 
in the order of seniority of Diplomatic residence. The ladies of the Legations 
make a few calls of etiquette outside the Diplomatic circle upon ladies of the 
families of the Vice- President, Senators, Supreme Court, Cabinet, or the 
Military or Naval circles, as their tastes or inclinations or interests may 
prompt. 

It was formerly the custom for ladies of the Cabinet to make the first call 
upon the chief ladies of the Legations. 



THE DIPLOMATIC CORPS 77 

The ladies of the Legation never call upon the wife of the President except 
by invitation. 

SOCIAL ENTERTAINMENTS. The social entertainments of the mem 
bers* of the Diplomatic corps are generally brilliant affairs. To all such enter 
tainments cards are issued in the usual form. 

Upon the occasion of the visit of a distinguished personage the Diplomatic 
Representative of the country, if the occasion be suitable, holds in his honor 
a reception, to which cards are issued to the higher officials of the different 
branches of the Government to the representatives of other friendly foreign 
States and to such personal acquaintances in private life as he may wish. 

The following form of invitations are used by the Diplomatic Corps : 

In honor of an event of national importance: 

{National Escutcheon.} 

To celebrate the mairiage of 

His Majesty Don Alfonso XII, 

The Minister of Spain and Madame 

Request the honor of company on evening at o clock. 

His Majesty s Legation will be in uniform. 

In honor of the presence of a distinguished guest : 

The Minister of and Madame 

Request the honor of your company 

To meet the on the 

Evening of the of 

at o clock. (Address) 

Invitations to an evening reception: 

The Japanese Minister and Mrs 

At Home on evening, 

o clock. (Address) 

Lady at home evening 

Dancing o clock Legation. 

Madame At home evening Legation o clock. 

An invitation to dinner : 

The Minister Requests the pleasure of s Company at 

Dinner, on at o clock. 

These invitations are sometimes written in French. 



78 THE DIPLOMATIC CORPS. 

STATE CEREMONIES. The Diplomatic Corps as a body is expected 
to participate in all State ceremonials as part of the suite of the Executive. 

FUNERAL SERVICES. On the death of a chief member of a Foreign 
Legation formal announcement is made by the Secretary of Legation or olher 
proper person to the Dean of the Corps and the colleagues of the deceased, 
and to the Secretary of State. 

The Secretary cf State designates an official of the Department to attend 
the funeral, or to accompany him if present himse f. He al o requests of the 
Secretary of the Navy a detail of marines to act as an escort of honor at the 
funeral. 

The Dean of the Corps confers with the Ministers, who take suitable action. 

Invitations, according to the custom of the country of the deceased, are sent 
to the following persons, asking them to assist at the services and stating the 
time and place : THE PRESIDENT, the Members of the Cabinet, the Members 
of the Diplomatic Corps, the Members of the Senate Committee on Foreign 
Relations and House Committee on Foreign Affairs and others entitled to 
the same. THE PRESIDENT may be present or may be represented by a 
member of his Cabinet. 

The pall bearers are usually selected from the members of the Diplomatic 
Corps. The services are confined to the ritual of the church of the deceased 
and a funeral sermon. 

The following is the general form of announcement; 

Le Ministre de (ou Le Secretaire de la Legation de ) vous prie 

d assii ter au servire funebre du comte Secretaire de la Legation de 

(ou Le Ministre de) qui aura lieu a 1 Eglise de le a 

heures du matin. 

This invitation, according to the forms of European countries is printed on 
a card with a broad black border and enclosed in a white envelop with a wide 
border of black. 

MOURNING. The members of the Diplomatic Corps refrain from par 
ticipation in public festivities or social entertainments until after the funeral of 
a deceased Minister or Secretary of high rank. They then observe a season 
of mourning from five to ten days or longer, as may be determined, according 
to the rank of the deceased. 

MEMORIAL SERVICES. The death, of a sovereign, a member of a 
Legation, or a near relative, is the occasion of a season of mourning. It is 
customary to extend invitations to the higher officials, the members of the 
Diplomatic Corps and personal friends to be present at a funeral service. 



THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE. 79 

On the deith of his sovereign the Diplomatic Representative issues invita 
tions in the following form : 

The Legation informs that the commemorative services for His 

Majesty, the late King , will take place on , the inst., at , 

in the church of , and requests the honor of his presence. 



THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE OF THE 
UNITED STATES- 

There is no legislation nor judicial authority recognized by all nations 
which determines the law that regulates the reciprocal relations of States. 
There may be understandings by conventions between States, but only binding 
as between the parties in interest. 

ROYAL HONORS. International law in Europe has attributed to certain 
States what are called Royal honors, which entitles them to the first rank, with 
certain other distinctive titles and ceremonials. Formerly the great Republics 
of the United Netherlands and Venice were assigned Royal honors, but 
yielded precedence to Emperors and reigning Kings. The United States of 
America have never claimed Royal honors, but would be entitled to them. 

RULES OF PRECEDENCE. The Rules of Precedence of Diplomatic 
Representatives of the United States in foreign countries which have been 
prescribed by the Department of State "are the same as those contained in 
the seven rules of the Congress of Vienna, found in the protocol of the session 
of March 9, 1815, and in the supplementary or eighth rule of the Congress of 
Aix la Chapelle of November 21, 1818," as follows: 

ARTICLE I. Diplomatic agents are divided into three classes : Th?.t of am 
bassadors, legates or nuncios ; that of envoys, ministers or other persons 
accredited to sovereigns, and that ot charges d affaires accredited to ministers 
for foreign affairs. 

ARTICLE II. Ambassadors, legates or nuncios only have the representative 
character. 

ARTICLE III. Diplomatic agents on an extraordinary mission have not, on 
that account, any superiority of rank. 

ARTICLE IV. Diplomatic agents shall take precedence in their respective 
classes, according to the date of the official notification of their arrival. The 
present regulation shall not cause any innovation with regard to the repre 
sentative of the Pope. 



80 THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE. 

ARTICLE V A uniform mode shall be determined in each State for the 
reception of diplomatic agents of each class. 

ARTICLE VI. Relations of consanguinity or of family alliance between 
courts confer no precedence on their diplomatic agents. The same rule also 
applies to political alliances. 

ARTICLE VII. In acts cr treaties between several powers which grant 
alternate precedence the order which is to be observed in the signatures shall 
be decided by lot between the ministers. 

ARTICLE VIII. It is agreed that ministers resident accredited to them shall 
form, with respect to their precedence, an intermediate class bet ween ministers 
of the second class and charge d affaires. 

DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UNITED STATES. 

1. Ambassadors. The United States of America have never given the title 
of Ambassador to a Diplomatic Representative, though the Constitution 
authorizes such an appointment. The act of August 18, 1856, recognizes 
ambassadors, but no distinction is made between them and envoys. 

2. Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary. 

3. Ministers Resident and Charge d" 1 Affaires. The former are accredited to 
sovereigns, the latter to Ministers of Foreign Affairs ad hock by original 
appointment, or per interim during the minister s absence. 

Each State has power to determine the rank of its diplomatic agent. It 
is customary to send equals in rank. 

OFFICIAL STATUS The offices and titles Ambassador and Public 
Minister are recognized in the Constitution of the United States, but simply 
for appointment. Unlike other constitutional offices, they are not specially 
assigned any constitutional powers or duties They represent the executive 
power in dealing directly with affairs of "foreign states. Their duties are 
statutory and their power to act comes by direction of THE PRESIDENT, 
through the Secretary of State. 

LETTER OF CREDENCE. Every Ambassador, Envoy or Minister 
Resident, to entitle him to his rank, must be furnished with a letter of 
credence addressed by THE PRESIDENT of the United States to the sovereign 
or chief magistrate of the State to which he is delegated. 

In the case of a Charge d" 1 Affaires the letter is addressed by the Secretary 
of State to the Secretary of State or Minister for Foreign Affairs of the gov 
ernment to which delegated, and may be in the form of a Cabinet Letter or 
Letter of Council. The latter is signed by THE PRESIDENT and is sealed with 
the seal of State. The minister is furnished with an authenticate copy, to 



THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE. 8 1 

be delivered to the Minister for Foreign Affairs, in asking an audience of the 
sovereign or other chief magistrate of the State to which he is sent. The 
Letter of credence generally states the general object of the mission, and re 
quests that full faith and credit may be given to what he shall say on the part 
of his government. 

INSTRUCTIONS. The instructions of the Minister are for his own 
direction, and are not to be communicated to the government to which he is 
accredited, unless ordered to do so by his own government either in cxtenso 
or partially, or unless in his discretion he deems it expedient to do so. 

PASSPORTS. A public minister proceeding to his destined post in time 
of peace is provided with a passport from his own government. In time of 
war he is provided with a safe conduct or passport from the government of 
the State with which his own country is in hostility to enable him to travel 
securely through its territories. 

ARRIVAL AT POST. Upon arriving at his post it is the duty of every 
public minister to notify his arrival to the Minister of Foreign Affairs. If of 
the first class this notification is usually communicated by a Secretary of 
Embassy or Legation or other person attached to the mission, who hands the 
authenticated copy of the letter of credence to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
at the same time requesting an audience of the sovereign for his principal. 

A minister of the second class generally notifies his arrival by letter to the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs requesting him to take the orders of the sovereign 
as to the delivery of the letter of credence. 

A Charge d Affaires who is not accredited to the sovereign notifies his arrival 
in the same manner, at the same time requesting an audience of the Minister 
of Foreign Affairs for the purpose of delivering his letter of credence. 

AUDIENCE. An Ambassador or other public minister of the first class 
is entitled to the public audience of the sovereign, but this ceremony is not 
necessary to enable him to enter on his functions as a public minister. The 
ceremony of the solemn entry, formerly practiced with respect to this class of 
ministers, is now usually dispensed with. He is received in a private audi 
ence in the same manner as other ministers. At this audience the letter of 
credence is delivered and the minister pronounces a complimentary discourse, 
to which the sovereign replies. In republican States the minister is received 
in a similar manner by a Chief Executive, Magistrate or Council charged 
with the foreign affairs of the nation. 

DIPLOMATIC ETIQUETTE. Usage has established a certain etiquette 
to be observed by the members of the Diplomatic Corps resident at the same 
6 



32 THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE. 

court towards each other and towards the members of the government to 
which they are accredited. The neglect of th ese would occasion inconvenience 
in the performance of more serious and important duties. Among these 
social duties are visits of etiquette, which must be rendered and reciprocated 
between public ministers to the same court. 

PRIVILEGES OF A PUBLIC MINISTER. From the moment he 
enters the territory of the State to which he is sent, during the time of his 
residence and until he leaves the country, a minister is entitled to exemption 
from the local jurisdiction. His person is sacred and inviolable He is by 
the doctrine of extra- territoriality supposed to remain within the territory and 
subject to the laws of his own country. He is exempt from the local juris 
diction. Personal exemption is also extended to the wife, family, servants 
and suite of the minister. Secretaries of Embassy and Legation are especially 
exempt as official persons. The minister s personal effects and movables, 
and also his dwelling hpuse, are exempt, but other real property, immoveable, 
which he possesses within the foreign territory is subject to its laws and 
jurisdiction. Messengers and couriers are exempt. The person and personal 
effects of the minister are not liable to taxation He is exempt from the pay 
ment of duties on the importation of articles for his own personal use and 
family. This is now generally limited to a fixed sum during the continuance 
of the mission. He also enjoys freedom of religious worship. 

TERMINATION OF A MISSION. The mission of a Diplomatic 
minister residing at a foreign court or attending a Congress of Ambassadors 
may terminate as follows : 

1. By expiration of the duration of the mission or the return of the minister 
where constituted ad interim only. In neither case is a formal recall necessary. 

2. When the objects of the mission shall have been fulfilled. 

3. By the recall of the minister. 

4. By the decease or abdication of the sovereign or chief magistrate to 
whom he is accredited. In both the letter of credence must be renewed. 

5. When the minister, on account of violation of the law of nations, or any 
important incident in the course of his negotiations, assumes the responsibility 
of declaring his mission terminated. 

6. When on account of the minister s misconduct or the measures of his 
government the court at which he resides thinks fit to send him away without 
waiting for his recall. 

7. By change in the diplomatic rank of the minister. 

Under all the above the minister remains entitled to all the privileges of 
his public character until his return to his own country. 



THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE. 83 

LETTER OF RECALL. A formal letter of recall is sent to the minister. 

1. Where the object of his mission has been accomplished or failed. 

2. Where he is recalled from motives which do not affect the friendly 
relations of the two governments. 

AUDIENCE OF LEAVE. In these cases nearly the same formalities 
are observed as on the arrival of the minister. He delivers a copy of his 
letter of recall to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, and asks an audience of the 
sovereign for the purpose of taking leave. At this audience the minister 
delivers the original letter of recall to the sovereign with a complimentary 
address adapted to the occasion. 

If the minister be recalled on account of misunderstanding between the 
two governments the circumstances must determine whether the formal letter 
of recall is to be sent him or whether he may quit the residence without 
waiting for it, or whether the minister is to demand and whether the sovereign 
is to grant him an audience of leave. 

Where the diplomatic rank of the minister is raised or lowered and he is to 
remain as minister he presents a letter of recall and a letter of credence in his 
new character. 

DEATH OF A MINISTER. Where the mission terminates by the death 
of the minister his body is to be appropriately interred, or it may be sent 
home for interment. The external religious ceremonies must depend upon 
the laws and usages of the place. The Secretary of Legation, Consul, where 
authorized by treaty, or if none, the minister of some allied power places the 
seals upon his effects, (and the local authorities have no right to interfere 
unless in case of necessity) to be sent home or acted upon according to the 
usages of his own country. The widow and family, according to custom, 
and domestics are allowed for a limited time the immunities enjoyed during the 
minister s lifetime. The Secretary of Legation becomes ipso facto in charge 
until other provisions are made. 

It is the custom of some courts to give presents to foreign ministers upon 
recall and other special occasions. The law of the United States prohibits 
their acceptance. 

CARDS. The cards of Diplomatic Representatives should contain, if they 
be entitled to the same, the military or naval as well as Diplomatic Rank, as: 
Le General , 

Envoys Extraordinaire et Ministre Plenipotentiare des Etas Unis de 
1 Amerique en . 



g 4 THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE. 

Le General de Brigade . 

Attache a la Legation des Etats Unis d Amerique. 

Le General , 

Rue . 



Mr. , 

Minister Resident of the United States. 

NAVAL HONORS. (See military and naval honors}. The honors paid 
to a Diplomatic Representative of the United States in the nature of a salute, 
on a visit of etiquette to a foreign vessel of war, in a foreign port, should be 
returned by a vessel of war of the United States, if in the port at the time. 

PRESENTATION AT A FOREIGN COURT. The court code prescribes 
who of the subjects of the crowned head are eligible for presentation. This 
privilege is confined exclusively to certain classes, and excludes the trades 
people and artisans. Rare exceptions have occurred where some circumstance 
of affluence, powerful relationship or act of heroism has conferred this honor 
on the latter. 

Citizens of the United States desiring presentation generally apply to the 
Minister of the United States, who complies with the required form. The 
number who can be presented at one time is limited to two or three. 

Any proper person who has a friend entitled to presentation can secure the 
privilege through him. 

The form of application is for the minister to leave a card with his own 
name and of the persons to be presented by him at the Lord Chamberlain s 
office before 12 m., two days before the levee. A letter from the minister or 
person to present them must accompany the card, stating that he will be 
present. These are submitted to the sovereign, and if approved notification 
is given or found at the Lord Chamberlain s office. 

Directions for a* riving are usually announced in the public prints. 

It is necessary for gentlemen to wear the costume dictated by the court code, 
otherwise they will not be admitted. These, if not owned, can be hired for 
the occasion. The styles often vary in different countries, but inquiry will 
readily settle that point. Ladies must be attired in full evening toilette. 

On entering the Royal residence a lady accompanied by her escort leaves her 
carriage in the costume in which she will appear on presentation. She carries 
her train over her left arm until she reaches the audience chamber ; here she 
drops her train, which is arranged by the wands of Lords in waiting. She 
advances towards the Royal presence, and hands her card to a Lord in wait 
ing, who announces her name aloud. Reaching the Royal presence she 



86 THE CONSULAR SERVICE. 

makes a deep obeisance and also a courtesy to each of the other members of 
the Royal family present, and then moves towards the door of exit indicated, 
but without removing her face from the Royal presence until passing out of 
the chamber. 

TITLES. The titles of Royalty and Nobility vary in different countries, 
and are only acquired by diligent observation on the part of Americans 
required to use them. 



THE CONSULAR SERVICE. 

Consular officers not being accredited to the sovereign or Minister of 
Foreign Affairs are not entitled to the peculiar privileges of public ministers. 
No State is bound to admit them unless stipulated in treaty. They must be 
approved and admitted by the local sovereign, and if guilty of illegal and 
improper conduct are liable to have the exequatur granted them withdrawn, 
and may be punished by the laws of the State in which they reside, or may be 
sent back to their own country, at the discretion of the government offended. 
They are subject to local law the same as other foreign residents owing 
temporary allegiance to the State. 

Consular officers of the United States in Pagan countries are accredited and 
treated as Diplomatic Representatives. 

OFFICIAL STATUS. The office and title of Consul is recognized in the 
Constitution of the United States, but simply for appointment. The office 
carries with it no specially stated constitutional authority, nor any constitu 
tional duties. The powers of Consuls are defined by statute and regulated by 
international law. The performance and character of their duties is by direc 
tion of THE PRESIDENT, through the Department of State. 

ORDER OF PRECEDENCE. Consular officers of the United States 
rank as follows : i. Agents and Consuls General; 2. Consuls General ; 3. 
Consuls, according to class ; 4 Consular agents; 5. Commercial agents; 6. 
Consular clerks. 

The vice consular officer ranks immediately below his chief officer, but has 
in no case precedence of full rank, except when acting temporarily for his 
chief, and then only in that rank. 

Where there is a Consul General in the country that officer is the im 
mediate superior of the Consul, and through him all official correspondence 
with the Diplomatic Representatives of the United States must be conducted. 



THE CONSULAR SERVICE. 87 

Where there is no Consul General in the country the consuls hold these 
relations. 

PREROGATIVES. The law of nations does not accord to consuls as 
such, a representative or diplomatic character, and hence they have no right of 
extra-territoriality nor privileges enjoyed by diplomatic agents. 

After the granting of an exequatur they are under the special protection cf 
the law of nations, and may raise the flag and place the arms of the United 
States over their consulates. The actual papers and archives of the consulate 
are exempt from seizure or detention, and if citizens of the United States, 
under certain restrictions, Consuls are exempt from personal duties toward the 
local government. 

A consul is entitled to all the privileges enjoyed by his predecessors, unless 
specifically withdrawn, and he may claim the privileges enjoyed by other 
Consuls unless they are accorded by special treaty. 

Various immunities, privileges and powers have been accorded consular 
officers of the United States under treaties and conventions with certain 
foreign government*. 

TAKING CHARGE. As soon as practicable after the arrival of a Consul 
General or Consul at the place of his official residence, he notifies the Diplo 
matic Representative of the United States resident in the country, if there be 
one, of the fact. According to the usage of the Department the Consular 
Commission, with the necessary instructions to apply lor the exequatur, is sent 
to the Legation of the United States. If there be no such Legation in the 
country the Commission is sent to the Consul direct, who without delay 
transmits it to the proper department and requests an exequatur. In either 
case he must inform, in proper terms, the authorities of the port or district 
in which his consulate is situated, of his appointment. If they accord their 
consent to his acting officially before the arrival of his exequatur he is author 
ized to act. 

As soon as his exequatur is received he must make it known in the manner 
usual in the country. 

The arms of the United States should be placed over the entrance to the 
consulate unless prohibited by the laws of the country, in which case the 
national flag must be hoisted daily for his protection and as the emblem of his 
authority. 

COURTESIES. It is the duty of the Consul General or Consul to accept 
the invitation and visit the flagship of a squadron, and to render his official 
services to the commander. 



88 THE CONSULAR SERVICE. 

A consular salute is fired while the officer is on board the vessel, which is 
unusual, or while he is being conveyed from the vessel to the shore. In the 
latter case he will face the vessel and at the end of the salute will acknowledge 
it by raising his hat. 

A Consul General receives the first visit in person from the commander of 
a vessel of the navy, who offers him a passage to the ship. 

A Consul or Consular Officer of a lower grade is visited by an officer of a 
vessel of the United States navy upon its arrival in port, and is tendered a 
passage to the ship. It is the duty of the Consular Officer to accept. He is 
entitled to the Consul s salute. 

He is entitled to one salute from a vessel of war of the United States while 
in port. (See naval honors to consular officers. ) 

SOCIAL RELATIONS. The official relations between officers of the 
consular and naval services of the United States do not require social atten 
tions which necessitate the expenditure of money on the part of the former 
towards the latter. These matters are left to the Consular Officer immediately 
concerned, and should he see fit to accord them he will not be reimbursed in 
any manner whatever by the government. With respect to the officials and 
people among whom he resides no social requirements are enjoined other than 
to maintain their good will and respect so that the honor of his government 
may be respected. 

CARDS. The consular card of ceremony should simply consist of the 
consular officer s name and military or naval rank, if entitled to the same, and 
the words Consul General, Consul or other rank, as the case maybe, "of the 
United States of America." This may be in English or in the language of 
the country. See "Cards" of American Ministers. 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY. 89 

SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY- 

The Secretary of the Treasury is the chief officer of the second of the great 
Executive Departments, and is the constitutional representative of the Presi 
dent in the administration of all matters relating to the finances, revenues and 
expenditures of the Government. 

OFFICIAL STATUS. There shall be at the seat of government an Ex- 
ecutive Department to be known as the Department of the Treasury, and a 
Secretary of the Treasury, who shall be the head thereof. Statute Sept. 2, 
1789. 

DEPARTMENTAL BUREAU PRECEDENCE. Within the limits of 
the Department there are certain Bureaus and grades of office, established 
by law and arranged in the order of importance of the duties performed or by 
seniority of enactment, as follows : 

The SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY, i. The Assistant Secretaries of the 
Treasury, according to rank. 2 The Comptrollers of the Treasury, according 
to rank. 3. The Commissioner of Customs. 4. The Auditors of the Treas 
ury, according to number. 5. The Treasurer of the United States. 6. The 
Register of the Treasury. 7. The Comptroller of the Currency. 8. The 
Commissioner of Internal Revenue. 9 The Solicitor of the Treasury. 10. 
The Director of the Mint. 11. The Chief of the Bureau of Statistics. 12. 
The General Superintendent of the Life Saving Service. 13. The Supervising 
Surgeon General of Marine Hospitals. 14. The Chief of the Bureau of En 
graving and Printing. 15. The Supervising Architect. 

The Deputies and Assistants of the different Bureaus, who are appointed 
by the President, take precedence in the same order. 

The officers of the Light House Board of the United States take rank in 
their distinctive branches of the service. 

The chief clerk and chiefs of divisions and other clerical employes of the 
Department have no official status and are not necessarily entitled to social 
recognition on account of their positions. 

OFFICIAL AND SOCIAL RELATIONS. The Secretary of the Treas 
ury enjoys official prerogatives and social relations and obligations in common 
with the other members of the Cabinet (except the Secretary of State), and 
the rules which apply to them apply to him. (See The Cabinet.) 



90 THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 

THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 

The Secretary of War is the chief officer of the third great Executive De 
partment, and is the regular constitutional organ of the President for the 
administration of the military establishment of the Nation; and rules and 
orders publicly promulgated through him are received as the acts of the 
Executive. 

OFFICIAL STATUS. There shall be at the seat of government an Ex 
ecutive Department to be known as the Department of War, and a Secretary 
of War, who shall be at the head thereof. Statute Aug. 7, 1789. 

DEPARTMENTAL BUREAU PRECEDENCE. The chief officers of 
the Administrative Bureaus of the Department are assigned from the army. 
When associated in ceremonial affairs with the head of the Department, these 
officers take precedence among themselves according to their military rank in 
the place of their staff departments as established by legislation, seniority of 
enactment, or usage, as follows: 

THE SECRETARY OF WAR. i. The Adjutant General. 2. The Inspector 
General. 3. The Judge Advocate General. 4. The Quartermaster General. 
5. The Commissary General of Subsistence. 6. The Surgeon General. 7. 
The Paymaster General. 8. The Chief of Engineers. 9. The Chief of 
Ordnance. 10. The Chief Signal Officer of the Army. The Civil Employees 
of the Department, such as the Chief Clerks and Clerks, have neither official 
nor social recognition on account of their positions. 

OFFICIAL AND SOCIAL RELATIONS. The Secretary of War is 
entitled to all the official and social consideration of a member of the Cabinet, 
but stands third in the order of precedence within the Executive circle. (See 
The Cabinet.} 

OBSEQUIES. On the death of a Secretary of War in office certain special 
military honors are prescribed. (See Funeral Honors, Army.} 



THE ARMY PRECEDENCE AND RANK. 9! 

THE ARMY. 

THE PRESIDENT is commander-in-chief of the army and all other land 
forces called into the service of the United States. 

ORDER OF RRECEDENCE. The Secretary of War does not compose 
part of the army, and therefore performs no duties in the field. He is the 
head of the administrative service of the army, and has control of its branches. 
Therefore on all ceremonial occasions his place is with the Cabinet of the 
President. 

Officers serving by commission from any State of the Union take rank next 
after officers of the same rank by commission of the United States. 

Officers of equal rank take precedence among each other according to 
seniority, unless otherwise specially provided. When the dates are the same 
precedence is decided by regulations. 

Officers of volunteers or militia take rank next after officers of like grade 
in the regular forces. 

Retired officers on occasions of ceremony are entitled to the privileges of 
their rank as if in active service, and are entitled to wear the uniform of the 
same. 

Brevet rank does not entitle an officer to precedence or command except by 
special assignment. 

MILITARY RANK. The following is the general order of precedence 
as determined by military rank : General, Lieutenant General, Major Gen 
eral, Brigadier General, Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel, Major, Captain, First 
Lieutenant, Second Lieutenant, Cadet. 

The following is the order of precedence as determined by rank within the 
respective branches of the military service : 

THE GENERAL. 

The Lieutenant General. 
Major-Generals, according to seniority. 
Brigadier Generals, according to seniority. 

The Staff Corp?, including officers who aid general officers in the perform, 
ance of their duties, and those who provide the needful supplies and minister 
to the various wants of the Army. Officers on duty on the staff take rank 
within its several branches, viz : The Adjutant General, Inspector General, 
Chief of the Bureau of Military Justice, Quartermaster General, Commissary 
General, Surgeon General, Paymaster General, Chief of Engineers, Chief of 
Ordnance, Chief Signal Officer, Post Chaplains. 



92 THE ARMY. 

The Field and Line take precedence according to rank and seniority of 
commission in their respective arms of the service. 

THE CAVALRY. 

Colonels, Lieutenant Colonels, Majors, Captains, First Lieutenants, 
Second Lieutenants. 

THE ARTILLERY. 

Colonels, Lieutenant Colonels, Majors, Captains, First Lieutenants, 
Second Lieutenants. 

THE INFANTRY. 

Colonels, Lieutenant Colonels, Majors, Captains, First Lieutenant, 
Second Lieutenants. 

The officers of the United States Military Academy rank with their grades 
on occasions of ceremony, either in general arrangement or at the Institution. 

Professors of Mathematics take rank next to officers performing similar 
duties and holding military rank. 

The order of precedence of officers of the staff is governed by the same 
rules applicable to officers in the line of command and in the same grades rank 
with and next to them. 

RELATIVE ORDER OF RANK. The relative order of precedence 
between officers of the army and navy is Admiral with General, Vice-Admiral 
with Lieutenant-General, Rear-admirals with Major-generals, Commodores 
with Brigadier-generals, Captains with Colonels, Commanders with Lieutenant- 
colonels, Lieutenant-commanders with Majors, Lieutenants with Captains, 
Masters with First Lieutenants, Ensigns with Second Lieutenants 

The staff or relative rank of military, naval and marine officers follows in 
the order attaching them to such rank. 

TITLES. The title of an officer of the army is regulated by his lineal or 
staff rank, or that of the rank under which he is actually serving, and by this 
he should be addressed in conversation or correspondence. 

THE GENERAL IN CHIEF. Upon the death of the commanding 
general the Secretary of War, "by direction of the President," announces 
the officer "assigned to the command of the Army of the United States." 
Upon this a general order of the War Department, Adjutant General s office, 
is published to the army, "by order of the Secretary of War, signed by the 
Adjutant General of the army. It is countersigned "official" and addressed 
to the Assistant Adjutant Generals of divisions and departments. The officer 
so assigned in general orders, &c., "assumes command of the army" and 
announces "the officers to compose the personal staff of the Major-General 
Commanding." 



THE ARMY SOCIAL COURTESIES AND MILITARY HONORS. 93 

SOCIAL COURTESIES. It is not unusual for the officers of the army on 
garrison duty at Washington to extend social civilities to the families and 
friends of officials and members of Congress. The following is the form of 
invitation used on such occasions : 

The officers of the army, 

Stationed at 

The Washington Barracks, 
Request the pleasure of the company of 



At their receptions on Saturdays, in , 

From till o clock p. m, 

Dancing. 

These receptions are usually held under the patronage cf the wife of the 
commanding officer or the chief lady of the garrison, assisted by the ladies of 
the families of the higher officers. The ladies of the family of the commander 
of the garrison hold Drawing Rooms on stated days during the season, from 3 
to 5 p. m. The other ladies are usually at home on that day. 

The General and other officers of the army and the ladies of their families 
enjoy social relations commensurate with their rank. The ladies of the Com 
manding General s family hold Drawing Rooms on stated days during the 
season between 3 and 5 p. m. 

MILITARY HONORS. The following are the honors, prescribed by 
regulations, to be paid by the troops to the officials or others named upon 
ceremonial occasions : 

THE PRESIDENT is saluted with the highest honors; all standards and 
colors dropping, officers and troops saluting, drums beating, trumpets sound 
ing, and bands playing the President s march. 

To the Vice President, to the Ch : ef Justice, the Members of the Cabinet, 
and Speaker of the House of Representatives of the United States, and to 
Governors, within their respective States and Territories, the same honors 
are paid as to a General commanding-in-chief. 

Officers of a foreign service visiting any post or station are complimented 
with the honors due to their rank. 

A Committee of Congress, American and foreign Envoys o* Ministers are 
received with the compliments due to a Lieutenant General. 

All guards and sentinels pay the same compliments to the officers of the 
navy, marines, volunteers and militia in the service of the United States as 
are directed to be paid to the officers of the army according to their relative 
ranks. 



94 THE ARMY MILITARY HONORS. 

The honors due to officers of the army in the performance of their duties or 
on occasions of ceremony among themselves are prescribed by army regula 
tions. 

SALUTES. The national salute is determined by the number of States 
comprising the Union, at the rate of one gun for each State. 

THE PRESIDENT of the United States receives a salute of twenty-one guns. 

The Vice President and President of the Senate, nineteen guns. 

The Chief Justice, the heads of the great Executive Departments of the 
National Government, the Speaker, a Committee of Congress, the General 
commanding the Army, the Governors of States and Territories, within their 
respective jurisdictions, seventeen guns. 

The Lieutenant General, fifteen guns. 

A Major General, thirteen guns. 

A Brigadier General, eleven guns. 

The sovereign or chief magistrate of a foreign country receives the salute of 
the President. Members of a royal family receive the salute due to their 
sovereign. 

The salute of a national flag is twenty-one guns in passing a fort. 

Foreign ships of war are saluted in return for a similar compliment, gun 
for gun, on notice being officially received of such intention. 

Officers of the Navy are saluted according to their relative rank. 

Foreign officers invited to visit a fort or post are saluted according to their 
relative rank. 

Envoys and ministers of the United. States and foreign powers are saluted 
with fifteen guns, Ministers Resident to the United States, thirteen guns; 
Charges d Affaires to the United States, eleven guns : Consuls General to 
the United States, nine guns. 

An officer assigned to duty according to a brevet receives the salutes due to 
the rank conferred by such brevet. 

A national salute is fired at meridian on the anniversary of the Inde 
pendence of the United States at military posts and camps provided with 
artillery and ammunition. 

ESCORTS OF HONOR. Escorts of honor are composed of cavalry or 
infantry, or both, according to circumstances. They are guards of honor for 
the purpose of receiving and escorting personages of high rank, civil and 
military. Their manoeuvres are prescribed in the tactics. An officer is ap 
pointed to attend the person so honored to bear such communications as he 
may have to make to the commander of the escort. 



THE ARMY FUNERAL HONORS. 95 

FUNERAL HONORS. On the receipt of official intelligence of the death 
of the President of the United States at any post or camp, the commanding 
officer, on the following day, causes a gun to be fired at every half hour, 
beginning at sunrise and ending at sunset. 

On the day of the interment of a Secretary of War, or General Command- 
ing-in-Chief, a gun is fired at every half hour until the procession moves, 
beginning at sunrise. 

When the funeral of a tivil functionary or officer entitled to a salute takes 
place at or near a military post, the flag is placed at half staff and minute 
guns are fired while the remains are being borne to the place of interment, 
but not to exceed the number of guns to which the deceased was entitled 
while living. After the remains are deposited in the grave a salute corre 
sponding with the rank, and salvos, are fired for military officers only. 

The same honors are paid to a flag officer of the navy of the United States 
or foreign countries afloat while being carried to the shore. If near a military 
post the flag is placed at half staff and minute guns are fired while the pro 
cession is moving to the grave. 

The. funeral escort Q{ a Se:retary of War, or a General Commanding-in-Chief, 
consists of a regiment of infantry, one battalion of cavalry and two batteries of 
artillery. 

Of a Lieutenant General, a regiment of infantry, a battalion of cavalry and 
one battery of artillery. 

Of a Major General, a regiment of infantry, two companies of cavalry and 
one battery of artillery. 

Of a Brigadier General, a regiment of infantry, one company of cavalry and 
one platoon of artillery. 

The pall-bearers, six in number, are selected from the grade of the deceased, 
or from the grade or grades next above or below it. 

Officers join in the procession in uniform and with side arms, and follow the 
coffin in the inverse order of their rank. The usual badge of military mourn 
ing is a piece of black crape around the left arm above the elbow, and also 
upon the sword hilt, and worn when in full or in undress uniform. 

The form of escorting a corpse to the grave is prescribed in the tactics. 

PUBLIC OBSEQUIES OF THE GENERAL. Upon the death of the 
general commanding the army the President of the United States is at once 
officially notified by an officer of the staff, through the Secretary of War. The 
President sends a communication to the Senate and House of Representatives, 
couched in feeling terms, announcing the death to the Congress and people of 
the United States, and also a note of condolence to the family. The President, 



g6 THE ARMY OBSEQUIES OF THE GENERAL. 

through his private secretary, directs that the national flag be displayed at half 
staff on all the buildings of the Executive Departments in Washington until 
after the funeral. The Secretary of War is summoned and receives the neces 
sary directions to issue a general order assigning an officer to the command of 
the army, who takes charge of the superintendence of the military arrange 
ments for the funeral. 

A general order from the War Department, Adjutant General s office, is 
issued to the army by the Secretary of War announcing the sad event in 
appropriate terms, narrating succinctly the chief events of the career of the 
departed, embodying the President s communication to Congress, ordering 
flags at half staff at all military posts and stations, and the firing of seventeen- 
minute guns on the day after the receipt of the order, and the v earing of the 
usual badges of mourning for thirty days. 

Each House of Congress, upon the receipt of the communication of the 
PRESIDENT, passes appropriate resolutions expressive of their grief over the 
event, ordering a copy of the resolutions to be sent to the family of the de 
ceased, appointing a committee (five Senators and seven Representatives) to 
confer together and with the family to take suitable co-operation in the public 
obsequies, and, as a "mark of respect," adjourns. Upon these resolutions 
brief remarks of a suitable character are made by the person submitting them 
and one other. 

It is proper for civil, military, or naval officers of high rank to leave cards 
of condolence at the residences, or send notes of a similar character. 

CORRESPONDENCE. The rules governing all official correspondence 
between a commander and his j uniors and military officers among themselves 
are prescribed by regulations. (See Correspondence, the Cabinet.} 



THE ATTORNEY GENERAL. 97 



THE ATTORNEY GENERAL. 

The Attorney General is the chief officer of the fourth Executive Depart 
ment. At first simply the legal adviser of THE PRESIDENT, as Attorney 
General, he is now the head of one of the Executive Departments (of Justice) 
with increased powers and duties, his advice and opinion being extended also 
to the chiefs cf the Executive Departments when requested. 

OFFICIAL STATUS. There shall be at the seat of government an Ex- 
eculive Department to be known as the Department of Justice, and an Attor 
ney General, who shall be the head thereof. Statutes September 24, 1789; 
June 22, 1870. 

DEPARTMENTAL BUREAU PRECEDENCE. The following is the 
order of precedence within the Department established by law. 

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL, 

The Solicitor General, The Assistant Attorney Generals according to the 
order of precedence of the Executive Department to which attached. 

The Solicitor of the Treasury. The Chief Clerk, chiefs of divisions and 
other clerks have no official or social relations by right of their positions. 

The Assistant Attorney Generals assigned to Executive Departments are 
entitled to position of Bureau officers on ceremonial occasions, and may par 
ticipate with the Departments to which they are assigned. 

The officers of courts under the administrative control of the Attorney Gen 
eral temporarily in Washington, should take precedence after the Attorney 
General, as follows: 

Circuit Judges and District Judges, according to seniority of commission 
respectively. 

District Attorneys and Marshals take precedence after the Solicitor of the 
Treasury, and in the order of seniority of commission respectively. 

OFFICIAL AND SOCIAL RELATIONS. In the order of precedence 
the Attorney General occupies the fourth place within the Executive branch 
of the Government. (See The Cabinet.} 



98 THE POSTMASTER GENERAL. 

THE POSTMASTER GENERAL. 

The Postmaster General represents the authority of THE PRESIDENT in 
the fifth great Executive Department, and exercises control over all officials 
and others belonging within its jurisdiction. 

OFFICIAL STATUS. There shall be at the seat of government and Ex 
ecutive Department to be known as the Post Office Department, and a Post 
master General, who shall be the head thereof. Statute May 8, 1794. 

DEPARTMENTAL PRECEDENCE. Under the jurisdiction of the 
Postmaster General are certain offices which have been established by law 
and take order with reference to the character and responsibility of their 
duties. Their accepted order is as follows : 

THE .POSTMASTER GENERAL. 

The Assistant Postmaster Generals according to grade, who also have 
authority in their order to perform the duties of Postmaster General. 

Postmasters holding the commission of THE PRESIDENT and in the city. 
This class of officers on ceremonial occasions would be entitled to recognition 
according to grade regulated by law, and take precedence next after a Bureau 
officer in their own Department. 

The chief officers of the important administrative branches of the general 
postoffice, acting under warrant of authority from the Head of the Depart 
ment, do not enjoy official recognition beyond the limits of the Department, 
nor social status by virtue of their positions. The Attorney General for the 
Post Office Department, also acting by the same departmental authority, does 
not take position with other officials of the same class, who act by commission 
from the President. 

The chief clerk, except in Departmental affairs, and chiefs of Divisions and 
other clerks, have no official status and are not entitled to social recognition 
on account of their positions. 

OFFICIAL AND SOCIAL RELATIONS. The Postmaster Generals 
joys, with other members of the Cabinet, certain official and social preroga 
tives, relations and obligations which are set forth in their proper places. 
(See The Cabinet.} 



100 THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY. 

THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY. 

The Secretary of the Navy is the chief officer of the sixth great Executive 
Department of the National Government. He is the constitutional represent 
ative of the President in the administration of the naval establishment of the 
nation, and all acts done by him in the name of the President must be executed 
and obeyed by those within the sphere of his legal and constitutional authority. 

OFFICIAL STATUS. There shall be at the seat of government an Ex 
ecutive Department to be known as the Department of the Navy, and a Sec 
retary of the Navy, who shall be the head thereof. Statute April 30, 1 798. 

DEPARTMENTAL BUREAU PRECEDENCE. The SECRETARY OF 
THE NAVY. The chief officers of Departmental Bureaus, are filled by assign 
ment from the navy. On occasions of ceremony with the head of the depart 
ment, these officers take precedence with respect to each other according to 
their naval rank, and not according to arrangement of Bureaus, which usually, 
however, take the order of the rank of their chief officer, as follows: I. Chief 
of the Bureau of Yards and Docks. 2. Of Equipment and Recruiting. 3. 
Of Construction and Repair. 4. Of Steam Engineering. 5. Of Navigation. 
6. Of Ordnance. 7. Of Provisions and Clothing. 8. Of Medicine and Surgery. 
9. Of Judge Advocate General. 

The officers of the United States Naval Observatory, Hydro graphic, Signal 
and Nautical Almanac offices take precedence according to their real or 
assimilated naval ratik. 

The Chief Clerk and clerks have neither official nor social relations by virtue 
of their positions. 

OFFICIAL AND SOCIAL RELATIONS. The Secretary of the Navy 
receives all the official and social consideration due to a member of the Cabinet, 
but stands sixth in order of precedence within the Executive branch of the 
Government. 

OBSEQUIES. On the death of a Secretary of the Navy, in office, certain 
special honors are prescribed. (See funeral honors, A r avy.) 



THE NAVY AND MARINE CORPS. IOI 

THE NAVY. 

THE PRESIDENT is the Commander- in-Chief of the Navy and all other 
naval forces called into the service of the United States. 

ORDER OF PRECEDENCE. The Secretary of the Navy is no part of 
the navy, and hence performs no duty other than administrative. On all cere 
monial occasions his place is with THE PRESIDENT. 

Officers of the same rank take precedence according to seniority. Officers 
of the volunteer navy take rank next after officers of the same grade in the 
navy. Retired officers of the navy, take precedence according to their rank in 
active service. 

NAVAL RANK. The following is the order of rank, actual and relative, 
of naval officers : 

OFFICERS OF THE LINE: Admiral, Vice Admiral, Rear Admirals, Com 
modores, Captains, Commanders, Lieutenant Commanders, Lieutenants, 
Masters, Ensigns, Midshipmen, Cadet Midshipmen. 

OFFICERS OF THE STAFF. Officers of the A r avy, not of the Line, take posi 
tion according to their relative rank in the navy below those in the line 

The relative rank between line officers and officers not of the line is regu 
lated by law as follows : 

Relative Rank of Captain Medical Directors, Pay Directors, Chief Engi 
neers, first 10; Naval Constructors, first 2 ; Chaplains, first 4. 

Of Commander Medical Inspectors, Pay Inspectors, Chief Engineers, 
next 15; Naval Constructors, next 3; Chaplains, next 7. 

Of Lieutenant Commander or Lieutenant Surgeons, Paymasters, Chief 
Engineers, next 45; Naval Constructors, remainder; Chaplains, next 7. 

Of Lieutenant or Master Passed Assistant Surgeons, Passed Assistant 
Paymasters, First Assistant Engineers, Assistant Naval Constructors. 

Of Master or Ensign Assistant Surgeons, Assistant Paymasters, Second 
Assistant Engineers. 

Of Lieutenant Secretary to the Admiral, Secretary to the Vice Admiral. 

The officers of the United States Naval Academy Chaplains and Professors, 
Constructors, Civil Engineers and Secretaries take position according to their 
rank, whether actual or relative 

MARINE CORPS. The following is the order of rank in the Marine 
Corps : 



102 NAVAL RANK AND COURTESIES. 

Colonel Commandant. The general staff take position according to rela 
tive rank next below those in the line: Quartermaster, Adjutant and In 
spector, Paymaster, Assistant Quartermasters. Colonel, Lieutenant Colonels, 
Majors, Captains, First Lieutenants, Second Lieutenants. Retired officers 
rank next below those on the active list of the same grade. The officers of 
the Marine Corps are placed by law, in relation to rank, on the same footing 
as officers of similar grades in the Army. 

RELATIVE RANK. The relative rank between officers of the army, 
marine corps and navy is fixed by law, and will be found under the army. 

The relative rank between officers of the navy and of the Marine Corps 
follows accordingly. 

TITLES. The title of an officer of the ravy is regulated by his lineal or 
staff rank or that under which he is actually serving, and by this he should be 
addressed in conversation or correspondence. It is proper to address all 
naval officer of the rank of Lieutenant or below as Mr. 

SOCIAL COURTESIES. The officers of a vessel of the navy, with per- 
mission of the Secretary of the Navy, may extend informal invitations to a 
reception on board their -vessels while lying at anchor or moorings in a home 
or foreign port. Visits of ceremony are prescribed by regulations. 

The ladies of the families of the commandant and officers of the Navy- Yard 
at Washington hold receptions on days designated by them during the season. 

The officers of the Marine Corps receive their friends at inspection, weather 
permitting, when the marine garrison and band are paraded in the drill court 
of the barracks. It is not unusual after inspection for the band to perform 
in the drill-room for the enjoyment of visitors, and at which time there is 
dancing. These entertainments are given without invitation, the inspection 
being part of the routine of duty and the musical exercises being added as a 
matter of courtesy to those ladies and gentlemen in official life or in society 
who may be present with their visiting friends. 

MARITIME CEREMONIALS. The usage of nations has established 
certain maritime ceremonials to be observed on the ocean, or those parts of the 
sea over which a sort of supremacy is claimed by a particular State. These 
are salutes by striking the flag or the sails, or by firing a certain number of 
guns on the approach of a fleet or a ship of war, or entering a fortified port or 
harbor. A sovereign state has a right to require this ceremonial by its own 
vessels toward each other, or toward those of another ration on the high 
seas or within its own territories. It has a similar right to regulate the cere 
monies to be observed within its own jurisdiction by vessels of all nations, 



NAVAL HONORS AND CEREMONIES. 103 

as well with respect to each other as toward its own fortresses and ships of 
war and the reciprocal honors to be rendered by the htter to foreign ships. 

NAVAL HONORS, CEREMONIES AND SALUTES. When visiting 
a vessel of the navy the following honors are due to the officers named : 

To THE PRESIDENT of the United States (arriving) the Boatswain attends 
with eight side boys and pipes the side ; the yards are manned at the moment 
when the bow oars of the boat in which he is embarked are tossed ; the men 
on the yards of the fore and main masts face aft, and on those of the mizen 
mast forward; all the officers of the vessel are arranged in line upon the 
quarter deck in full uniform. The full marine guard is paraded. THE PRESI 
DENT is received at the gangway by the Admiral, Commodore, or Command 
ing officer, and such other officers designated to assist in the reception. 
When THE PRESIDENT reaches the deck the National flag is displayed at 
the main, and kept there as long as he remains on board. All officers and 
men on deck, the guard excepted, uncover their heads, the guards present 
arms, the drums give four ruffles, the band plays the national air, and a 
salute of twenty- one guns is fired, the men on the yards lie in, and lie down 
at the firing of the last gun. 

(Leaving.) The same ceremonies are observed when the President leaves 
the vessel\ the yards are manned as he crosses the gangway; the salute is fired 
after the boat in which he is embarked is clear of the side, and at the last gun 
the men on the yards lie in, and lie down, and the flag is hauled down. 

If other vessels of the navy be present they man their yards at the moment 
the flag is displayed at the masthead of the one visited, and also fire a salute 
of twenty-one guns, unless otherwise directed by the senior officer present. 
On passing such vessels their sentinels present arms, the drums beat four 
ruffles, and the band plays the national air. 

To the Vice President of the United States the same honors as prescribed 
for the President, except that the yards are not manned and that there is but 
one salute of seventeen guns, which is fired on his leaving ; and that the 
national flag is not displayed unless the reception takes place abroad, in which 
case it is hoisted at the fore. 

To an ex- President of the United States the same honors as prescribed for 
THE PRESIDENT, except the display of the national flag and the manning of 
the yards. 

To Justices of the Supreme Court, the members of the Cabinet, or gov 
ernors of States, the same honors as those prescribed for the Vice President, 
except that the salute consists of fifteen guns and is fired on leaving. 

When the Cabinet officer visiting a vessel of war of the United States is the 



104 NAVAL CIVILITIES. 

Secretary of the Navy the jack is hoisted at the main on his coming on board 
and carried there until his departure. 

To a foreign sovereign, or the chief magistrate of any foreign republic the 
same honors as prescribed for the President, except that the flag of his own 
country is displayed at the main, and the band plays his own national air. 

To members of a royal family the same honors as are due to their sovereign, 
except that one salute only is fired on leaving. 

A minister appointed to represent the United States abroad, or a minister 
of a foreign country visiting a vessel, is received by the Admiral, Commodore, 
or Commanding officer, and the marine guard is paraded. A salute of fifteen 
guns is fired on his leaving. 

A Charge cT Affaires or Commissioner is received in the same manner, but 
the salute is thirteen guns. 

A Consul General is received by the Commanding Officer, and saluted with 
nine guns. 

A Consul is received by the Commanding Officer, and saluted with seven 
guns. 

Officers of the Army or Marine Corps are received agreeably to their relative 
rank with officers of the Navy. 

ON AN OFFICIAL TAKING PASSAGE. Whenever any person for 
whom a salute is provided embarks on board a vessel of the Navy for passage, 
he is entitled to the same salute as if he were visiting such vessel, and also 
to the same salute on disembarking. 

VISITING A NAVY YARD. Whenever THE PRESIDENT, the Vice 
President, an ex-President, or any other personage for whose reception afloat 
ceremonies have been given, visits a navy yard or naval station, he is re 
ceived with the same ceremonies, due to his rank, so far as may be practicable. 

A committee of Congress officially visiting a navy yard or station receives a 
salute of fifteen guns on arriving or leaving. 

When a naval, military or civil officer of a foreign nation visits a vessel of 
the navy, or a navy yard, or naval station, he is received with the salutes and 
honors for persons of similar rank in the service of the United States. 

NAVAL CIVILITIES. The Commander of a fleet or squadron, on 
arriving at a foreign port, calls in person and pays the first visit to the diplo 
matic representative of the United States thereat, whose rank is cf and above 
that of Charge d Affaires. 

The Commander of a vessel of the Navy, on so arriving, calls and first 
visits the representative of his Government thereat, whose rank is of and and 
above that of Consul General. 



NAVAL HONORS. 105 

The Commander of a fleet or squadron, on so arriving, sends a suitable 
officer to visit the consular officer, and tenders to him a passage to the flag 
ship. 

The Commander of a vessel of the Navy, on so arriving, sends an officer 
to visit the consular officer, and if he be of the rank of Consul General, informs 
him of the presence of the ship, and of the Commander s intention to visit 
him, unless the latter should find it convenient to make the visit at that time; 
if of a lower rank than Consul General, he offers him a passage to the ship. 
(See Salutes, Navy.} 

NATIONAL HOLIDAYS. On the Fourth day of July and the Twenty- 
second day of February, the National Flag is displayed at the peak and at 
each masthead, and the Union Flag hoisted forward over the bow-sprit cap 
from sunrise to sunset, on board of every vessel of the Navy in commission, 
not under way. At noon a salute of twenty-one guns is fired by all vessels 
able to salute, and such as are at sea, with the ensign flying at the peak at 
the time. Vessels also dress ship on these days with signal and other flags, 
but not foreign ensigns. At navy yards and naval stations the ensign is dis 
played from sunrise to sunset, and a salute of twenty-one guns is fired at 
noon. 

When a national anniversary occurs on a Sunday, all the ceremonies are 
deferred until the following day. 

FUNERAL HONORS. On the death of the President of the United States. 
On the receipt of official intelligence by general order of the Navy Depart 
ment, of the death of the President of the United States, the senior officer 
present, on the following day, causes the ensign of each vessel under his 
authority to be hoisted at half-mast from sunrise to sunset, and a gun to be 
fired by his vessel every half-hour, beginning at sunrise and ending at sunset. 
At Naval Stations the same ceremonies are observed. 

It is also customary for the Secretary of the Navy in announcing the death 
of THE PRESIDENT, or of any other official, or officer of the Army or Navy, 
entitled to such consideration, to embody in the official order of announce 
ment, an appropriate tribute to the memory of the deceased. 

PUBLIC OBSEQUIES OF THE ADMIRAL. The forms of public 
observances upon the death of the chief officer of the navy is the same as for 
the general commanding the army. (See The Army. ) 



106 THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR. 

THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR- 

The Secretary of the Inierior is the head of the seventh great Executive 
Department, and has administrative control over all officials and others 
within the vast range of internal affairs grouped within its great bureaus. 

OFFICIAL STATUS. There shall be at the seat of government an Ex 
ecutive Department to be known as the Department of the Interior, and a 
Secretary of the Interior, who shall be the head thereof. Statutes March 3, 
1849. 

DEPARTMENTAL PRECEDENCE. The order of precedence of the 
different administrative branches cf the Department of the Interior, as regu 
lated by law or usage, is as follows : 
The SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR. 

i. The Assistant Secretary. 2. The Assistant Attorney General. 3. The 
Commissioner of the General Land Office. 4. The Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs. 5. The Commissioner of Pensions. 6. The Commissioner of Patents. 
7. The Commissioner of Education. 8. The Commissioner of Railroads. 9. 
The Director of the Geological Survey. 10. The Superintendent of the 
Census, and of other Bureaus of later creation. 

11. The Governors and Secretaries of Territories. 

12. Directors, Commissioners, Inspectors, Superintendents and Special 
Agents, and others, acting under the Department by commission of the 
President. 

Assistant and Deputy Bureau officers, appointed by the President. 

The Chief Clerk, except within the jurisdiction of the Department, and 
other clerks have no official or social status on account of their positions. 

The officials under the control of Bureaus, but serving at a distance, when 
at the capital take precedence with their chief officers, 

OFFICIAL AND SOCIAL RELATIONS. The Secretary of the Interior 
is entitled to all the consideration due to a member of the Cabinet, taking 
the seventh rank within the Executive branch of the Government. (See The 
Cabinet. ) 



108 UNASSIGNED AND MUNICIPAL OFFICIALS. 

UNASSIGNED. 

In addition to the great Executive Departments there are Departments and 
Bureaus which enjoy a quasi-independent position, and whose chief officers, 
though not recognized in the Cabinet, are entitled to a place in the official and 
social scale at the seat of Government, as follows : 

The Commissioner of Agriculture. 

The Public Printer. 

The Director or Secretai y of the Smithsonian Institution, who is also charged 
with the administrative control of the National Museum, under the title of 
Director. 

The Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries. 

The Director of the Bureau of Ethnology. 

The Commissioners of the Civil Service. 

Commissioner of Labor. 

The Inter-State Commerce Commissioners. 

These officers take precedence of Departmental Bureau officers. 

SOCIAL RELATIONS. The wife or presiding lady of the family of the 
family of the chief of a quaki Bureau takes precedence according to official 
rank . ( See genera I order of precedence. ) 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DISTRICT 
OF COLUMBIA. 

The officers of the Government of the District of Columbia take precedence 
as follows : 

The Commissioners and their Secretary. The Engineer Commissioner and 
Assistant Engineers. The chiefs of the various administrative branches of 
the District Government in their accepted order. The Police Judge. The 
Superintendent of Police. The Commissioners of the Fire Department and 
the Chief Engineer. The chief of the -Health Department. 

SOCIAL RELATIONS. The wife or presiding lady of the family of an 
officer of the District Municipality, takes precedence on social occasions, ac 
cording to the place of the head of the family in the official scale. (See gen 
eral order of official precedenct. 



the Constitution of the United States the "Legislative Depart- 
2Jhn ment" holds the first place in the order of the co-ordinate branches of 
L;7j^) the Government. That instrument declares that " all legislative powers 
herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which 
shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives." 

The precedence in the order of arrangement of the several parts of the 
Constitution of the United States is in deference to the spirit of American in 
stitutions, that the people is the Sovereign. THE PRESIDENT, however, as 
the administrative head of the Nation, is charged by the Constitution under 
this incipient authority with giving Executive force to this sovereign power. 

PRECEDENCE OF STATES. The order of precedence of States in 
the roll of the Union is by seniority of adoption of the Constitution or ad 
mission into the National compact. 

FORMS OF ADDRESS. The general use of the title Honorable in the 
minutes, came up early in the first Congress. Some members objected to it 
on the ground that "it was a colonial appellation, and that we should dis 
grace ourselves forever by it that it was applied to justices of every court " 
Were this ancient prejudice against any form of titles adhered to, it would 
be improper to apply the title of courtesy, Honorable, to any members of the 
Government. Later ideas of form warrant its use as explained. 

In informal notes at Washington it is proper to use the following style of 
address : 

Senator , or 

Honorable , M. C., for a Representative. While both Senators 

and Representatives would be properly termed M. C., or Member of Con 
gress, that designation by usage has been applied only to Representatives. 
Therefore, to speak of a Member of Congress popularly refers to a Represent 
ative. 

In official communications, official titles only should be used The same 
rule applies to a Senator or Representative filling the place of chairman of 
a committee. 

109 



1 10 RELATIONS OF THE TWO HOUSES OF CONGRESS. 

All communications relating to the business of a committee, should be 
addressed, 

To the Chairman of the Committee on 

Their character will then be understood and they will receive attention. 
Otherwise, in the absence of the individual from the city, they will lie over 
until his return. 

CEREMONIAL RELATIONS OF THE TWO HOUSES OF CON 
GRESS. When the two Houses of Congress meet in Joint Convention, 
whether in the Senate Chamber, or the Hall of the Representatives, the 
visiting body at the hour appointed proceeds to the Hall of assembling, and 
arriving at the main door is formally announced by the Door-keeper of the re 
ceiving body, and enters, preceded by its Sergeant-at-Arms, and headed by 
its Presiding Officer and the Secretary (or Clerk). The members and 
officers of the receiving body rise and remain standing until the visiting body 
has entered and its members are seated 

The Vice President or Presiding officer of the Senate takes the chair as 
presiding officer and calls the joint assemblage to order. The Speaker oc 
cupies the chair on the left of the Vice President. The Vice President 
states the business of the joint convention, which is proceeded with under 
the usual parliamentary forms, or in accordance with an order of business, or 
observance, prepared for the occasion by a committee of arrangements. \_See 
the Vice -President.\ 

PARLIAMENTARY INTERCOURSE. There are also certain for- 
malities which regulate the two houses of Congress in their intercourse with 
each other in the transaction of legislative business. These formalities, 
strictly speaking, are more of a parliamentary than of a ceremonial character, 
and therefore do not come within range of the official etiquette which applies 
to the officers of the great branches of the Government in their official rela 
tions towards each other. 

The original form of communication between the two houses was as fol 
lows : When a bill or other message was sent from the Senate to the House 
of Representatives it was carried by the Secretary, who made one obeisance to 
the Chair on entering the door of the House of Representatives and another 
on delivering it at the table in the hands of the Speaker. After delivering it 
he made an obeisance to the Speaker and repeated it as he retired from the 
House. 

A bill sent to the Senate was carried by two members of the House, 
who observed the same form of obeisance on arriving, delivering and retir 
ing as provided above for the Secretary of the Senate. The Senators arose on 



I i 2 THE OPENING OF CONGRESS. 

the entrance of the members within the bar and remained standing until they 
retired. Other messages were delivered by one member, and the President 
of the Senate alone arose. 

All bills and messages are now delivered by the Secretary of the Senate 
or Clerk of the House. Either officer, on appearing before the bar, is an 
nounced by the Door-keeper and makes an obeisance to the Chair. Address 
ing the Chair Mr. President or Mr. Speaker, he says I am directed by the 

to inform the that ( Here he states t he command s of the 

body of which he is an officer. ) 

THE PRESIDENT AT THE CAPITOL. The President s Room at the 
Capitol is near the west end of the Senate Lobby. The President visits 
there, however, only on imperative business or during the last hours of 
Congress. On the occasions last mentioned he is accompanied by his Cabinet 
Ministers and Private Secretaries, and the object of his visit is to facilitate 
legislation in the closing moments of the session by having bills examined 
by the proper heads of Departments and presented for his approval or dis 
approval, as the case may be, without the delay incident to their transmis 
sion to the Executive Mansion. The President does not appear on the floor 
of the Senate, but sends for those whom he wishes to consult. As a rule 
no visitors are admitted, though this is entirely at the will of THE PRESIDENT, 

THE OPENING OF CONGRESS. On the first Monday in December, 
the day prescribed by the Constitution of the United States for the annual 
meeting of Congress, the Senators and Representatives assemble in their re 
spective Halls. After the usual preliminaries incident to organization are 
completed and resolutions of notification of being "ready to proceed to busi 
ness" exchanged, the Senate adopts a resolution "that a committee con 
sisting of two members be appointed to join such committee as may be ap 
pointed by the House of Representatives, to wait upon THE PRESIDENT of 
the United States and inform him that a quorum of each House is assembled 
and that Congress is ready to receive any communication that he may be 
pleased to make." The House being organized passes a similar resolution 
appointing a committee of three members to join the Senate committee. These 
committees are constituted so that the two great political parties in each 
House are represented. 

The committee on the part of the two Houses having notified THE PRESI 
DENT, as indicated in the resolution, return to their respective bodies and 
report that they "have performed their duty; and he (THE PRESIDENT) 
requests the committee to inform the two Houses that he sends them the com- 



EXECUTIVE COMMUNICATIONS. Ilfl 

pliments of the season, his congratulations upon their organization, and that 
he will immediitely communicate to them a message in writing." 

The first message on these occasions, which is delivered to each House by 
the President s private secretary, the same as other messages, is the Presi 
dent s annual review of the public business and cognate questions, for the 
information and consideration of Congress. 

At the opening of the session of Congress in December, 1 790, the Presi. 
dent having been informed that Congress was ready to receive him, replied 
fixing the day and hour when he would meet the Congress. Upcn reaching 
the Senate chamber, where the two Houses awaited him, he was received 
by the Vice President and was conducted to the chair. After a few moments, 
The President rising in his seat began the delivery of his speech with the 
salutation, "Gentlemen of the Senate and Gentlemen of the House of 
Representatives." He then addressed the House, beginning "Gentlemen of 
the House of Representatives," and closed with a short speech to the two 
Houses, addressing them as at first. Having finished, The President im 
mediately withdrew, leaving his speech (or message) on the table. The 
House then withdrew. A committee was appointed to prepare a reply to 
"The President s speech," which was signed by the President of the Senate 
and was delivered to the President at his official residence by the Senate 
at a time designated by him. 

This plan was continued during the entire administrations of Washing, 
ton and Adams. President Jefferson, in a letter dated December 8, 1801, 
to the -Hon. the President of the Senate, dispensed with this plan, stating 
his reasons, which were chiefly the convenience of public business. The 
present method of transmission of the annual message of the President has 
since been in vogue. 

EXECUTIVE COMMUNICATIONS. All official intercourse between 
THE PRESIDENT and Congress is now maintained by formal correspondence 
delivered by the Private Secretary of THE PRESIDENT. Upon the appear 
ance of the Private Secretary at the bar of either House of Congress, the 
Door-keeper attends him there. The presiding officer announces : "The 
Chair will receive a message from the President of the United States." 

Business having been suspended, the Door-keeper steps forward and pro- 
claims, "A message from the President of the United States." The 
Private Secretary advancing to the bar of the Senate (or House), makes an 
obeisance to the chair and says, " I am directed by the President of the 
United States to deliver to the Senate (or House) a message in writing," He 
then bows and retires. The message is conveyed by the Door-keeper to the 
8 



Il4 CONGRESS AND THE PRESIDENT-ADJOURNMENT. 

presiding officer, to whom it is addressed, and is opened by him and sub 
mitted. 

THE CONGRESS AND THE PRESIDENT. It is not unusual for 
the Congress, desiring to give national recognition to the commemoration of 
some proper event, to ask the co operation of THE PRESIDENT. The ex 
pression of the wish of Congress is by concurrent resolution, as follows : 

Resolvedly the Senate and House of Representatives, &c., That the Presi 
dent be and he is hereby requested to issue a proclamation recommending the 
people either by appropriate exercises or by such public observances as 

they may deem proper, on , the inst , to commemorate the 

(here follows a statement of the object in view.) 

Resolved, That the President be and he is hereby requested to order the 
national salute to be fired from the various forts throughout the country on 
, , 1 8.., in commemoration of the 

In response to such a request the President, through the Secretary of 
State, issues his proclamation as indicated in the resolution and defines the 
character of public observance. 

FORMALITIES OF ADJOURNMENT. As the time for the final ad 
journment of the two Houses of Congress approaches, each House adopts a 
resolution to appoint a committee of two members to join a similar committee 
on the part of the other House "to wait upon THE PRESIDENT and inform 
him that unless he may have some further communication to make, the two 
Houses of Congress, having finished the business before them, are ready to 
adjourn." It is customary to appoint one person from each of the great 
political parties. 

On the return of the committee to their respective Houses, and having 
announced that they had called upon THE PRESIDENT and that he hid no 
further communication to make, the presiding officer at the appointed time 
rises, and after a few brief remarks, declares the body over which he pre 
sides, "adjourned without day " 

CALLING, AT THE CAPITOL, UPON A SENATOR OR REPRE 
SENTATIVE. A visitor or other person in the city may call at the capitol 
during the hours of a session of Congress, upon a Senator or Representative 
after the morning hour, from 2 to 4 p. m., and send in a card bearing his 
own name and residence, and in the upper left hand corner: "For Senator 

," or "For Representative ," as the case may be, and in the 

lower left hand corner : "To pay respects," if that be the object. If the call 
be one of business it is not necessary to note the fact on the card. To the 



CALLING ON A SENATOR OR REPRESENTATIVE. 115 

former request a prompt and suitable reply may be expected If the person 
be a constituent of the Senator or Representative he has a right to a favor 
able and prompt response to this act of courtesy. A sufficient ground for a 
failure to appear would be the fact that the Senator, or Representative, is 
managing a bill under discussion at the time, or is actually participating in the 
pending debate. In this case it would be courtesy for him to state the fact 
and fix a time when convenient to meet the party calling. 

If the call be upon a Senator the person should proceed to the ante-room 
of the Senate, at the eastern end of the Senate lobby, and there hxnd his card 
to the officer in charge to be presented, and should be seated to await an 
answer. It is customary for the Senator to direct the messenger to show the 
parties into the Senator s reception-room where he joins them. 

If the call be upon a Representative the caller sends a card to the Repre 
sentative he desires to see by the Doorkeeper at the door nearest which 
the Representative sits. This will be indicated at the main entrance to the 
hall of the Representatives. Owing to the throng of persons usually con 
gregated in the corridors of the House, if there be no haste, a gentleman 
accompanied by ladies may lake them to the ladies gallery and leaving them 
return to the entrance to the floor and send in his card as above and await 
an answer. He can then suggest to the Representative the presence of his 
ladies in the gallery who cesire to meet him. The Representative will either 
accompany him to the gallery or suggest where he will receive them. 

Should a person wish to meet a Senator or Representative on account of 
admiration for his abilities, the same cerenony as "To pay respects" should 
be sufficient, but it wouM be better to send a card to a Senator or Repre 
sentative from his own State, if acquainted, and ask a presentation either 
in person or by a card of introduction. This might prevent embarrassment 
or disappointment. It is not unusual for Senators or Representatives to re 
ceive friends or visitors at the Capitol before the hour of assembling of Con 
gress, but there is uncertainty as to finding them. This is the time of day 
set apart for the business of committees or in the Departments. The chiir- 
man of a committee often receives his visitors before the meeting of the body 
of which he is a member in his committee room, Its location may be ascer 
tained at the office of the Sergeant-at- \rrns or from any of the Capitol Police 
or Doorkeepers 

Any person visiting the Capital, desiring to meet a Senator of his State at 
his residence, must call first, or leave a card. To meet a Representative of 
his District, if in social relations, at home, he should call or leave a card at 
the Representative s residence, giving address in the city. It is the duty of the 
Senator or Representative, or the ladies, if ladies are in the visiting party, 



Il6 SOCIAL OBLIGATIONS AND CEREMONIAL OCCASIONS. 

to promptly re urn the visit in person. Unless personally acquainted, it is 
more convenient for visitors to call during the receptions of the ladies of the 
families of Senators or Representatives on Thursdays or Tuesdays respectively 
from 3 to 5 p. m. if the parties receive. Leave a card with name and address 
at home and in the city and time of sojourn in the city, if limited. Such calls 
of constituents should be returned in person. 

As Congress is made up of persons from all classes of society ii would not 
be advisable iti all cases to be governed by too rigid rules of etiquette re 
specting social obligations. 

SOCIAL OBLIGATIONS. The social cbligations attaching to the posi 
tions of a Senator or Representative are undefined. No more is required of 
them or their ladies than of any other persons in good society. There are 
many, however, who entertain handsomely at dinner or hold receptions, and 
contribute largely to the attractions of the Capital during the social season. 

The" day usually set apart for the Drawing Rooms of the ladies of Senators 
is Thursdays, and Representatives Tuesdays from 3 to 5 p. m Any of these 
classes desiring to receive on the days named have but to make the announce 
ment. The same rules govern here that govern in similar receptions else 
where. 

CEREMONIAL OCCASIONS. All ceremonial occasions in which Con 
gress is the principal are under the direction of a Committee of Arrange 
ments appointed by authority of a resolution adDpted by the Senate or the 
House of Representatives, as the case may be, or a joint Committee ot Ar 
rangements authorized by joint resolution of the two Houses if under the direc 
tion of the whole body of Congress. All invitations to distinguished officials 
and personages to participate are issued in the name of the presiding officer 
of the branch charged with the ceremonies, or the officers jointly if under 
the direction of both houses of Congress. 

The issue of cards of admission to the galleries of the Senate or House 
of Representatives on ceremonial or other extraordinary occasions is regulated 
by resolution of the body in charge or by joint resolution of Congress. 

The general form of card is : 

Counting the vo e for President and Vice-President. 

Admit the Bearer 
To the gallery of the House of Representatives. 

(Number.) 

(Date.) President of the Senate. 



Speaker of the House of Representatives. 



Il8 CEREMONIAL RELATIONS. 

The ordinary form of card of admission lo the private galleries to be ob 
tained from a Senator or Representative is : 

United States Senate Chamber, , 188 . . 

Admit 

To Reserved Gallery. 



U. S. Senator. 

CEREMONIAL RELATIONS. Between the Executive and the Legis 
lative branches of the Government there exist certain relations of a minis 
terial and ceremonial character, regulated by concurrent resolution to meet 
certain requirements of the constitution or statutory provisions. The most 
important of these is the counting and declaration by the President of the 
Senate in the presence of the two Houses of Congress, of the official returns 
of the Electoral College of the United States in the choice of THE PRESI 
DENT and Vice-President, and their formal installation. 

The forms of notification of election and installation of THE PRESIDENT 
and Vice-President were instituted by the first Congress, and have since been 
maintained with little variation, other than some elaboration of detail. 
The President and Vice President elect, having been officially notified by 
the Senate by certificates of election, presented by a member designated for 
that purpose, arrive at the Capitol a few days before the fourth day of 
March. They are generally accompanied on their journey by a few per 
sonal friends, and not unfrequently The President is also attended by a 
body of citizen soldiery acting as escort. 

A joint committee of three members of the Senate and five members of the 
House of Representatives, under the precedent of the Congress of 1789, 
is appointed to meet The President-elect in the name of Congress upon his 
arrival at the Capital, and to escort him without form to his residence. 

A committee of two Senators and three Representatives waits upon the 
Vice- President at his residence and congratulates him upon his arrival. 

CEREMONIES OF INAUGURATION. The ceremonial procession at 
tending the progress of The President-elect to the Capitol to take the oath of 
office has been mentioned in connection with the President. The ceremony 
attending the administration of the oath of office required by the Constitution, 
which was established by a joint committee of arrangements of the first Con 
gress, and with the exception of the arrangements being in charge of the 
Senate and attended with some elaboration of details, is practically the same. 

About ten days before the time designated by the Constitution for the in 
auguration of THE PRESIDENT, the Senate, by resolution, authorizes suitable 



CEREMONIES OF INAUGURATION. IIQ 

preparations to that end, and directs the appointment of a committee of ar 
rangements, consisting of two Senators from the majority and one from the 
minority. This committee having determined upon the order of arrange 
ments makes the same public for the information of those concerned. 

The Sergeant-at-arms of the Senate is charged with the execution of the ar 
rangements, as follows : 

The Capitol during that portion of the day preceding the inaugural ceremo 
nies is closed to the public, and is in charge of the committee of arrangements, 
composed of Senators entrusted with the inaugural ceremonies. 

All horses and vehicles, except used in conveying persons to the east door 
of the north wing of the Capitol, are excluded from the Capitol Park. 

Entitled to the Floor. The doors of the Senate Chamber are opened at 
ii o clock a. m , for the admission of Senators, and others, who, by the 
arrangement of the committee, are entitled to admission as follows : 

Ex-Presidents and ex-Vice-Presidents. 

The Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court. 

The Heads of Departments, the Diplomatic Corps, ex-members of either 
branch of Congress and members of Congress-elect. 

Officers of the army and navy, who by name have received the thanks of 
Congress. 

Governors and ex-Governors of States, and Commissioners of the Dis 
trict of Columbia. 

Seats on the Floor. Seats are placed in front of the Secretary s table for 
THE PRESIDENT, and on his left for the Committee of Arrangements. 
The seats for ex-Presidents and ex- Vice Presidents, the Chief Justice and 
Associate Justices of the Supreme Court are placed on the right of the 
Chair. 

The Diplomatic Corps occupy seats on the right of the Chair, next to 
the Supreme Court. 

The Heads of Departments occupy seats on the left of the Chair. 

Officers of the army and navy who, by name have received the thanks of 
Congress, Governors and ex-Governors of States, occupy seats on the right 
of the main entrance. 

Ex-members of the House and members-elect enter the Senate Chamber 
by the main entrance, and occupy seats on the right of the Chair, in rear of 
the Diplomatic Corps. 

ARRIVAL AT THE CAPITOL. At 11 o clock the inaugural procession 
having reached the Capitol, THE PRESIDENT and the Presiden /-elect, ac 
companied by two members of the Committee of Arrangements, proceed 



I 20 INAUGURATION AT THE CAPITOL. 

in a carriage to the cast door of the Senate wing of the Capitol, and entering 
there, proceed to the President s room. 

The Vice- President elect, who is accompanied to the Capitol by a member 
of the Committee of Arrangements, is conducted at the same hour to the 
Vice-President s Room. 

The Diplomatic Corps assembles in the marble room, and thence proceed 
in a body to the Senate Chamber. 

The Justices of the Supreme Court and the Diplomatic Corps should enter 
the Senate Chamber a few minutes before the President. 

The GALLERIES. The gallery immediately at the left of the Diplomatic 
ga ! lery is reserved for Assistant Secretaries of Departments, and the As 
sistant Postmaster-General, the Assistant Attorney-Generals, and the Judge 
Advocate General; heads of bureaus of the War and Navy Departments ; the 
Comptrollers, Auditors and Register of the Treasury; the Solicitors of the sev 
eral Departments ; Treasurer, Commissioners, Judges of the Federal Courts, 
and the Supreme Courts of the several States. Cards, securing admission 
for these gentlemen to the building and the gallery reserved for their occupancy, 
are furnished by the Sergeant at-Arms. 

The Diplomatic gallery is reserved for the families of the Diplomatic 
Corps. 

The families of THE PRESIDENT, the President elect and Vice-President 
and Vice- President-elect, and of ex-Presidents and ex- Vice- Presidents oc 
cupy seats directly to the right of the Diplomatic gallery. 

All the foregoing enter at the east door of the Senate wing of the Capitol 
on the lower floor. 

The other galleries, with the exception of the Reporters gallery, are thrown 
open to ticket holders, who enter the Capitol by the bronze doors of the 
Senate wing and the north door of the Senate wing, which are opened at 1 1 
o clock precisely. 

ASSEMBLING OF THE SENATE. The Senate assembles at 12 o clock. 

The Senate being ready for his reception, THE PRESIDENT is introduced 
by the Committee of Arrangements to the seat prepared for him in the Senate 
Chamber. The assemblage should rise as the Chief Magistrate of the Nation 
enters. 

The Vice President elect is accompanied to the Senate chamber by the Com 
mittee of Arrangements, and is greeted at the main door by the President of 
the Senate, who receives him with an address of welcome. The Vice President 
elect is then conducted to the chair, before entering which he takes the oath of 
office administered by the Presiding Officer of the Senate. He then for- 



INAUGURATION OF THE PRESIDENT. 121 

mally addresses the Senate, after which he administers the oath to such Sen 
ators elect as present themselves for that purpose. 

The form observed by the first Senate, in 1789, was as follows: On meet 
ing the Vice^President on the floor of the Senate chamber, the President pro 
tempore of the Senate addressed him : 

SIR : I have it in charge from the Senate to introduce you to the chair, and 
also to congratulate you on your appointment tD the office of Vice President of 
the United States of America. 

The President pro tempore ot the Senate then conducted the Vice- President 
to the chair, when the Vice- President addressed the Senate in a few ap 
propriate remarks. His form of salutation was : "Gentlemen of the Sen 
ate." * * * 

After the completion of the organization of the Senate, the Committee of 
Arrangements, preceded by their chairman, wait upon the President-elect in 
the President s room and conduct him to the main door of the Senate cham 
ber, where he is received by the Vice President, who attends him to the chair. 
The Vice-President having informed the President-elect that the Senate and 
those asssembled are ready to attend him to take the oath required by the 
Constitution, the President-elect indicates his readiness to proceed. 

The Inaugural Procession. Those assembled in the Chamber then proceed 
to the platform on the central portico of the Capitol in the following order: 

The Marshal of the Supreme Court. 

Ex- Presidents and ex- Vice- Presidents 

The Chief Justice and Supreme Court of the United States. 

The Sergeant-at-Arms of the Senate. 

The Committee of Arrangements. 

THE PRESIDENT and the President-elect. 

The Vice- President and the Secretary of the Senate. 

The members of the Senate. 

The Heads of Departments. 

The Diplomatic Corps. 

Ex-members of the House of Representatives and members-elect of the 
new Congress. 

Governors of States. 

And other persons who have been admitted to the floor of the Senate 
Chamber, and to the reserved seats at the left of the Diplomatic gallery. 

On reaching the portico, THE PRESIDENT and the President-elect take the 
seats provided for them on the front of the platform, the Chief Justice of the 
United States on their right, and the Sergeant-at-Arms of the Senate on their 
left. The Committee of Arrangements occupy a position in the rear. 



122 INAUGURATION OF THE PRESIDENT. 

Next in the rear of these, ex-Presidents and ex-Vice-Presidents, and Asso 
ciate Justices of the Supreme Court, occupy the seats on the left, and the 
Vice-President, Secretary, and members of the Senate those on the right. 

The Diplomatic Corps occupy the seats next in the rear of the Supreme 
Court, and the Heads of Departments, Governors and ex-Governors of States, 
ex- members and members-elect of the House of Representatives, in the rear 
of the members of the Senate. 

Such other persons as are included in the arrangements occupy the steps 
and the residue of the portico. 

THE OATH OF OFFICE. All being in readiness, the President-elect 
takes a position in front, and the Chief Justice, wearing his Judicial robes, 
advances towards him. The Clerk of the Court bearing a Bible purchased 
by the Court for the occasion, takes position opposite THE PRESiDENT-elect. 
The Chief Justice standing in the rear of the two and facing the assemblage 
of the people, repeats the oath or affirmation required by the Constitution 
before "he enters upon the execution of his office," to which THE PRESI 
DENT yields acknowledgment by kissing the Bible. The Chief Justice turning 
to THE PRESIDENT bows and extends his hand, which THE PRESIDENT re 
ceives. In the early administrations the Chief Justice followed the adminis 
tration of the oath by the proclamation " Long live , President of 

the United States." During this ceremony all heads are uncovered, and at 
its close the Clerk of the Court retires with the Bible, which is usually pre 
sented to a member of the President s family. 

After a brief pause, THE PRESIDENT advances to the front of the portico 
and in the presence of these assembled delivers his inaugural address. 

Conclusion. On the conclusion of these ceremonies the members of the 
Senate, preceded by the Sergeant-at-Arms, Vice-President and Secretary, re 
turn to the Senate chamber, and THE PRESIDENT, accompanied by the Com 
mittee of Arrangements, proceeds to the reviewing stand, on Pennsylvania 
Avenue in front of the Executive Mansion, where he reviews the procession 
on its return march, and thence to the President s h^use, or his temporary 
residence in the city. (See The Executive Inauguration.} 

The remaining persons assembled withdraw. 

Should the weather prove unfavorable the ceremonies take place in the 
Senate Chamber. 

At the second inauguration of President Washington, he having notified 
the Senate that he proposed to take the oath of office on the following Mon 
day, March 4, in the Senate chamber, the different officials were informed to 
that effect. On the day appointed the President came to the Senate and took 



CONGRESSIONAL OBSEQUIES. 123 

his seat in the chair "usually assigned to the President of the Senate " The 
latter officer occupied a seat on the President s right and in advance of him 
and the Chief Justice on the President s left also in advance. The doors of 
the Senate chamber were then opened and the Heads of the Departments, 
Foreign Ministers, the Representatives and other spectators entered and were 
seated. The President of the Senate arose, and addressing the President, 
said : Sir : One of the judges of the Supreme Court of the United States is 
now present and ready to administer to you the oath required by the Consti 
tution to be taken by the President of the United States. The President 
then delivered a brief address, after which the Chief Justice administered the 
oath. The President then withdrew and the spectators dispersed. 

OBSEQUIES. Upon the d-.ath of the Vice- President of the United 
States, or a member of either House of Congress, while in session, a Senator 
or a colleague of the deceased, or if none be present, a Senator or Repre 
sentative from an adjacent State, rises in place and having addressed the 
Chair, makes the announcement of the fact in a few appropriate remarks, 
and offers a series of suitable resolutions. 

To these are added resolutions providing for the appointment of a com 
mittee "to take order for superintending the funeral and to escort the remains 
of the deceased to their last resting place;" requiring the transmission of a 
copy of the resolutions to the family of the deceased and declaring the Senate 
(or House) adjourned "as a mark of respect to the memory of the deceased." 
The presiding officer of the body, in which the death has occurred, before 
announcing the result names the committee of arrangements. 

The resolutions with the names of the members selected to accompany the 
remains appended are immediately conveyed by the Secretary, or the Clerk, 
as the case may be, to the other branch, when the chair receives them and 
directs them to be read, A Senator, or Representative, as the case may be, 
of the same State, if practicable, rises, addresses the chair and offers resolu 
tions expressing the profound sensibility with which the message of the 

Senate (or House) announcing the death of Hon ,a from 

the State of , is received ; they provide in appropriate terms that the 

concur in the resolutions adopted by the , and that the presiding 

officer appoint a committee of.. to escort the remains of the de 
ceased in conjunction with the committee on the part of the , as pro 
vided in said resolutions. 

These resolutions having been concurred in, the chair announces the names 
as provided; after which the Senator or Representative proposing the resolu 
tion moves to adjourn. 



124 CONGRESSIONAL OBSEQUIES. 

The committee of arrangements usually numbers seven members. The 
joint committees of the two Houses usually number from three to seven 
members 

To the Capitol. The following is the order of proceedings when the re 
mains are taken to the Capitol : 

The order of proceedings for the funeral of the Hon late a 

Senitor from the State of (or Representative in Congress from the 

district of the State of ) 

The committee of arrangements and pall bearers, attended by the Sergeant- 
at-Arms of the Senate, (or House of Representatives,) with the President 
ol the Senate, (or Speaker) Chaplain and Secretary, (or Clerk) Senators and 

Representatives from the State of , accompanied by their families and 

mourners, will assemble at the lata residence of the deceased, No 

street, on ., .... at o clock, and attend the remains of the deceased 

to the Hall of the where the funeral services will take place at 

o clock. 

At the conclusion of the services the remains will be removed in charge of 
the committee of arrangements and pall-bearers, accompanied by the members 
of the Senate and House of Representatives, to 

WASHINGTON, 18 

General Observances. The obsequies of a Senator or Representative dying 
during the sitting of Congress, is in charge of the House of which the de 
ceased was a member. On the casket is placed a plate bearing the arms of 
the United States and the name, age and time of death of the deceased. 

When the services are held at the Capitol the casket, containing the remains, 
covered with a velvet pall and accompanied by the pall-bearers, wearing white 
silk scarfs, is conveyed to the Hall of the body of which the deceased was a 
member and placed in the area in front of the Presiding Officer s desk. The 
Hall and desk of the deceased are draped in mourning during the ceremony. 
The chaplain or other officiating clergyman, atter appropriate services, de 
livers a funeral address. The obsequies at the Capitol are usually attended 
by THE PRESIDENT and other high officers of the Government. 

After the ceremony the funeral procession forms and proceeds to the place 
of interment or to the railway station, where a special car is in waiting to 
convey the remains and funeral party to the place of final interment. 

Obsequies at the Residence. If the funeral services are held at the late 
residence of the deceased the form of ceremonies is that for any other citizen, 
the committees of the two Houses represenling the two Houses. 

In event of the death of a Senator or Representative who had filled the 
post of Cabinet minister, the minister of that Executive Department directs 



126 JOINT OBSEQUIES BY CONGRESS. 

that public business be suspended on the day of the funeral, that the building 
be draped in mourning for thirty dajs, that the flag be displayed at half staff, 
and other funeral honors incident to that branch of the Executive Depart 
ments be observed. 

The length of adjournment of the branch of which the deceased was a 
member is governed by the condition of business, but customarily it lasts until 
the remains leave the city or until after interment, if made in the city. 

The flags over the Capitol are placed at half staff during all sessions until 
after the interment of the remains. 

JOINT OBSEQUIES BY CONGRESS. The form supposes the obse 
quies to take place in the Hall of the Representatives. If in the Senate the 
same form would be observed, only changing terms. 

The Senate and House meet according to the order of arrangements. Be 
ing called to order by the presiding officer, the chaplain opens with prayer. 
The reading of the journal, on motion, is dispensed with. At the appointed 
hour the Clerk of the House appears at the bar of the Senate and delivers the 
following message : 

Mr. President, I am directed by the Speaker to inform the Senite that the 
House of Representatives is now in session and ready to receive the Senate. 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE. Pursuant to order, the Senate will now 
proceed to the Hall of the House of Representatives to attend the funeral of 
the 

The Senate, preceded by its Sergeant-at-Arms, proceeds to the Hall of the 
House of Representatives. 

The meeting in joint assemblage. About twenty minutes before the ap 
pointed hour the Senate should appear at the main door of the House. The 
Doorkeeper announces the Senate of the United States The President of 
the Senate is escorted to a seat beside the Speaker s chair. 

As the several invited bodies and individuals, in proper order, enter they 
are ushered to the seats assigned to them. 

At the opening hour the casket is brought it), accompanied by the officiating 
clergymen and pall beai ers. 

The funeral service, conducted according to the ritual of the church of the 
deceased, then begins. 

Order of Proceedings. The following form of proceedings, agreed upon by 
the joint committee of the two Houses of Congress, is printed by the com 
mittee for information and the regulation of the occasion : 

The ceremonies will be under the control of the Bishop, or 



JOINT OBSEQUIES. 127 

Rev , of the Church, will conduct the religious ceremonies, 

and will be assisted by Rev , of the Church. 

Both Houses of Congress will assemble at their Hall at 11:30 o clock. On 
notice from the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Senate will pro 
ceed to the House in a body. 

The Diplomatic Corps will assemble in the and the President and 

Cabinet in the room of the Committee on , and from there will 

join the procession. 

Funeral Procession. The funeral procession will arrive at the east front of 
the Capitol, and enter through the east entrance of the Rotunda and be met 
there by the joint committee of Congress. The procession will then be 
formed, under the direction of the [Secretary of the Senate, or Clerk of the 
House, or Marshal of the Supreme Court, ] in substantially the following order: 
Officiating Clergymen, Committees of both Houses of Congress. Casket 
containing the remains. Senators or Representatives or Justices of the Su 
preme Court as pall-bearers, with messengers of the Senate or House or Su 
preme Court as body-bea r ers. Family and relatives of the deceased. Presi 
dent of the United States and members of his Cabinet. The commanding 
General of the Army and Admiral of the Navy. Diplomatic Corps. Here 
also enumerate other invited bodies or committees in their order. 

Entering the Hall. On entering the Hall of the Representatives the dif 
ferent bodies will be conducted to the seats reserved for them. The casket 
will be placed directly in front of the Clerk s desk, and the family and rela 
tives will occupy seats on each side thereof and near thereto. Those assem 
bled will rise. 

This order then gives the assignment of seats to the different bodies. 

At the conclusion of the service the casket is removed, preceded by the joint 
committee of the two Houses of Congress, followed by the body to which the 
the deceased belonged. The President and his Cabinet. The Justices of the 
Supreme Court. The General of the Army and Admiral of the Navy. The 
members of the Diplomatic Corps. The Senate and other invited bodies. 
The House, after all have retired, immediately adjourns. The visiting House 
having returned to its hall, also immediately adjourns. 

EULOGIES. It is customary before the adjournment of The Congress to 
set apart a portion of a session to memorial exercises, consisting of the adop 
tion of resolutions, and pronouncing of eulogies in memory of the deceased. 
The first eulogy, when practicable, is by a colleague from each party, but in 
all cases by those who were most intimate with the deceased. 

INVITATIONS. To prevent confusion and overcrowding, invitation, or 
cards of admission are issued by each House of Congress for special occasions. 




WIFE OF THE 22 VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. (128) 



THE VICE-PRESIDENT PRECEDENCE. 129 



THE VICE-PRESIDENT. 

Next to THE PRESIDENT in the order of precedence in the official and social 
scale at the seat of Government, is The Vic -President. 

CONSTITUTIONAL STATUS. The Vice-President of the United 
States is chosen at the same time and by the same methods and for the same 
term as the PRESIDENT. He is the constitutional heir apparent to the ex 
ecutive office. 

CONSTITUTIONAL POWERS. He is the constitutional first officer 
of the legislative branch of the Government. "The Vice-President of the 
United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless 
they be equally divided." Constitution of the United States, Article /, Sec 
tion 3. 

Under authority of the Constitution he presides over the meeting of the 
two Houses of Congress for the counting of the electoral votes for President 
and Vice-President, opens the certificates of said vote from the States of the 
Union and proclaims the result. 

SOCIAL STATUS. The Vice-President of the United States, who is an 
officer provided by the Constitution to compass the contingency of a vacancy 
in the Executive office, during the time of his Presidency of the Senate, 
is entitled to the social recognition of the constitutional head of the highest 
body of the second co-ordinate branch of the Government. 

TITLE AND ADDRESS. The official title of this officer is The Vice- 
President, and nothing else. In presentations it is The Vice-President of 
the United States. If addressed in conversation it is Mr. Vice-President. 

The use of any other title, except by a close friend, would be improper, 
and even in this case it would not be best form. 

All official communications are ?ddressed, To the Vice-President, or, as 
the chief officer of the Senate To the President of the Senile. In corre 
spondence of a personal nature the address should be, , Vice- 
President of the United States, without prefix of title. 

THE VICE PRESIDENT S OFFICE. The Vice President occupies 
official quarters in the Capitol at the East end of The Senate Lobby, and 
convenient to the Senate Chamber. He has no stated official hours. Dur 
ing the Congressional season he is usually in his office from 10 A, M. until 



1 3 o 



THE VICE-PRESIDENT. 



12 M., and from 12 M., as a rule, in the Chair presiding over the delibera 
tions of the Senate, when in session, until the hour of adjournment. When 
in his office at any time, he receives by card, which will be handed in by the 
usher at the door. The Vice- President does not receive while in the Chair, 
but he may indicate when convenent to do so. 

CARD. The formal card of the Vice- President is : THE VICE-PRESIDENT. 

CEREMONIAL AND SOCIAL DUTIES. The Vice-president pays a 
visit of ceremony to the President immediately after the assembling of Con 
gress in December of each year. He also calls on New Year s and Inde 
pendence days if in the city. He receives a formal visit from the Chief Jus 
tice and Associates of the Supreme Court as soon as practicable after the 
assembling of the Court, which he returns in person upon the Chief Justice, 
and in person or by card upon the Associates. He is entitled to the first 
visit of ceremony from all others, which he may return in person or by 
card. Upon all ceremonial or official occasions he appears at the head of 
the Senate. 

At a formal dinner party, or upon any other occasion where the represent 
atives of the three co-ordinate branches of the Government appear together, 
The Vice- President takes the second place in order of precedence, being pre 
ceded only by THE PRESIDENT. 

The ladies of the Vice- President s family receive on stated days, usually 
Thursdays, from 3 to 5 p. m., during the season. The Vice- President 
also holds card receptions. The forms of invitations and ceremonies are the 
same as for other receptions. 

The wife of the Vice President or presiding lady of his family occupies the 
second place in the social scale, and next to the chief lady of the Executive 
household. 

For general official powers, honors and obsequies, see The Congress. 

PRESIDENTIAL SUCCESSION. The induction of the Vice President 
into the Executive office is attended with no public display. (See Presiden 
tial Succession. The President.} 

OBSEQUIE S. The funeral ceremonies on the death of the. Vice President 
are the same as for a Senator. THE PRESIDENT also announces the sad event 
by official publication through the Secretary of State; directs all public busi 
ness to be suspended on the day of the funeral and orders the flags on public 
buildings, forts, naval stations and vessels to be displayed at half staff until 
after the funeral. On the death of an ex- Vice President the flags on all public 
buildings are placed at half staff. 



THE PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE. 131 

THE PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE OF 
THE SENATE. 

In the President pro tempore of the Senate is vested the constitutional 
residuary right of presiding officer of the Senate, chosen by the Senators 
from one of their own number. 

CONSTITUTIONAL STATUS. The President pro tempore of the Senate 
exercises his constitutional powers and is entitled to the prerogatives and 
precedence of rank under constitutional provisions. 

"The Senate shall choose * * * , and also a President pro tempore, in the 
absence of the Vice- President, or when he shall exercise the office of President 
of the United States "Constitution ofth>. United States, Article /, Section 3 

In event of a vacancy in the Vice-Presidential office, the President of the 
Senate pro tempore enjoys all the privileges and prerogatives of the Vice Presi 
dent, except the title and right of succession to the office of President. The 
title belongs exclusively to the individual upon whom legally conferred, and 
during the time only that he holds the office. 

PRECEDENCE AND SOCIAL RELATIONS. The President pro 
tempore is not only entitled to all the powers and prerogatives, but also to the 
social ra:k appertaining to the Vice- President as President of the Senate 
when performing the duties of the same ii event of a vacancy in the office of 
Vice- President. 

In the scale of official dignities he would then hold second place. 

The same rule applies to the wife of the President pro tempore of the Senate, 
or the presiding lady of his family. 

TITLE. The President pro tempore of the Senate retains the title of a 
Senator. His position doe? not change his relations to the Senate, as he 
holds his office subject to its will. 

The President of the Senate pro tempore is addressed as such in all official 
communications, when presiding over the Senate, on account of a vacancy in 
the Vice- Presidential office. He has no right, however, to the title of Vice- 
President. 

Also, see The Vice- President for special ceremonial and social duties, honors, 
and obsequies. Also, see The Senators. 

The importance of the presiding officer of the Senate in the scale of digni 
ties was shown in the deliberations of the convention of 1787, which proposed 
that officer as the president of the negatived Executive and Privy Council of 
THE PRESIDENT. In this relation he was placed ahead of the Chief Justice. 



132 THE SENATORS. 



THE SENATOKS. 

The members of the upper branch of Congress hold the relation to the 
theory of the National compact, of Ambassadors at the seat of Government, 
chosen by the Legislatures of the quasi sovereignties of the Union to repre 
sent the body politic. 

PRECEDENCE. The Senate being a continuous body and a Senator 
occupying a sort of ambassadorial rank from a State of the Union, hold 
ing certain sovereign rights, naturally falls in line in the scale of official and 
social precedence in the fourth place or immediately after the chief officers 
representing the three co-ordinate branches of the Supreme Government. 

The order of precedence of Senator s from the same State, being two, is 
seniority of consecutive service in the Senate. The arrangement of Senators 
in the calling of the roll in the transaction of the business of the Senate is 
alphabetical. By courtesy special precedence on ceremonial occasions is ac 
corded to Senators of exceptional length of service. 

POWERS AND DUTIES. The Senator s exercise executive, legislative, 
and judicial powers in certain cases denned in the Constitution. 

Their concurrence in all legislative measures of the House of Representa 
tives is required to make them laws. 

They have sole power as a high court of impeachment to try all impeach 
ments, including the President of the United States. 

They ratify all treaties. 

They confirm all Ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges 
of the Supreme Court and all other officers of the United States not other 
wise provided for by the Constitution and established by law. 

Originally the Senate performed in a measure the functions of an Execu 
tive Council. Since the administration of Jefferson, intercourse between the 
Executive and the Senate has been by written commmunications. See The 
Congress, Opening of Congress and Executive Communications. 

The Senate performing certain executive functions, it was not unusual for 
the first President to confer with that body in person. Upon such occasions 
he notified the Senate of his proposed presence in the following form : 
"Gentlemen of the Senate: 

"THE PRESIDENT of the United States will meet the Senate in the Senate 
Chamber at half-past eleven o clock to-morrow, to advise with them on the 
terms of the treaty to be negotiated with the Southern Indians. 

NEW YORK, August 21, 1789. GEO. WASHINGTON. 



134 THE SENATORS TITLE. 

Upon these occasions THE PRESIDENT was attended by a member of his 
Cabinet, took the chair; laid the statement before that body in person 
and participated in the discussion. 

The Salutatory tide of a member of the Senate, is Mr. Senator, or Sena 
tor. The latter style being less formal, should only be used by personal ac 
quaintances. It is proper to address a Senator by any title to which he 
may have a right, if of approximately equal rank. This is, however, not 
the best form. The right to the ti le of Senator expires with retirement 

from the Senate. In receiving an introduction, the style is, Mr , a 

Senator of the United States from 

The official or formal style of address of a Senator in a communication is, 
Hon , Senator of the United States, and his place of residence. 

Or, if at the capital, during the sittings of Congress : 
Hon , Senate of the United States. 

CARDS. The form of cards of Senators is, Senator or 

U. S. Senate. 

OFFICIAL AND SOCIAL DUTIES. The Senators make the first 
call on THE PRESIDENT, The Vice- President and The Chief Justice and As 
sociates, upon the assembling of Congress in December. They receive the 
first call from all others. They return all calls by card or in person. Also, 
see The Congress for courtesies, honors and obsequies* 

The wives of Senators, or presiding ladies of Senators families, hold the 
same place in the social scale in their relations with other ladies, according 
to rank. 



THE SPEAKER. 135 

THE SPEAKEE. 

The constitutional presiding officer of the popular or representative branch 
of Congress is The Speaker. 

PRECEDENCE. The speaker chosen from the list of Representatives 
takes the fifth place in the order of constitutional dignities and precedence. 
His authority and duties are confined to the body over which he presides. 
Unlike a Senator he exercises no authority in conjunction with the Executive; 
his duty being purely legislative. 

FORM OF ADDRESS. In addressing The Speaker of the House of 
Representatives it is proper to say Mr. Speaker. 

In the first Congress The President of the Senate, not knowing how to 
direct a letter to the Speaker, called on the House for information. After some 
contest the question was put in the House whether the Speaker should 
be styled Honorable, which was passed in the negative. He is, therefore, 
simply "The Speaker." 

In official communications the form of address is, 

To the Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

If the communication partake of a personal character, it should be ad 
dressed, Hon , Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

This form is only proper for communications addressed to the Speaker 
in his official capacity at Washington, concerning affairs of the House. 

All communications addressed to him in his representative capacity, should 
be the same as for any other Representative in Congress. 

SOCIAL DUTIES. The Speaker of the House of Representatives calls 
in person upon THE PRESIDENT, The Vice President and The Chief Jiis- 
tice upon the assembling of Congress in December. He also makes the 
first call upon Senators, and receives the first call from all others, which 
he returns by card or in person. 

The same rule applies to the ladies of his family towards other ladies. 

The Speaker also gives evening receptions by card, and his Lady receives 
on a stated day, usually Tuesdays, from 3 to 5 p. m. The entertainment of 
officials or members of Congress at dinner parties is optional. The Speaker 
receives on New Year s day, and cards left then, as a rule, will with discrim 
ination be recognized by an invitation to an evening reception if given. 

For courtesies, honors and obsequies see The Congress. 



136 THE REPRESENTATIVES. 



THE KEPKESENTATIVES. 

The Representatives are the constitutional depositaries of the delegated 
sovereignty of the people, chosen by constituencies defined by Congress. 

POWERS. They have the sole power of impeachment to be tried by the 
Senate. They originate all bills for raising revenue or making appropria 
tions for the common defence, support of the Government and general wel 
fare of the United States, subject to concurrence or amendment of the Sen 
ate. And exercise concurrently with the Senate all the powers conferred by 
the Constitution on Congress. 

PRECEDENCE. The Representatives occupy the sixth place in the 
scale of constitutional dignities. They represent a constituent fraction or 
quota of the body of the people in the exercise of fundamentary legislative 
powers 

STYLE OF ADDRESS. The formal style of addressing a Representa 
tive in conversation is, Mr. Representative, or in introductions, Mr , 

a Representative from the State of It is customary and preferable 

to address a Representative by such title of rank, or profession, as belongs 
to him by virtue of other services, always using the highest. 

The formal style of addressing a Representative in Congress, in a communi 
cation, is 

Hon , Representative from , and his place of residence ; 

or, if at the capital during the sittings of Congress, 

Hon , House of Representatives. 

CARDS. The cards of Representatives simply give the name, as Mr. 
, Representative from 



DUTIES OF ETIQUETTE AND SOCIETY. A Representative calls 
upon THE PRESIDENT during the first ten days after the assembling of Con 
gress and on New Year s day. Also upon The Vice President and Chief 
Justice, Senators and the Speaker, soon after the assembling of Congress, 
and receives the first call from all others, which he returns by card or in 
person. 

The wives of the Representatives, or the ladies of their families, follow the 
same rule in regard to their social duties. They also, in many cares, have a 
day at home, usually Tuesdays from 3 to 5 p. M. (See The Congress*} 



JUDICIAL PRECEDENCE. 137 




HEN the three co-ordinate branches of the Government act to- 
f gether in matters of a ceremonial nature, the Judiciary takes the 
third place. 

CONSTITUTIONAL STATUS. The Supreme Court of the United 
States is a component part of the frame of government, by specific constitu 
tional designation. 

"The Judicial pcrwer of the United States shall be vested in one Su 
preme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to 
time ordain and establish." Constitution of the United States, Article III. 

STATUTORY PERSONNEL. The Court was given its statutory or 
ganization in the Judicial establishment by act of 1789. Its Justices were 
nominated to the Senate and confirmed the same year, and the line of succes 
sion of chiefs and associates has come down unbroken. 

The Supreme Court shall consist of one "Chief Justice of *the United 
States" and [eight] associates. (Revised Statutes.} 

JUDICIAL PRECEDENCE. Various legislative enactments have de 
signated the grades of Judicial office under the United States, as follows : 

1. The Chief Justice of the United States. 

2. The Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States in 
the order of seniority. 

3. The Circuit and District Judges of the United States. 

4. The Chief Justice and Associates of the Supreme Court of the District 
of Columbia and of the Territories of the United States. 

5 The Chief Justice of the Court of Claims. 

6. The Judges of the Court of Claims. 

On a National statutory judicial commission, the members of the Judiciary 
would naturally be given the place of precedence for that specific duty. In 
the establishment of the Electoral Tribunal of 1877, the Senate and the 
House of Representatives recognized this order by legislative enactment, the 
Justices of the Supreme Court being given precedence. The senior Justice 
was declared the presiding officer of the Tribunal, and during proceedings sat 
with two of his associates on either side, and the five Senators in turn sitting 
on their right and the five Representatives on their left. 



138 COURT ETIQUETTE. 

COURT PRECEDENCE. I. The Chief Justice. 2. The Associate Jus 
tices -in the order of seniority of commission. 

The officers of the Court in their order: The Clerk of the Court and 
Deputy Clerk. The Marshal and Assistant Marshals. The Reporter. The 
Supreme Court on all ceremonial occasions is accompanied by its officers. 

The same order is observed with respect to the officers of inferior courts 
of the United States. 

THE ROBES. The Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States 
during their sittings on the bench and on all ceremonial occasions in the ex 
ercise of certain duties they wear their robes of office. 

FORMS OF ADDRESS. The titles used in addressing members of the 

Supreme Court in conversation are Mr. Chief Justice , and for the 

Associate Justices, Mr. Justice It is not uncommon to use the title 

Judge as applied to a member of the Supreme Court. While not improper 
the title Justice is better. The title Judge belongs to the judicial officers of 
all tribunals below the Supreme bench. 

In correspondence the form of official address is To the Chief Justice. If 
the communication be of a personal nature, the address may be Mr. Chief Jus 
tice * It is not proper to use the form Hon , 

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. 

The form of address of the other members of the Court is Mr. Justice 
Other judicial officers of the United States courts are ad 
dressed : Hon , Judge of the 

CEREMONIAL ETIQUETTE. The Chief Justice and Associates on 
the first day of the assembling of the Court each yt ar, after organizing and 
announcing the call of the Docket next day, immediately adjourn, in order to 
make a call of ceremony, in a body with their officers, to pay their respects to 
THE PRESIDENT, if in the city, at the Executive mansion. 

The members of the Court then make a call on the Vice- President at the 
Capitol, on the same day, if that officer be in the city. If not they leave a 
card at his official place as a recognition of the chief of the second great co 
ordinate branch of the Government. This call does not include the Presi 
dent pro temporeot the Senate, unless in the exercise of the functions of the 
office of President of the Senate. 

The Chief Justice and Associate Justices accompanied by their ladies and 
the officers of the Court, call upon the President on New Year s day. 

They are also included in all state ceremonials under THE PRESIDENT 
or The Congress, 



CEREMONIAL ETIQUETTE. 



139 



The Justices among themselves, within the first week of the term, call upon 
the Chief Justice, and each Associate Justice in turn calls first upon his senior. 
These calls are returned in person in the order in which received. They also 
return calls ot ceremony or etiquette, from officials or private citizens, en 




titled to make them, in person or by card. In official courtesies extended to 
the Supreme Court as a body its officers are included. At a ceremonial 
dinner given by the Attorney General to the members of the Court, invita 
tions are usually sent to its chief officers. 



S / 




WIFE OF THE EIGHTH CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE UNITED STATES. 



THE CHIEF JUSTICE. 14! 

THE CHIEF JUSTICE. 

The Chief Justice of the United States takes rank third in the order of 
constitutional dignities, being the head of the third co-ordinate branch of the 
Government. 

CONS7TTUTIONAL TITLE. There has, at times, been some difference 
as to the proper title of the Chief Justice. 

The specific Constitutional des : gnation of the office, is in the provisions for 
the trial of the President of the United States by the Senate, under articles of 
impeachment, "When the Chief Justice" inferentially of the United States, 
"shall pres de." 

HISTORIC PRECEDENTS. President Washington nominated, 1789, 
John Jay, and 1795, John Rutledge, "to be Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of the United States. " The Senate, in their Executive Journal, referred 
to the nomination of the latter as "The Chief Justice of the United States." 
Washington, 1796, changed the. title by nominating Oliver Ellsworth, "to be 
Chief Justice of the United States." President Adams, 1800, nominated 
John Jay, declined, and 1800, John Marshall, "to be Chief Justice of the 
United States." President Jackson, 1835, nominated Roger B. Taney, Lin 
coln, 1864, S. P. Chase, and Grant, 1874, M. R. Waite, "to be Chief Jus 
tice of the Supreme Court of the United States." President Cleveland, 1888, 
nominated M. W. Fuller "to be Justice of the United States." Chief Jus 
tices Chase and Waite signed certain papers with their proper title as First 
officer of the National Judiciary. 

The statutory enactment of April lo, 1869, determined the question of title, 
by designating it as "Chief Justice of the United States." 

INVESTITURE OF THE CHIEF JUSTICE. The ceremony of in 
vestiture of a Chief Justice with the robes of office is executed in the follow 
ing form: 

On the day designated for the purpose, The Assocfate Justices of the Court, 
in their robes, enter their chamber and observe the usual forms of meeting. 
The prospective Chief Justice takes a seat at the clerk s desk. The Senior 
Associate Justice rises, and announces from the bench, that the commission 

of , as Chief Justice of the United States had been received, 

which he directs the Clerk of the Court to read. At the close of the reading, 
the Clerk administers the oath of office to the Chief Justice, or the Chief 
Justice reads and subscribes to it himself upon "The Book," all standing and 
bowing when concluded, in the presence of the Court. 



142 THE CHIEF JUSTICE. 

The Chief Justice then retires to the lobby behind the marble screen in the 
rear of the Supreme Bench, where he is invested with the Judicial robe. He 
is then escorted, to the central opening in the screen and enters upon the 
bench. The Associate Justices and spectators simultaneously rise. The 
Chief Justice advances, makes an obeisance to the Court, and takes the Chief 
Justice s seat in the center on the bench. The Associates then take their seats 
and the spectators also become seated. 

Upon such an occasion the Attorney General represents the Executive and 
Senators and Representatives the legislative branches of the Government. 
If the vacancy occurred during the recess, tie Investiture takes place on the 
day of the re-assembling of the Court. 

THE CHIEF JUSTICE AND THE PRESIDENT. The Chief 
Justice of the United States, by virtue of his high office, administers the oath, 
prescribed by the Constitution, to THE PRESIDENT, on entering on the duties 
of his office. 

THE CHIEF JUSTICE AND THE SENATE. Pending the trial of 
Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, by the Senate, as a Court 
of Impeachment, the question of the title and powers of the Chief Justice, 
as presiding officer, being dispute I by one of the Managers, on the part of 
the House, the Chief Justice said "The Chief Justice will state the rule 
which he conceives to be applicable. In this body he is the presiding officer; 
he is so by virtue of his high office under the Constitution. He is the Chief 
Justice of the United States, and therefore, when the President of the 
United States is tried by the Senate, it is his duty to preside in that body, and, 
as he understands, he is, therefore, the President of the Senate, sitting as a 
Court of Impeachment." In this view he was sustained. The Constitution 
recognizes him as The Chief Justice not in his connection with the Su 
preme Court of the United States, but in the broader sense of the head of 
the third co-ordinate branch of the Government, acting in conjunction with 
the second, in the performance of a momentous duty affecting the chief officer 
of the first. 

FORMS OF ADDRESS. In conversation, the proper form of address is 
Mr. Chief Justice. In official correspondence, "To the Chief Justice." In 

unofficial communications, Mr. Chief Justice *. (address.) (See 

The Judiciary.} 

CARD. The official and social card, bear the words, The Chief Justice. 

CALLS OF ETIQUETTE. The Chief Justice makes calls of ceremony 
each year, at the head of the Court, on The President and Vice-President of 



THE CHIEF JUSTICE. 143 

the United States, or President pro tempore of the Senate, if there be no Vice- 
President, and receives the first call from all others. He returns calls of 
etiquette. (Also, see Cermonial Etiquette The Judiciary.} 

The wife of the Chief Justice makes and receives calls in the same relation 
of rank, among ladies, and returns calls. 

PUBLIC OBSEQUIES. The ceremonies attending the obsequies of The 
Chief Justice of the United States, if at the Capital, are conducted with a 
degree of solemnity commensurate with the dignity of the chief officer of 
the third co-ordinate branch of the government. 

THE PRESIDENT, by official publication through the Secretary of State, an 
nounces the death of the Chief Justice, directs all public offices to close on 
the day of the funeral; orders the draping of the Executive Departments in 
mourning for thirty days, and the placing of flags at half-staff on public build 
ings, forts and vessels of war, on the day of the funeral, and the perform 
ance of suitable funeral honors. 

The entrance to the Supieme Court Chamber and the Bench is also 
draped in mourning. The funeral arrangements are in charge of the Court. 
If in session, suitable announcement and action on the sad event is taken. 

A meeting of citizens is usually held to make arrangements to participate, 
by committee, in the funeral ceremonies. 

Communications of Condolence are sent to the family by THE PRESI 
DENT, and resolutions of a similar character are passed by Congress, if in 
session, and sent to the family by the Presiding officers. 

Among the pallbearers, are represented the Executive by the Cabinet, the 
Senate, the House, the Army and the Navy. 

Chief Justice Chase having died in New York, the Marshal of the Court 
left for that city forthwith and took charge of the remains, which after ap 
propriate ceremonies there, were brought to the Capital. The pall bearers 
and a few friends received them at the depot upon their arrival, conveyed 
them to the Chamber of the Supreme Court, where they were placed on a 
catafalque and lay in state, the public being permitted to view them. The 
obsequies have been held in the Hall of the House. (For form see Joint 
Congress Funeral Obsequies. } 

THE PRESIDENT and the chiefs of the different Executive Departments^ 
the Diplomatic Corps, the Congress and the Judiciary are present. The 
usual services are conducted according to the order of arrangements. The 
funeral procession to the place of interment is of a purely civic character. 



144 THE ASSOCIATE JUSTICES. 



THE ASSOCIATE JUSTICES 

OF THE 

SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The Associate Justices, in the order of statutory official precedence, take 
rank first after the constitutional dignities, "the Supreme Court," of which 
they are a constituent part, being recognized in terms in the Constitution as 
part of the organic form of the Government. (See General order of official 
precedence. ) 

TITLE. The title Associate Justice is statutory. (Act 1789.) 

PRECEDENCE. By legislative enactment, the Associate Justices have 
precedence according to seniority of commission or age two being of the same 
date. In event of the death of the Chief Justice, the Senior Associate be 
comes acting Chief Justice until the vacancy shall be filled. 

CARDS. The visiting cards of Associate Justices bear the inscription 
Mr. Justice 

CALLS OF ETIQUETTE. The Justices in their own option call first 
on the Senators, the Speaker and Representatives whom they wish to meet 
socially, and receive the first call from all other. This should be made soon 
after the opening of the season. 

SOCIAL RELATIONS. The ladies of the families of the Justices of the 
Court call upon the ladies of the families in the same form as Justices under 
the rules governing the social privileges of those persons, and receive the 
first calls from all others. (See The Judiciary.} 

OBSEQUIES. The funeral obsequies of an Associate Justice are at 
tended with the ceremony due to the memory of a distinguished citizen and 
an august judge. 



THE JUDGES OF UNITED STATES COURTS. 145 

THE JUDGES OF UNITED STATES 
COURTS. 

The Circuit, District and Territorial Courts comprise what are known as 
United States Courts. 

ORDER OF PRECEDENCE. The Judges of these Courts take pre 
cedence among themselves according to seniority in the order of the Courts 
to which they belong as Circuit Judges, District Judges, Chief and Associate 
Justices of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia and of Courts in 
the Territories of the United States. 

TITLES. While the members of the Supreme Court of the District of 
Columbia and the Territorial Courts are recognized by the laws, under the 
titles of Chief and Associate Justices, they are termed so only by virtue of 
ill-considered legislation, so far as the proprieties of judicial nomenclature 
are concerned. There is but one title of Chief Justice, and that is the one rec 
ognized in the Constitution and in the organic act of the Judiciary. There is 
but one title of Associate Justice, and that belongs 1o the members of the Su 
preme Court of the United States. To apply these titles to members of in 
ferior tribunals is inappropriate and out of place. 

The only title by which all such judicial officers are known should be 
Chief Judge and Judge. 

In correspondence the form of address is, Hon , Judge of the 

Court of 

CEREMONIAL RELATIONS. During their presence at the Capital 
judicial officers of United States Courts naturally on ceremonial occasions 
take rank with Governors of States in the civil rank. 

SOCIAL RELATIONS. The Judges of United States Courts and their 
families enjoy the social relations due to other distinguished personages. 
They make the first call on the higher officials and their families, and receive 
in return such consideration as their official status warrants. 

THE SUPREME COURT OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 
The Judicial and other officers of the Supreme Court take precedence among 
each other on ceremonial occasions, as follows : 

The Chief Justice. The Associate Justices. The Clerk of the Court. The 
District Attorney. The United States Marshal. 

10 



146 THE JUDGES OF THE COURT OF CLAIMS. 



JUDGES OF THE COURT OF CLAIMS- 

The exercise of Judicial powers is not limited to the Judicial branch of 
the government. The Court of Claims, under the act of 1855 and subse 
quent enactments, organized as a kind of appendage of Congress and the ex 
ecutive departments for the investigation of certain claims and contracts, 
consists of a Chief Justice and a specified number of Judges. 

ORDER OF PRECEDENCE. In the general order of precedence of 
rank, the Judges of the Court of Claims would naturally follow United 
States Judges. While the causes tried by the court represent all sections of 
the country, as a tribunal its powers are limited. 

TITLES. The title of the presiding officer of the Court of Claims, under the 
organic act, was simply Judge. A later act created the rank of Chief Justice 
of the Court of Claims; therefore to the person filling the position belongs 
that title. As there is but one Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the United 
States, who is also the Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Tribunal of the 
land, the proper title of the chief officer of the Court of Claims, beyond the 
circle of the court, is Mr. Chief Justice of the Court of Claims and never sim 
ply Mr. Chief Justice. That is the title of the chief officer of the third co 
ordinate branch of the government. In official papers and correspondence 
his title is The Chief Justice of the Court of Claims. The proper form of 
address would be To The Chief Justice of the Court of Claims, or Hon. 
, Chief Justice of the Court of Claims. The title which ap 
plies to the other members of the court is Judge, and the form of address 
is Hon , Judge of the Court of Claims. 

OFFICIAL AND SOCIAL RELATIONS. The Chief Justice and Judges 
of the Court of Claims make a ceremonial call on THE PRESIDENT at the 
Executive mansion on New Year s day. They make the first call on the 
Vice President, Chief Justice and Associates of the Supreme Court, Sena 
tors, the Speaker and Representatives, members of the Cabinet, Diplomatic 
ministers, and among themselves in the order of seniority. 

OBSEQUIES, The ceremonies attending the obsequies of a member 
of a United States Court, or the Court of Claims, are the same as would 
be due to a distinguished citizen, unless having filled the post of Head of an 
Executive Department, when they would be entitled to the funeral honors 
due to such rank. 



THE OFFICIALS OF STATES IN SOCIETY. 147 



ujTRiRECEDENCE of rank and the ceremonial and social relations of the 
x^* various grades of office, under the governments of the several Common- 
fjJk, wealths or bodies politic of the National Union are governed by the same 
general principles within their own circles, that apply to the Supreme Gov 
ernment. The State represents a complete sovereignty in all its internal af 
fairs and other matters not specifically inhibited by the provisions of the Con 
stitution, as essential to the authority of the supreme government in matters 
of National or central administration, for the peace, security and happiness 
of the whole people. 

ORDER OF PRECEDENCE. The Chief Executive officer of a State, 
on ceremonial occasions at Washington, takes place in the list of civil officers, 
after the chief officer of the Army and Navy. (See Official and Social Eti 
quette. ) 

The usual order of precedence in a State government is The Governor, 
Lieutenant Governor and Chief Judicial Officer, the heads of the administra 
tive offices, by the suffrages of the people and therefore responsible directly 
to them or by appointment and subject to the orders of the Governor, the 
Judges of the inferior courts and the members of the Legislature or General 
Assembly, consisting of Senators and Representatives. These officials when 
associated with members of the National government on a ceremonial oc 
casion would follow after the Governor of the State and in his suite. 

TITLES. The titles applying to these officials vary in different localities. 
In some States the Chief Executive officer is addressed as The Governor, in 
other States His Excellency The Governor; or His Excellency the Gov 
ernor of , naming the State. The rule which applies to the 

Chief Executive officer of the Nation, and which was determined after full dis 
cussion in the convention of 1787 and in the early Congresses, in a large 
measure composed of the men who had been conspicuous in the actual strug 
gles of the people against the British King and Ministry, might be regarded 
as the exponent of the spirit of American institutions. The title The Gover 
nor therefore can always be correct in official communications, or 

Governor of in correspondence and Governor whc n 



148 STATE OFFICIALS. 

addressed in person. In some States the form of address in person is Your 
Excellency. 

The title of respect, Honorable would be proper as applied to the Governor 
when addressed by name or Judges of State Courts, but below those grades 
its use is purely an assumption. Under the strict rule of propriety the title 
Honorable should be used only by the Heads of the Great Executive De 
partments of the Nation, the J udges of United States Courts, the Senators 
and Representatives of Congress, the Governors of States, Judges of State 
Courts and the Mayors of cities. THE PRESIDENT, the Vice-President, 
the Chief Justice and The Governor of a State are officially addressed by 
their official titles and in person by the prefix of Mr. with the title. 

SOCIAL RELATIONS. The Governor of a State bears the same rela 
tion to the social superstructure within the jurisdiction of his Executive au 
thority that the President of the United States does to the social world of 
the Nation. The ladies of the family of the Governor also stand in the same 
relation. The Governor of a State officially visiting the Capital makes a 
call of etiquette on THE PRESIDENT, The Vice- President and The Chief 
Justice ; leaves a card at the residences of the Senators from his State, and 
receives calls from Representatives and also officials in the Executive Depart 
ments or other branches of the Government, from his State. While the 
Representatives of his State precede him on ceremonial occasions, they do so 
as a component part of one of the co-ordinate branches of the Supreme Gov 
ernment. Apart from that relation or within the limits of the Executive au 
thority of a Governor, a Representative whose constituency is limited, takes 
place after officers of election by the whole people of the State. 

State officers visiting Washington on business or pleasure, should make 
these calls of etiquette if they desire to share in the social enjoyments of 
the Capital. On all visits of etiquette it is necessary to leave a card, as fol 
lows: 



Governor of 

Also gives the address in the city. This form is desirable, as it is often 
necessary to know the name as well as the title of a visiting official of dis 
tinction. 



THE IMPORTANCE OF ETIQUETTE. 149 



UT# N every well ordered community the observance of the usages and forms 
VIK* of social intercourse is an important part of the every day life ofthe 
(^/ people. The interests, tastes, education, culture, refinement, employ 
ments and aspirations of persons so widely differ, that were it not for cer 
tain conventional rules accepted by the members of what we call society, it 
would be impossible to maintain that concord so essential to human asso 
ciation. The bringing of these diverse elements into relation with each other, 
is the part of etiquette. It may therefore be said that etiquette is the ma 
chinery by means of which society is made harmonious and the relations 
between persons of congenial tastes and pursuits are established and main 
tained. 

IMPORTANCE OF ETIQUETTE AT WASHINGTON. There is 
no city in the United States where etiquette is more essential to order than 
in Washington. Many of its rules and practices as we have seen have been 
in force since the foundation of the government, and have become part ofthe 
machinery of official administration, as well as of social life. These were 
the results of custom, the necessities of official rank and occasion and of 
social intercourse among the members of the three co-ordinate branches of 
the government and the unofficial residents and strangers. It therefore be 
comes the more important that a person, entering the society of Washing 
ton, whether from official or private life, should know something about its 
forms. This knowledge is only to be acquired by study, observation and 
practice. To some, good manners are instinctive. To others, they are the 
result of culture. The Republican form of government makes no distinc 
tions as to birth or class, therefore, all sorts of characters find their way 
into office and through office into society. 

FORMATIVE PERIOD OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS AT THE 
CAPITAL. The early society of the Capital was much influenced in the 
establishment of its forms and practices by the presence of the Diplomatic rep 
resentatives of the brilliant courts of the old world. The government was 
yet in its infancy and the ideas of its people were somewhat crude in social 
affairs. Therefore, it was but natural, that from this source many of the 
customs of polite society should take their origin. A little A olume entitled 



150 THE "SEASON" AT WASHINGTON. 

"A Description of THE ETIQUETTE at Washington City, exhibiting the 
habits and customs that prevail in the intercourse of the most distinguished 
and fashionable society at that place during the session of Congress," by E. 
Cooley, M. D., appeared in 1829. It presents a mirror of the manners and 
customs of fashionable life at the Capital during the tenth administration. 
At that time John Quincy Adams was President, John C. Calhoun, Vice- 
President, and John Marshall, Chief Justice. Henry Clay was Secretary 
of State, and in the Senate and House of Representatives were some of the 
most brilliant intellects the country had produced. 

This pioneer writer on the etiquette of Washington introduces his subject 
with the remark, pertinent in some respects, even at the present day, that, 
"there is no place in the United States, where ceremony is as much ob 
served and practiced, as at the city of Washington ; where all the eti 
quette of the various courts of Europe is introduced by the foreign minis 
ters, and where they are met every winter by the most fashionable and dis 
tinguished citizens from every part of the United States, during the session 
of Congress." 

In all material points the etiquette of the present day differs but little from 
the practice then in vogue. THE PRESIDENT S levees were held then, as 
now, and were conducted in the same form, with the only difference that the 
company was "treated" with coffee, tea, and a variety of cakes, jellies, 
ice cream and white and red wine, mixed and unmixed, and sometimes 
other cordials and liquors, and frequently with West India fruit." These 
grateful accessions to the attractions of the evening, were "carried about the 
rooms, among the guests, upon large trays, by servants dressed in livery." 
Each guest helped himself when opportunity offered which it appears was 
not very often, owing to the crowds. The style of dressing "in small 
clothes" was about giving place to the costume de rigeur of the present day. 

The Secretary of State also gave "parties" as he now does card recep 
tions. The entertainment of the evening, however, consisted of "dancing 
and card playing." The invitations were sent to all the high functionaries 
of the government, and "all the distinguished and respectable strangers and 
resident inhabitants" who called on him and left a card. 



THE SEASON. 

THE social year at Washington is divided into "seasons," each of 
which has its appropriate and distinctive characteristic duties and social en 
joyments. 



152 THE SOCIAL SEASON. 

THE "SEASON." The Social and Ceremonial Seasons at Washington 
begin as follows : 

The Social Season among the members of the Supreme Court, the resi 
dent officials and residents, and their families, begins on the second Monday 
in October, on which day the Chief Justice of the United States, and Asso 
ciate Justices of the Supreme Court make their annual call of ceremony upon 
THE PRESIDENT and the Vice- President, and at which time the usual social 
courtesies incident to polite society upon the return of its members from 
their summer absence or recreation begin. 

The Congressional Season begins on the first Monday in December, with 
the official visit, by authority of a concurrent resolution of the Senate and 
House of Representatives, of the joint committee of the two Houses, to the 
President, at the Executive Mansion, to inform him of the assembling of 
Congress and readiness to receive any communications from him, and fol 
lowed by the ceremonial calls of the Senators and Representatives upon THE 
PRESIDENT, the Vice President and Chief Justice, and the exchange by them 
selves and families of calls of etiquette with resident officials and their ladies 
and distinguished families, in social life, in accordance with the rules of pre 
cedence of rank, explained elsewhere. 

The Official or Fashionable Season begins with the New Year s receptions 
of THE PRESIDENT and the members of official and social life, and con 
tinues with more or less activity, in social affairs, until the first day of Lent. 
During this period of religious discipline, only the most subdued forms of 
social entertainments are in order. At the close of Lent, Easter week inaug 
urates a new season of festivity, which lasts, but with somewhat abated zeal, 
until the approach of warm weather. 

At the close of Congress its members and others of the floating fashionable 
life of the Capital, during the season, depart for their homes. A brief 
period of gaiety follows the close of the short sessions of Congress, The 
society of the Capital, however, is then largely confined to the resident offi 
cials, the members of the Supreme Court, Senators, who keep house and 
entertain, and the Diplomatic Corps. These classes, except the Justices 
of the Supreme Court, who have left on their circuits, and Senators and their 
families, remain until after Independence Day, when THE PRESIDENT sets 
the example of a summer s jaunt, and is followed by the Heads of De 
partments, the members of the Diplomatic Corps and subordinate officials, 
as their privileges and the public business will admit. 



RECEPTION DAYS THE ETIQUETTE OF CALLS. 153 

RECEPTION DAYS. 

Every lady in fashionable society, whether in the official or unofficial circles, 
or even in the quieter spheres of social life in any community, should have a 
day in the week "at home," It will not only be a convenience to herself, but 
to her friends, who will then always know when they may best cancel their 
social obligations. 

The stated days for the Drawing Rooms of the ladies of official society will 
be found under "Official and Social Etiquette." The ladies not in official life 
also have certain days "At home, 1 which should be mentioned on their visiting 
cards. It is not unusual for ladies who receive to have a "neighborhood day." 

THE ETIQUETTE OF CALLING. 

ALL calls may be classed under the heads of calls of Ceremony or Etiquette; 
calls of Congratulation ; calls of Leave Taking, and calls of Condolence. 

The convenience of formal social intercourse has established the custom of 
a fixed day of the week "at home," when callers may expect to find the lady 
of the house in. 

RULES. As officials or men of business have their time taken up during 
the day their ladies, if married, make calls and leave their husbands cards, 
which are recognized as a call. 

A social call must always be on the lady of the house, whoever else is in 
cluded. A formal call on the gentleman of the house is always official, cere 
monial, or on business. 

Leaving a card during a "Drawing Room" or on the day "at home" is 
accepted as a call. 

If a lady from some imperative reason, sickness, absence or taking a day to 
return calls upon persons having her day "at home," be absent on her day a 
neat card basket should be fastened at the door bell to receive cards and as a 
notice "not at home." 

SOCIAL HOURS. The morning call, at Washington, as in all other 
communities, where the practices of polite society are in vogue, embraces 
all visits of etiquette or ceremony made before the dinner hour. This, in 
Washington, is 6 p. m., being regulated by official hours, which expire at 4 
p. m. The fashionable time of the day for making " morning " calls is there- 
fore between the hours of 3 and 5 p. m., and never later than 6 p. m. The 
time for an evening call is between 8 and 9 p. m. An informal call between 
friends or acquaintances, or on business, may be made from 10 A. M. to 12 M. 



154 THE ETIQUETTE OF CALLS. 

LENGTH OF CALLS. A morning call should not last more than from 
15 to 30 minutes, or should terminate as soon as propriety will admit, after 
another has entered the room. 

An evening call should not last over an hour. In calling always avoid ar 
riving just before or during meal times, as nothing so disconcerts the domestic 
order as such an intrusion. 

All formal calls should be of brief duration. All calls of friendship, among 
intimate friends, should be governed, in their length, by circumstances. 

FIRST CALL. The common law of social practice of residents calling 
first upon strangers, or new arrivals, was established by the first adminis 
tration. 

The custom of strangers making the first call, in person or by card upon 
residents, which is the present rule in official society, or among those in re 
lations with it, was recognized as an established form in Washington society 
as early as the tenth administration. It was then required that "both gen 
tlemen and ladies of any considerable distinction and fashion who intended 
to mix in the polite circles, should call upon the Heads of Departments and 
other distinguished families who gave and went to the fashionable parties." 

CALLING LISTS. In society, each lady should keep *list of her callers. 
This would save confusion and often coolness in social relations. 

It should be kept in a book of convenient size with a marginal alphabet. 
The names of all callers should be arranged under their proper letter. The 
page should be divided under the following heads : 



Name j Residence Reception Day j 



of 
Caller. 



of of Date of Call, I "" "T Remarks 



Caller. Caller. 



Returned. 



FORM OF MAKING CALLS. Ladies making morning calls or return 
ing calls go in their own carriages, or hired vehicles, and where the distance 
is short they walk. These calls being made during official or business hours, 



THE ETIQUETTE OF CALLS. 155 

the ladies, as a rule, call upon each other unattended by gentlemen. When 
a lady calls in her carriage, she stops in front of the residence and sends her 
footman to the door. The footman rings the bell and inquires whether the 
lady of the house is in. If the reply be that she is, the footman hands in 
her card and the lady alights if she desires to make a personal call, or he 
simply leaves her card. If not in, the footman simply hands cards for the 
ladies to the servant without remark, which is regarded as a call. The lady 
drives to the next place on her list, and goes through the same routine. 

When the lady is not receiving, or does not wish to receive the person call 
ing, she replies through her servant that she "is not in." 

If a lady calling goes to the door herself she r quires "Are Mrs " 

(the lady of the house always) and (mentioning each by name) 

or "the.ladies in." If so she enters. If not she leaves cards for each of 
the ladies. 

Often calls are returned by sending cards by messenger or po?t. This form 
of leaving a card is the only means by which some ladies in official life can 
recognize calls made upon them owing to their number, and which they desire 
to return. 

It is a proper respect for a person entitled to do so, to call or leave a card 
at the residence of an official, but for the official to return the call might be 
impossible. The return social cards of officials are usually left wiih the cards 
of the ladies of their families before the end of the season. 

The fotms of official calls will be found under their proper heads. 

WHEN TO RETURN A CALL. All calls of etiquette, to be properly 
recognized, should be returned within three days. After that time, unless a 
satisfactory excuse be made, the person making the call may infer that the 
call -will not be returned. 

The call of etiquette of a constituent of social or political distinction, should 
always be promptly returned, but calls on business ne^d not be returned. 

A return call after a social event should be made on the first "at home" day 
or evening afterwards, if the lady have one. The first call from a new ac 
quaintance should be promptly returned if at all. 

A dinner party call should be made within three days and in person. 

A smill party call should be made within a week and in person. 

Calls of condolence should be within a week after the event. Upon first 
call "make kind inquiries," and hand a card. The servant will say whether 
you can be received. Friends may ask to be received. Do not be too in- 
quisitive of the past, nor too pathetic in tears or words. 

Calls of congratulation should be returned in person in from 3 to 6 days. 



156 THE ETIQUETTE OF CALLS. 

RULES TO BE REMEMBERED. The following general rules govern 
ing the etiquette of calling should be observed by those who desire to appear 
well in society : 

If a lady have a day or evening "at home" a call should be made then, if 
practicable, as her social duties during the season may prevent her being at 
home at other times. 

When a lady announces a regular day for receiving friends, only her more 
intimate acquaintances would ordinarily be privileged to call at any other time. 

After an absence from the city for travel or summer change, or before the 
opening of the regular season, a call should be made by persons expecting 
social recognition during the season. If social accounts were balanced during 
the previous season the first call or card of the season should be according to 
the rules of precedence of rank or social seniority. 

Informal calls should only be made among intimate friends, and they should 
always be made at some convenient hour. 

A lady receives her callers in the Drawing Room. She should rise when a 
gentleman enters and shake hands, if she sees fit, but should always bow. 
She should advance to meet a lady caller. A gentleman should meet his visitors 
at the door of the room, if he be present, and should usher them to a seat. 

In morning calls a gentleman should leave his cane or umbrella in the hall, 
but carry his hat and gloves in his hand and overcoat over his arm. If 
necessary he can place his hat on the floor by his side, and not on the mantel 
piece or table. In evening calls these articles should be left in the hall or 
where the servant indicates. 

A lady caller leaving, may be accompanied to the door by the gentleman of 
the house, and to her carriage by a servant. A lady may go to the hall with 
lady callers, if her time be not engrossed with others. A lady should never 
escort a gentleman caller to the door, but simply bow when he leaves. 

A lady may call upon another lady, under certain circumstances, accom 
panied by a gentleman who is a stranger to the lady of the house. This will 
not necessarily require future recognition. A gentleman can never take a 
strange lady to call on another without permission. 

Never look for the time, when calling, or if necessary to know the time find 
some reason for doing so. A caller should know the time before entering 
and estimate the length of stay, without consulting a timepiece. 

Should the lady or gentleman of the house be apparently about to go out, 
callers should depart after an exchange of compliments. 

During an informal morning call a lady may go on with any work she may 
have had in her hands at the time. 

It is never allowable for a lady to call on a gentleman, except on business, 



THE STRANGER AND RESIDENT. 157 

and then she should be accompanied by a member of her family, a friend or a 
servant. 

Ladies fond of pet dogs should leave them in their carriages, or at home, 
when calling. 

Ladies should show equal attention to each guest. An exception may be 
made toward age or rank. 

A gentleman should never seat himself beside a lady, upon whom he may 
be calling, unless requested to do so. 

When starting to leave make the certmony brief. It is the height of im* 
politeness to linger. 

A lady should never keep her callers waiting unnecessarily long while an 
ranging her toilet. 

Refreshments are not necessary for callers in the city. In the country they 
are proper and desirable. 

A call made during illness should be returned immediately upon restoration 
to health. 

A lady should never remove her bonnet during a formal call. If on a 
friendly call, she should wait for an invitation. 

Calls of condolence should be in spirit and dress in keeping with the occasion. 

When a gentleman calls with a lady, the lady determines when to leave. 

THE STRANGER AND RESIDENT. 

The existing relations of stranger and resident, in social affairs at Washing 
ton, have been adjusted to the necessities and convenience of official rank and 
occasion, and are the same as in vogue in polite society in most of the en 
lightened nations of the old world. In the United States, as a rule, the resi 
dent calls first upon strangers. This subject will be found considered under 
Social Relations, and Official Rank and Social Classes, 

The present custom of polite nations generally, in regard to strangers and 
residents and in force at the seat of government of the United States, is that 
strangers make the first call, or leave a card with residents to advise them 
of their a-rival. These calls of etiquette by strangers may be most conve 
niently made on stated reception days as explained. 

If visitors bring letters of introduction from mutual friends, they should be 
presented at the residence of the party by calling specially. It would always 
be safe to call between 7: 30 and 8 p. m. In handing in your card at the door 
accompany it with the letter of introduction, or note on your card the words 

" With letter of introduction from Mr. or Mrs " Should there be any 

ladies in the party they may call at the residence, or if of marked social 



158 THE ETIQUETTE OF CARDS. 

prominence at home, the gentlemen of the party should call upon the resi 
dent and leave cards for the gentleman and ladies of the house. This first 
visit should be brief. Should there be a dinner or other entertainment going 
on, withdraw quietly, leaving a card wilh your name and residence in the 
city and probable length of sojourn. 

This visit must be returned by the resident within three days, or else a 
note of explanation should be sent, and the return call should be made later. 
If the resident should simply return a card it is an evidence of recognition, 
but also that the call will not be returned in person. The upper left hand 
corner should be turned to show a call in person. 

Strangers can call upon the ladies of officials on their reception days with 
out this formality, if the call be simply one of etiquette. They should 
always leave a card to notify their friends of their presence in the city. 

If the stranger be a lady, a gentleman should call first, but not without 
a personal invitation, or the lady s card and address sent through the 
mail. The ladies of his family, or otherwise a lady friend, may leave 
his card for him, and the lady stranger may determine whether she wishes 
to meet him. If so, she can express that fact and state her day "At Home." 
If the gentleman does not call with a mutual friend, he should hand his card 
to the servant. Such calls, if not previously arranged, should be made from 
8 to 9 p. m., and should be very brief. 

A stranger visiting at the house of a friend, should be called upon without 
delay by the friends of the family. The social relations of the family in 
such cases are paramount to the rules governing the stranger in the city. 

Among the permanent residents in private life, among themselves, the old 
custom of calling first upon strangers is observed. 

HOW TO ENTER SOCIETY. The form of strangers making themselves 
known on their arrival in the city, depends very much upon their celebrity. 
The different methods are, an introduction by a mutual acquaintance; letters 
of introduction; introduction by personal call and leaving a card, or by 
sending a card. The most proper form is an introduction by some Official, 
Senator or Representative, or other person, authorized to give one. The 
custom of the stranger making the first call, is of French origin. The English 
form between persons of equal rank, is for the stranger to leave a card, and 
if the acquaintance be agreeable an invitation to dine is left within three days. 

THE ETIQUETTE OF CARDS. 

IN official as well as social life ihe use of cards is indispensable. They 
serve as the medium of formal intercourse between persons of rank, strangers 



THE ETIQUETTE OF CARDS. 159 

or friends, and obviate the embarrasment of a verbal announcement or intro 
duction. 

The use of a card as the representative of a person making a call is of 
French origin. Previously a book or slate was available at the door for callers 
to record their names. 

STYLES OF CARDS. The sizes and styles of cards are governed en 
tirely by the fashions of the season. In all cases the card of a lady should 
be larger than that of a gentleman. Plain cards indicate taste. Sometimes a 
sudden caprice may give tinted or figured cards a transient popularity, but 
the use of such cards is not dignified. 

The cards of social intercourse may be written, but for good form they 
would be better engraved. Cards printed from movable type are not in good 
taste. Autograph or written cards should, as a rule, only be used among 
intimate friends. 

The convenience of the public, in promiscuous calls at official places, during 
official hours, has authorized the use cf written cards for ushers or door 
keepers carrying the name of the party to the person whom it is desired to 
meet. 

HOW TO USE CARDS. The proper use of social cards is one of the 
most difficult and yet important points in fashionable intercourse. The follow 
ing general rules govern the use of cards : 

A lady should always be scrupulously watchful of her card basket. These 
are the vouchers from which she makes up her social accounts. 

Americans are not particular enough in keeping their card accounts. 

A latest arrival must always leave or send the first card. 

Never invite a person to your house without having first received a card 
and having left a return card. 

In sending a card of invitation a lady should enclose her husband s card for 
all who are invited for the first time. 

CLASSES OF CARDS. In official and social affairs, cards may be 
grouped into classes : 

1. Cards of Etiquette, used in calling, whether in official or social life. This 
class also includes cards of Compliment, Courtesy, or Inquiry. With cards 
of courtesy it is not unusual to send flowers or some other small gift. 

2. Cards of Ceremony, applicable to invitations to official or social cere 
monials. These would include State affairs, weddings, christenings. Leaving 
a return card at the door is sufficient. 



l6o THE ETIQUETTE OF CARDS. 

3. Cards of Announcement, used in communicating to social friends some 
important family event, as a betrothal, marriage, or a birth. These may be 
returned in person or by card. 

4. Cards of Congratulation, used by social friends in communicating their 
felicitations upon a person s recovery from a severe illness, or on account of 
some other important personal or family event. Should be left within three 
days, and in person. 

5. Cards of Condolence, left at the door, at once or within three days, as 
an expression of sympathy of friends on account of death in a family. 

6. Cards of Mourning, sent to friends to announce a family bereavement. 
These are in black borders. 

7. Funeral and Memorial Cards. The former are sent to friends, in 
viting them to the ceremony, and the latter, not a common practice, are sent 
to relatives of the family and intimate friends. 

The form and use of cards of special classes is given under their proper 
heads. 

SPECIAL FORMS OF CARDS. The forms of cards are governed by 
the following rules : 

The name engraved, printed or written, should be in the center of the card. 

The person s residence, (number and street) in the city, should be printed 
or written in the lower right hand corner, in small letters. 

The days "At home" of a lady should be placed in the lower left hand 
corner, in small letters. 

A stranger in making calls may note residence in the city in writing. 

Cards of Officie, Ceremony or Profession. The President of the United 
States never uses a card. He never returns a call in his official character ex 
cept the call of ceremony made by a ruler of a friendly nation visiting the 
Capital. He is then accompanied by the Secretary of State, who announces 
his presence. 

The title of office should not precede the name of Ihe person, but on 
formal cards should be confined to the name of the office, as The Vice Presi 
dent, The Chief Justice, The Secretary of State, The General, The Ad- 
miral, &c. 

The cards sent to officials during business hours, if the visit be purely 
one of a friendly or complimentary character, should bear on the upper left 
hand corner "to pay respects." If on business it is not necessary to" write 
anything on the card. 

When the person s name is used with the civil title, the card should read Mr. 
Justice ; Senator ; Mr , Commis 
sioner of ; (the official title in this case should be below the 



THE ETIQUETTE OF CARDS. l6l 

name and to the right; Mr ., M. C., (Member of Congress, ) or- 

House of Representatives, &c. , giving only the family name. 

The title Honorable is never used on the cards of officials in the United 
States. 

The titles of military or naval rank are used with the surname only, as 

General ; Admiral ; Captain ..;. 

Commander , &c. 

A gentleman may use his military or naval title on his card, even though 
out of the service, but never an Official or Legislative title, unless filling the 
office at the time. 

The cards of professional persons should read Rev , or The 

Rev. Mr ; Prof. ;Mr , A. M. 

Professional titles may be abbreviated, official titles, never. 

It is not proper for the wives of officials to use the official titles of thef r 
husbands in any form whatever on their cards, as Mrs. Speaker 

Cards of Diplomats. The cards of foreign or American Diplomats, follow 
the same rule as to title and name. The diplomatic rank and country is 
given on the line below, viz : For a foreign Diplomat, 

Sir , 

Fnvoy Extraordinare et Ministre Plenipotentiare de 

For an American Diplomat, 

(Military or Naval rank) 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States of 
America. 

The cards of the ladies of the Diplomatic Corps are the same as other 
social cards. 

It is customary for foreign ladies to inscribe their maiden with their mar 
ried names on their cards, as La Comtesse deMontcalm, ne e de Savoir. 

GENERAL FORMS OF CARDS. A married lady should always use 
the prefix Mrs., but with a gentleman the use of Mr. is optional. 

A mother calling with her daughters may place their names on the same 
card with her own. 

A married lady should always use the name of her husband on her card; 
not to use it will indicate that she is a widow, or has other reasons for not 
doing so. 

The eldest daughter may simply use her surname, as Miss Other 

daughters use both Christian and surnames, as Miss 

A husband and wife may use a double card, as Mr. and Mrs. 

A gentleman in private life may use the title of respect Mr., or simply his 

II 



1 62 THE ETIQUETTE OF CARDS. 

name. If distinguished, or well and favorably known, the latter form is 
preferable. 

The style is sometimes adopted by American ladies, who have been well 
known by their maiden names, and who for some reason desire to maintain 
the distinction, to give both their maiden and married names on their cards, 
as "Mrs. Scott-Revere." 

The general forms of cards used in good society for visiting, are as follows: 
For a married lady, 

Mrs (Husband s name.) 

(Day at Home.) (Residence.) 

For a widow, Mrs (Her own name.) 

For an elderly unmarried lady, Miss ( Full name. ) 

For an eldest daughter, Miss (Family name only.) 

For younger daughters, Miss ( Full name. ) 

For several daughters of the same family, The Misses (Family name.) 

For a lady calling with her daughters (optional), 

Mrs 

The Misses 

(Reception day.) (Residence.) 

For a gentleman, Mr , (surname only,) or , (full 

name, without prefix of title.) 

For a married couple, Mr. and Mrs 

If the person be a stranger, the form should be, 

Mrs 

( Home residence, ) 

The residence in Washington and days "At Home," maybe written in 
the left hand corner. 

For a lady retaining her maiden name, 

Mrs , nee 

Cards sent to friends before leaving the city should be, 

Miss 

P. P. C. 

Such cards are only sent by unmarried ladies to each other, or by a gentle 
man to his lady friends, provided he is sure that they will be received in the 
proper spirit. These cards enclosed in elegant envelopes, with initial, mono 
gram or crest, may be sent in an outside envelope, by post or messenger. 
The words P. P. C, on the card, means Pour Prendre Conge (to take leave.) 
These are not necessary except for a long absence. 
For a person recovering from illness, 

Mr. or Mrs s compliments and thanks for kind inquiries. 



THE ETIQUETTE OF CARDS. 



For a person in return for card of condolence, 

Mr. (or Mrs.) desires to convey his (or her) thanks for sympathy 

in his (or her) recent bereavement. 

A card should be sent in return for each card received. 
For announcement of a birth, two cards. The mother s card is the ordinary 
size. The infant s card is one half the length and one third the width, fastened 
at the upper lelt hand corner of the mother s card by a narrow white silk tie, 
as follows ; 

(White silk tie.) 
(Infant s name.) 
(Date of birth.) 

(The mother s married name. 

TURNING CARD CORNERS. The custom of turning the corners of 
cards of etiquette when a person calls and does not find the party in, is not 
in general use in the Uuited States, but it has its advantages and could be 
adopted with great convenience to persons calling and receiving calls, as it at 
once indicates the bject of the call. 

The accepted form of turning card corners is as follows : 

isite. Felicitation. 




Mr. 



(Residence) 



Conge\ Condolence. 

The signification of a card received with either of the corners turned, as 
above indicated, is 
Visite& Social Call. 
Felicitation A Visit of Congratulation. 
Conge A Visit of Leave Taking. 
Condolence A Visit of Sympathy. 



164 THE ETIQUETTE OF CARDS. 

Turning down the right end of the card signifies that the visit is intended 
for all those receiving. 

LEAVING CARDS. In leaving cards, they should be distributed to suit 
the occasion for leaving them or circumstances. 

Inquire whether the person you desire to see is in, and hand your card to 
the servant answering the summons to the door. Your name will then 
be properly presented. If the oerson is not in, leave your card with the left 
upper corner turned to indicate a call in person, or turn any of the other cor 
ners if the call be for any of the purposes referred to. (See Turned card 
corners.) 

It is only necessary to leave a card once during a season, except after a din 
ner or ball. It is customary to leave a card after a general card reception, 
on tha first day "At Home" thereafter, but not after luncheons or teas. 

A card should always be left for the lady of the house and daughters in 
society. The latter are sometimes represented by turning up the end of the 
card. 

A wife, daughter, or sister, leaves her husband, father or brother s card 
with her own, once during the season, and always after a card social event. 
A daughter should leave her mother s card. 

Cards should not be left for daughters without one being left for the parents. 

A lady never leaves her caid for a gentleman. 

Accompanying an invitation to dinner, a lady sends, if she wishes, her hus 
band s card. 

A gentleman who receives social courtesies should leave himself, or by 
a member of his family, a card on the hostess, according to rules. 

A young gentleman should never leave a card for a young lady without in 
cluding one for her mother or chaperon. 

A gentleman leaves but two cards ; one for the lady and one for the daugh 
ters or visitors no matter how many. 

When a gentleman is about to be married all hi 5 friends should leave a card 
on the lady. 

If there be visitors in the house leave a card for each of them, or turn down 
the right end to indicate that all are included. 

"When a family returns to the city each lady member in society should send a 
card to such of her friends and acquaintances whom she desires to be informed, 
giving place of residence and days "At Home." 

A card left at the residence of a person, whether in official or social life, 
answers the purpose of a call. 

A card with name and address should always be enclosed, with a letter of 
introduction, when sent by messenger or mail. 



THE ETIQUETTE OF INTRODUCTIONS. 165 

A card from one person to another, addressed to a third party, may be 
substituted for a note of introduction. 

A stranger desiring an acquaintance with another, may hand him his card 
with appropriate verbal explanations. 

The wife of an official returning formal calls should leave ner husband s 
official card with her own. 

In sending your card to any one residing at a hotel, always write the name 
of the person for whom intended on the upper left hand corner to prevent 
mistakes. 

Betrothel cards should be left by the parents of the betrothed pair, on all 
the members of the two families. All who receive them should make a con 
gratulatory visit. 

As a rule, cards left on Reception days do not require a return card. In 
Washington the reverse is the rule. A card left on the day of reception 
is recognized as a call for the season, and requires one return card. 

When persons in society cease leaving their card, it is regarded as a notice 
that acquaintance is stopped. 

CARDS BY MAIL. Sending social cards through the mails is now 
recognized as proper under certain circumstances, particularly owing to dis 
tances and multiplicity of engagements. In certain return cards it is the 
safest means, as they are more sure to reach the person they are designed for 
than through the hands of careless servants in lodgings. 

THE ETIQUETTE OF INTRODUCTIONS. 

THE first step to an acquaintance in good society, is an introduction. 

RULES GOVERNING INTRODUCTIONS. The accepted rules gov 
erning personal introduct ons in polite society may be stated as follows : 

Always present a person calling, to the host and hostess first. 

Always present a gentleman to a lady, no matter what his social position 

Always present a younger to an elder person, whether between ladies or 
gentlemen, if equals in station or rank. 

Always present an unmarried. to a married lady 

Always present a less important to a more important person in official 
rank or social station. Thi ; rule also applies to the wives of officials. 

Always present a stranger to a resident. 

In all cases of personal introductions be careful to pronounce the names of 
the parties di- tinctly in order to escape confusing, if not embarrassing mistakes. 

Between officials, the name of the superior in rank, should have precedence 
according to form. 



l66 THE ETIQUETTE OF INTRODUCTIONS. 

Between ladies or gentlemen the name of the less important person should 
be mentioned first. 

Indiscriminated introductions are a disrespect to your friends. 

Before introducing two persons in society obtain permission, or see that it 
will be agreeable. There might be personal or political reasons why an in 
troduction would not be agreeable. 

To shake hands is a matter of taste. It is a more generous method of 
welcoming a new acquaintance, than a simple bow, but the offer of the hand 
should come from the lady or the superior in rank or age. A guest must be 
presented to all persons who call socially. 

TO BE REMEMBERED. A wife should introduce her husband by his 

title, if he have any, and never as Mr , unless he have no title, as 

that would be strained. 

If a lady or gentleman be spoken to at a social gathering, they should have 
politeness enough to answer without requiring an introduction first. This 
would not involve further acquaintance. A lady drawing the line on this 
distinction, would show herself familiar with the amenities of polite society. 
It would teach the person, presuming upon a recognition thus casually ac 
quired, that if it was simply to force an acquaintance, and not from politeness, 
he would not be recognized. 

As a rule a formal introduction should always be required, and no perma 
nent acquaintance should be otherwise recognized by a lady. 

A disagreeable or airy woman can always find reasons for her rudeness ; 
so can an affable one for being agreeable, even at the inconvenience of tem 
porary suspension of the strict rules of politeness. The weight of propriety 
would rest with the latter. 

Indiscriminate introductions are to be avoided. They show no respect for 
your friend or yourself. 

Unsolicited introductions are a sign of social "freshness." 

If a gentleman asks to be introduced to a lady always first enquire from the 
lady whether it would be agreeable. 

In being introduced even through inadvertance be polite even if distasteful, 
and withdraw gracefully at the first opportunity. 

Never present a foreigner without some personal knowledge of his antece 
dents, it is bad enough to impose a domestic "fraud" or "humbug" upon a 
lady or gentleman in polite society, but it is infinitely worse to impose a 
foreign one. 

If the hostess, through inadvertance, fails to introduce all her guests it 
should be no cause for slight. A gentleman at an invited social gathering 
may speak to a lady without introduction under circumstances otherwise 
causing embarrassment. 



1 68 THE ETIQUETTE OF INTRODUCTIONS. 

HOW TO INTRODUCE. The expressions suitable to personal intro 
ductions naturally vary according to circumstances and the ingenuity and spirit 
of the individual. Those most commonly in vogue are: 

Mr. or Mrs. or Miss White; Mr. or Mrs. or Miss Black; the party intro 
ducing at the same time making an obeisance toward the person presented; 

or Mr , permit me to introduce or to present to your acquaintance, 

Mr (here name the party with his or her proper title). Other forms 

are, " Miss , I take pleasure in presenting Mr , whose reputa 
tion is known to you;" or "May I be permitted to present my old friend Mr. 
, the Representative from District," or stating any other distinguish 
ing circumstance; or if the parties be of equal station, it would ba proper to 
say, "Mr. A., permit me to iitroduce Mr. B.; Mr. B. Mr. A." If a person 
expresses a desire to meet another of distinction it would be well to use the 
form, "Mr. A. permit me to present Mr. B., who desires to meet you." 

If the person introduced be from another part of the country, or from 
abroad, it is well to mention the fact and where from. 

Where more than one person is presented at the same time, to the same 
person, it is necessary simply to observe the preliminary formula for the first 
and then to merely mention the name of each party being introduced, as Mrs 

, permit me to introduce Mr ; here pause for the 

parties to bow or exchange courtesies; Miss , here pause as 

before ; Mr , here pause as before, and so on through the entire 

number. The party introducing should make a slight obeisance in each case. 

COMMON LAW OF INTRODUCTIONS. In polite society much ele 
gance of expression is sometimes indulged in in personal introductions, and 
is permissable and often desirable thus putting the parties introduced at once 
at their ease. But few, however, can do this gracefully, and it should not be 
attempted unless well done. A prolonged exordium is always flat, and only 
serves to embarrass both parties while awaiting with hands extended the con 
clusion ot such ill-timed verbosity. It should be borne in mind that at such 
a moment a second seams a long time and five seconds an age. Brevity is 
the spirit cf personal introduction, as well as the soul of wit. 

It is also proper in an introduction to emphasize your interest in your friend 
by some complimentary reference. If the acquaintance be agreeable the 
gentleman may make some suitable expression of approbation, as "It gives 
me pleasure to meet you." 

In introducing a relative always mention the relationship, as Mr. A , permit 
me to introduce my brother, Mr. K. 

An evidence of ill breeding is to lay hold of the arm of either party during 
the ceremony of an introduction. 



THE ETIQUETTE OF INTRODUCTIONS. 169 

It is not improper in presenting a lady to a person of distinction to lead 
her up lightly by the hand and to make a slight obeisance while presenting 
her. 

After an introduction, both parties are at liberty to engage in conversation, 
and it is not improper and sometimes it is advisable, if the parties are entire 
strangers, to say something of residence or occupation, in order to establish 
a better acquaintance. 

It is not proper to show too great cordiality at the first acquaintance. 

When walking with a friend it is both annoying and a sign of low breeding 
to introduce him to every acquaintance you may meet, There may be in 
dividual exceptions, for special reasons, but persons have been seen, who 
desirous of showing their imagined importance, hail friend and acquaintance 
to present to their friend. 

The introduction of a gentleman to a lady should be governed by great cir 
cumspection, and should never be made without the lady s consent. The 
person introducing must be responsible for the conduct of his friend, and 
should know fully of his character, otherwise he may do great injustice to 
himself and to the lady. It is extremely difficult for a lady to rid herself 
of a distasteful acquaintance, and she will often endure to the last extremity, 
rather than be regarded as rude. Under such circumstances, however, it 
would be her duty to be frank. 

Should a person at a private gathering manifest a disposition to make 
your acquaintance, the fact of his presence would indicate that he is a proper 
person to meet. 

Where strangers meet incidentally it is not improper to enter into conver 
sation and to be courteous. Such an act, however, need not be regarded as 
a permanent acquaintance, unless it be mutually desired. Recognition is not 
even necessary. 

It would be well to observe circumspection in making acquaintances, in 
order not to be obtrusive. It would be better to let others seek your society 
rather than to appear to be forcing yourself upon them. 

An acquaintance once made by a lady is difficult to break off, unless 
there should be an open rupture. Under other circumstances when an 
acquaintance is not agreeable, or there being any other reason for termina 
ting it, the form must be governed entirely by surrounding circumstances. 
It would be better to be frank, stating the reasons for desiring to discon 
tinue an acquaintance. A failure to return the visits of her lady friends, with 
out an explanation of the cause, or a word to a gentleman that she is en 
gaged, are the mildest forms. A failure to recognize an acquaintance with 



170 THE USE OF TITLES. 

evident intention, thus giving him the "cut direct," is the most forcible 
method of a lady ending an acquaintance. 

Should an introduction in a public place be necessary for certain reasons, 
it should be given quietly. If the introduction be to a lady the gentleman 
should raise his hat. 

Should a person by mistake be presented to another with whom he or she 
is not on terms of friendship, it is the part of good breeding to bow and show 
no feeling. It is not necessary to renew acquaintance for this reason. 

When either or both parties have a right to a title, always apply it in intro 
ducing them, as "Reverend Mr , permit me to present you to Gen 
eral " 

The forms of presentation in official society have been explained in their 
proper places. 

THE USE OF TITLES. 

THERE are many points in the use of the titles of office, address, rank or 
profession, the omission of which, in official or social intercourse, would at 
once expose those who have occasion to use them, to the imputation of inex 
perience, or lack of culture. The correct use of official titles, and of the 
title Honorable, has already been explained in their proper places. The title 
Honorable does not belong to the vocabulary of social life at all, although it 
is sometimes applied in speaking of distinguished citizens in a community 
by way of courtesy. Its use, however, is not American. 

SOCIAL TITLES. The social titles in common use and proper in gocd 
society everywhere, are Mr. (derived from Master) for gentlemen; Mrs. (Mis 
tress) for married ladies, and Miss (from Mistress) for an unmarried lady, 
whether young, or after having passed beyond the conventional limit of bloom 
ing maidenhood; and Master for a youth during the intermediate period 
between childhood and manhood. The plural of these titles, where more 
than one person is addressed, is Gentlemen or Messieurs; Ladies, apply 
ing to all ages, married or unmarried, and Masters. 

It is not uncommon in society to use the Christian name of a married lady, 

as Mrs. Jane This is not proper during the life of the husband. 

It should be Mrs , giving the husband s name. After the death 

of the husband it is proper to use the Christian name. A lady married to the 
eldest male member of a family is entitled to use the family name with the 

title Mrs., as Mrs , while the other lady members of the same 

family take the names of their husbands, if married. This applies in all cases 
to the eldest lady in a family, living, if married. 



THE USE OF TITLES. I 71 

The unmarried daughters, except the eldest, are known by their Christian 
names, with the prefix Miss. The eldest daughter takes the family name, as 

Miss When spoken of collectively, the daughters of the same 

family are known as The Misses Smith, giving the family name and not the 
Miss Joneses, for instance. The use of Christian names in society is not 
elegant. This style should be confined to the home circle, and should be 
limited to relatives or intimate friends. A recent acquaintance should only 
be so addressed by permission. 

It is questionable taste to use the word lady for wife. Mr. Smith and lady 
may mean anything, but Mr. and Mrs. Smith, or Mr. Smith and wife can 
not be misunderstood or misconstrued. 

With the names of persons eminent in science or art, or some other dis 
tinctive way, simply use the prefix, as Mr. Webster. In such a case there 
could be no question as to whom is meant, as there could be but one Mr. 
Webster, and the associations in mentioning the name would aid the distinc 
tion, if there were any doubt. This rule applies to women as well. The 
American custom of addressing distinguished personages by their first names 
abbreviated, may be a Republican or popular way of showing intimacy, ad 
miration, reverence or attachment, but it is not elegant nor in good taste in 
good society. Mr. Webster, or Daniel Webster, sounds better than Dan. 
Webster, or "Black Dan." 

The use of slang terms for titles, such as the Governor, the old gentle 
man, or the old man, for a father, old lady, or the old woman, for a mother,, 
do not belong to the social or even domestic vocabulary. It is without ex 
cuse and shows low breeding. A sense of self-respect, if not of propriety,, 
should suggest Ihe fact that it is proper to address superiors and elders,, 
and especially parents, relatives and friends, both in society and the home 
circle, by proper titles of respect, or terms of relationship. 

SOCIAL OFFICIAL TITLES. The titles of address or rank precede 
the name of the person to whom applied, and in all cases the succeeding 
title, except professional, is omitted. Official titles when used in society 
always precede the name and are also preceded by the title Mr., as Mr. 
President or Mr. Secretary. It is better in conversation to simply use the 
official title preceded by Mr. and without the name. Other titles of rank 
or profession may be used. When persons of both sexes are addressed at 
the same time, it is simply necessary to say Ladies or Gentlemen, without 
prefix of social title. A custom has authorized in the society of Washington 
the use of the official title of the husband by the wife, with the prefix Mrs., 

as Mrs. President , Mrs. Secretary , Mrs. Speaker 

, Mrs. Commissioner , and so on through the entire list of 



172 THE ETIQUETTE OF SALUTATIONS. 

titles of official rank. The propriety of such use is doubtful, though it has 
its advantages in distinguishing the lady in official socuty, from one of the 
same name in private life. This distinguishing designation ordinarily would 
not be necessary in the case of the more prominent ladies. The same rule 
applies to the use by ladies of their husbands title of rank or profession. 

The title Excellency, properly speaking, has no place in the titular code of 
the United States, either Official or Civil and Honorable by courtesy only to 
a very limited extent. 

It is riot proper in society to apply the titles of civil office to any person, 
except while in the occupancy of the office. Judicial, Military and Naval 
titles can be retained during life can and be used. 

PROFESSIONAL TITLES. In addressing a professional person the use 

of a professional title, if entitled to the same, is proper, as Dr , for 

a Doctor of Divinity, Law or Medicine ; or Professor for a Scientist, or 
other person entitled to the same. In speaking of a clergyman the title 
should be preceded by The, as The Reverend 

The abuse of the professional or scholastic titles in the United States is 
well known. Some noisy brawler on the street corner is frequently dignified 
by the title Reverend, or a patent medicine quack as Dr. or Professor, &c. 
In good society discrimination should be used, and impost ers ignored. 

FOREIGN TITLES. The titles of Royalty, Nobility and Ecclesiastical 
Dignitaries, do not form part of the vocabulary of American society. In 
Washington the presence, frequently, in society, of members of the Diplo 
matic Corps, necessitates the use of foreign titles, but their correct use can 
only be acquired by practice. 

THE ETIQUETTE OF SALUTATIONS. 

THE forms of salutation and manner of greeting, vary according to degrees 
of intimacy, or surroundings, and are generally expressed by the bow, the usuat 
salutatory expressions, shaking hands, and among ladies often by the kiss. 

COMMON FORMS. The most common forms of expression are "good 
morning," "good evening," or "how are you?" always accompanying the 
salutation with a bow. It is not necessary to use any verbal expressions in 
passing, the bow is sufficient. A lady, in promenading, should not make any 
other recognition of a gentleman than a bow. 

It is proper to use the Christian names of children, or servants, without 
prefix of title. When young persons have entered the period of youth the 



THE ETIQUETTE OF SALUTATIONS. 173 

salutation Mr. or Miss is a proper compliment The terms "Sissie," or 
" Sonnie," or " Bub," do not belong to the vocabulary of refined persons. If 
the young persons be strangers, a salutation like "My young friend" "My 
little Miss," would sound better and not wound their sense of pride. 

In saluting a number of persons the ladies are referred to first, as "Ladies 
and Gentlemen." In saluting an audience assembled under the auspices of 
some organized or formal call, it is proper to say Mr. President, Mr. Chair 
man, or Your Honor, for a Judge or Mayor. 

PRECEDENCE OF RECOGNITION. The superior in rank should 
speak first to an inferior, though society is filled with a class who have no 
other capital than their audacity in addressing superiors on every occasion, 
and treating them with apparent intimate acquaintance. The elder persons 
should recognize younger persons first. Towards all persons the titles of 
address, Mr., Mrs. or Miss, with the surname in full, should always be used. 
It is not a sign of good breeding to salute a person with "How do you do, 
Mrs. S.?" 

UNIVERSAL PRACTICE. No gentleman may stop to speak to a lady 
unless she shows signs of stopping first, and then make it brief. It is not 
polite for ladies to stand in public places in conversation. If she moves on 
before the conversation is ended it is a notice that you may join her. You 
should go, even if an inconvenience, and excuse yourself at the first oppor 
tunity. If she bows and moves on it is a notice that she has finished. Bow 
in return, lift your hat, and go on your way. 

A lady should not be too demonstrative in her salutations. She should 
always recognize those whom she regards as her friends, bi t the recognition 
should be dignified and reserved. 

A gentleman should never recognize a lady in any form without removing 
his cigar from his lips, if smoking. 

The American habit of saluting persons of slight acquaintance by their first 
names, or nicknames, is no sign of importance or special privilege but rather 
shows a lack of manners. This custom amongst American ladies is particu 
larly inelegant in a mixed assemblage or a public place. The use of Christian 
names, nicknames or terms of endearment, is suitable only to the home circle, 
or among relatives or very intimate friends. 

THE BOW. The graceful inclination of the head, termed the Bow, is the 
first symbol of friendly salutation, and applies to persons of all ranks in official 
place or society, and among ladies and gentlemen, together or separately. 

In the use of the bow as a means of salutation, a lady always gives the 



174 THE ETIQUETTE OF SALUTATIONS. 

first recognition, except among intimate frie ds, when it should be at the same 
time. Gentlemen always bow to each other in passing. When a gentlemen 
meets a friend or acquaintance and bows, the other gentleman with him, if 
any, should also make a slight bow. 

In the drawing room a bow from a gentleman and a courtesy with a graceful 
inclination of the head from a lady are the most proper and formal acts of 
recognilion. In return those saluted should rise and bow. A bow should 
always be returned, whether the parties be acquainted or not, and even if 
not friends. A lady or gentleman will never be exceeded in politeness. 

A bow of recognition in passing on the road is proper, even if the parties 
are strangers. 

SHAKING HANDS. When the salutation is accompanied by shaking 
hands, it is always proper, for the person extending the hand, to make some 
expression of greeting. 

Always extend the right hand, if this be impossible extend the left, but 
simultaneously ask to be excused for so doing. 

The host and hostess may extend the hand of welcome to all their guests. 

A gentleman should await the offer of a lady s hand before extending his 
own. 

It is an evidence of low breeding to squeeze a lady s hand when hand 
shaking, or to hold it while engaged in conversation. 

In shaking hands both parties must always rise, if possible. 

In shaking hands give the whole hand and not a finger. 

If a personal friend, bring a letter of introduction from another part of the 
country, always shake hands. 

THE HAT. Under all circumstances of private life or public occasion, 
the greatest courtesy is for a gentleman to raise his hat, or to remove it en 
tirely if the occasion be appropriate, 

In passing a lady on the street, or at her window, or in meeting her, a 
gentleman will raise his hat, but do not show the inside of it, at the same 
time making a bow of salutation. The lady simply bows in recognition of the 
courtesy. 

To a civil officer of very high rank it would be courtesy to lift your hat. 
He should return the courtesy. 

A gentleman passing on horseback or driving, should hold the reins and 
whip in the left hand, and raise his hat with the right. The lady returns the 
salutation with a bow. 

In raising the hat, as a salutation, the hand farthest from the person saluted 
should be used. If a gentleman raises his hat to a lady or gentleman on the 



THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS. 175 

street, all the gentlemen with him, if any, should also raise their hats without 
regard to acquaintance. Ladies in the saluting party make no salutation, 
unless personally acquainted with the gentlemen. 

Remove your hat as soon as you enter the house, and especially when 
ladies are present. 

Remove your hat in public places, where ladies are present, if in an apart 
ment or public hall, but not in corridors or places used as a thoroughfare. 

In handing a lady to or from her carriage, or in separating from her, lift 
your hat when you leave her. 

THE GLOVE. It is forcing a point to remove the glove previous to 
shaking hands, unless perfectly convenient. To keep a person waiting for 
that purpose is embarrassing, if not ludicrous. In shaking hands with a lady 
the glove should be removed out of courtesy, if her hand be ungloved, other 
wise it is optional. 

In official as well as social etiquette it is customary for full dress to wear 
gloves of suitable material, color and style; therefore, a lady or gentleman in 
full dress, without gloves, whether host, hostess or guest, can have no occasion 
to feel offended if others also in full dress should extend a salutation with a 
gloved hand, A dress glove should not be removed during a formal call. 

In passing on the street if the weather be inclement, or cold, it is not 
necessary for gentlemen to un glove the hand in shaking hands. At such 
times it is customary to wear gloves for comfort and protection. (See Dress 
The Glove.} 

KISSING. The form of kissing by way of salutation between opposite 
sexes is obsolete in the United States, except among relatives. Among 
ladies it still prevails, but it should be confined to intimate friends, and then 
on the forehead or cheek. In ancient times it was in vogue between the sexes 
in the best society, it being applied to the cheek, forehead or hand. It is still 
customary to a limited degree in Germany. In the United States it is never 
used, except restricted as above. 

There is no objection to close relatives kissing in public, but it would be 
better not to expose this act to public gaze. 

THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS. 

NEXT to polite conversation and deportment, dress is an element of distinc 
tion between gentility and low breeding. 

FASHION. The reign of fashion and the servility of her subjects, have 
always constituted the one burden of society. Those, however, who can use 



176 THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS. 

discretion in fashion, are doing the world a service by setting an example for 
the young. It can always be accepted as a safe rule that real ladies and 
gentlemen, those who have always been accustomed to polite society are the 
least conspicuously dressed, never bowing their heads in absolute subservience 
to fashion, nor neglecting its reasonable behests. Long custom has estab 
lished the Easter Season as the time for the inauguration of the spring, and 
October as the beginning of the season for fall fashions. 

THE TOILET. It was said by a French writer that women daily become 
more artificial. The milliner, the modiste, and the coiffeure aid the handi 
work of nature, and the world is thus often deluded into admiration of sym 
metry which does not exist. Madame de Pompadour says it is the duty of 
women to be beautiful. There is more beauty in simplicity than in studied art. 

The following French terms are frequently used to designate the different 
degrees of dress suitable for different occasions: 

Grande Toilette. Full evening toilet for ladies appropriate for Reception?, 
Parties, &c. 

Demi- Toilette, or afternoon or evening dress, suitable for Drawing Rooms 
or Informal Evenings " At Home," &c. 

Costume de Rigueur. Full Evening Dress for gentlemen. 

The carriage or visiting costume for ladies or gentlemen consists of such 
dress as would be suitable for the street, with bonnet or hat. 

PERSONAL ATTRACTIONS. To be considered a lady, it is not 
necessary for a woman to be constantly referring to her health, and complain 
ing of the exhausting effects of exertion or useful occupation. Nature designed 
the flush of health to radiate from the crimson cheek, the lustrous eye, and 
to find its type of perfect fullness in the symmetrical contour and grace of 
motion of a well-developed and rounded form. 

Brantome says of the elements of female beauty there should be: 

Three white things the skin, teeth and hands. 

Three dark things the eyes, eyebrows and eyelids. 

Three red things the lips, cheeks and nails. 

Three long things body, hair and hands. 

Three short things teeth, ears and feet. 

Three broad things chest, forehead and space between the eyes. 

Nature furnishes these, and powders, perfumes and cosmetics destroy them. 

Long nails are not elegant. This eccentricity was in vogue at the Court of 
Louis XIV. 

DRESS. It is always an indication of genteel breeding to see men and 
women dress themselves well, but with moderation in style and colors. Avoid 



THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS. 177 

incongruities of dress. This applies to men as well as women. A man with 
a flashy shirt, or loaded down with jewelry, would never be taken for a gen 
tleman. The changing styles in dress, when observed in reason, form a 
pleasing variety. 

The age, circumstances, time, place and surroundings of the individual should 
regulate the style of dress. Elderly people can dress in more costly fabrics 
than younger ones. In the harmonizing of colors in dress to suit complexion, 
great skill can be shown and pleasing effects produced. 

Small persons should dress in large fabrics, light colors and small figures. 

Tall persons in somber shades and large figures, and materials of rich and 
heavy texture . 

Stout people should dress plainly, with vertical figures. 

Slender persons should dress with drapery and flounces. 

A LADY S DRESS. A lady in her own house may appear in the morning 
in a wrapper. The simplest jewelry only should be worn. A lady visiting 
should appear in the morning in a dress of plain material. 

A lady s dress in public places should suit the occasion. This her own 
taste must determine. She should avoid all showy dress in style and material 
and especially in the matter of jewelry. If she wishes to be taken for a lady 
by birth and education, she should observe this. The world of shoddy and 
vain pretenses imagines that flashy styles mean gentility, wealth and station. 
The sterling class do not think so, and the humble people know the difference 
between the real and the spurious article. 

For attendance at church, dress austerely plain. Richness of material is 
allowable. For the street, dress of more style is admissible, but should be of 
subdued colors and not flashy. But little jewelry should be worn. For 
the theater, concert, promenade, or other evening entertainment, to dress with 
a rich cloak is proper. For the opera, the most elaborate toilet, including 
jewels, may be worn, For ladies traveling, or recruiting in the mountains, 
or at the sea side, plain dresses of substantial materials are best suited to the 
surroundings. 

WHAT TO WEAR. In every instance the choice of colors and appro 
priateness of materials marks the lady of taste and culture. A lady should 
never permit herself to appear slovenly in dress. Riding and Driving Dresses 
should be plain and of rich material. Riding Dresses should be perfect in 
fit, so as to show the figure to perfection. All the materials should be 
heavy, including hat, gloves, dress and boots. 

A lady receiving calls should dress according to her station and circum 
stances. In the morning she should be plai^y dressed. In the afternoon 



178 THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS. 

she should use richer material and jewelry. On special occasions, such as 
New Year s Day, or formal evening receptions, she should be dressed in full 
evening costume. Ladies calling should be dressed in as full style as driving 
or walking will permit, especially so at afternoon receptions of the Ldies of 
officials At a formal Dinner a lady should appear in " grande toilette" but 
little less elaborate than required at evening receptions. In England it is 
obligatory to appear in low-neck dresses. In this country this is not regarded as 
necessary. The hostess should be plainly, but richly dressed. Unmarried ladies 
should wear bright, married ladies subdued, and elderly ladies rich colors. 

The evening dress of a lady should be governed by circumstances, but should 
always be of a quality and style suitable to receive callers. For parties, the 
more important the entertainment, the richer the dress. Dancing parties 
require toilets of simpler styles than receptions. 

WHAT COLORS TO WEAR. The colors in dress should symbolize the 
years Children should dress in gay attire, middle aged persons in neutral 
shades, and those of riper age in dark. In dress ladies should avoid violent 
contrasts. Blondes should dress in dark, and brunettes in light colors. Black 
or dark hair befits gay colors in fabrics and gems, while golden locks appear 
best in more somber hues. 

A GENTLEMAN S DRESS. The dress of a gentleman should conform 
to the prevailing fashions, but should not go to extremes. A gentleman 
should always be neatly dressed. It is not only a duly he owes to society, but 
will show that he respects its opinions. 

To affect oddity of dress for the sake of being conspicuous, is the reverse 
of flattering to a person s reputation for good sense. The" ruffianly " style, 
perhaps, heightens the individual s own sense of importance, but society 
judges him as a person of coarse instincts and vulgar manners. 

The most suitable dress for a gentleman is one of dark colors. The jewelry 
suitable for a gentleman does not go beyond a watch-chain, a seal ring, shirt 
studs, or pin of neat design, and sleeve buttons of the same character. Ex 
cellence of selection rather than quantity is the test of refinement. 

The full evening dress, or costume de rigueur, of a gentleman, consists of 
black dress coat, black pants, black vest, white or black neck-tie, and well 
finished and fitting boots or shoes of patent leather or calf. The dress for 
morning calls consists of a black frock, or other suitable style of walking coat, 
jight shade of pantaloons, and vest to match. The dress for street wear is 
the same, but of plainer material. A gentleman should always keep himself 
neat in dress and person, and his hair, beard, face and hands in proper con 
dition. 



l8o THE ETIQUETTE OF CONVERSATION. 

THE GLOVE. It is not a universal custom in the United States to wear 
gloves as pirt of the ordinary dress of a gentleman, but it is in good taste. 
The use of the glove when worn should be subject to the following rules: 

In walking or afternoon dress, in church, or at places of public amusement, 
a gentleman should wear gloves of subdued shades. At a fall dress social 
entertainment, where there is dancing or at a wedding, reception or dinner 
party, he should wear white or light gloves. At funerals he should wear black 
glove s . ( See Sa luta tions The Glove. ) 

THE ETIQUETTE OF CONVERSATION. 

IN refined society conversation may be classed as the highest order of 
entertainment Music may be ranked next, and dancing last. 

There is nothing in the whole range of social intercourse -which affords so 
extended an opportunity to ladies and gentlemen to show their culture, educa 
tion and wit, as conversation. Persons engaged in conversation should main- 
lain a respectful distance. It is not always agreeable to maintain too close 
proximity, no matter how important or interesting the subjects under con 
sideration. A person seated in conversation should take a graceful position. 
Nothing so quickly exposes a lady or gentleman to the charge of lack of 
breeding as their attitudes whi e ihus engaged. The art of conversation is 
best attained when a person pays respectful attention to what others have 
to say ; is not obtrusive in giving utterance to opinions, and is concise in style. 

GENERAL RULES OF CONVERSATION. To achieve success in 
conversation, and to appear well in society, the following rules should be 
observed : 

Adopt a modest tone and calm manner, instead of the violent antics of 
some people. It is well to show some euthusiasm in conversation, but not to 
the degree of assuming to know more on any given subject than every one 
else. 

In mixed company conversation should be on general topics. Professional 
subjects and long stories, or talking about onesself, or on family matters, are 
extremely annoying to a general assemblage. Mothers should not repeat 
the anecdotes of the nursery. These may be interesting to themselves, but 
not to others. 

Discussions on religion, politics, or any subjects upon which ihere might be 
strong prejudices, should be avoided in society. It is objectionable to contro 
vert what others have to say. 

Speaking one s mind on all occasions is an evidence of disrespect for the 
feelings of others. Inaccuracy of statement should be overlooked, or be 



THE ETIQUETTE OF CONVERSATION. l8l 

corrected without exposure of the persons making it. The style of taking 
people aside and talking mysteriously, shows a lack of regard for others and 
very poor breeding. 

In conversation never use the initial as a means of designating a person. 
Always mention the full suiname with the title of respect. A lady speaking 
of her husband as Mr. L, , shows herself unfamiliar with the proprieties of 
social life. 

Loud talking or laughing are exceedingly annoying to persons of sensi 
bility; in ladies it is unpardonable. Modulate the voice to the proximity of 
the person addressed. Also avoid a whimpering, sentimental tone, that no 
one can hear ; this is affectation. 

It is much better taste not to use a word at all than to use a forced expres 
sion under a false idea of delicacy. There are some things not suited to- 
social conversation, therefore, they should be left unsaid rather than to struggle 
to invest them with a sound of propriety by an awkward selection of terms, 
presumably less conspicuous. It would be better to say Mrs. S. has a son, 
than "there has been an event in the Smith family," The former conveys 
all needed information. The latter sets every one in the company to 
surmising, if not interrogating, \\hat that event was. Straining on small 
points, or prudery, are an evidence of a perverted mind, or a lack of good 
sense. 

Never strive to "show off." There may be those in your audience who 
are more experienced than yourself; under such circumstances you can im 
agine how ridiculous you appear. A man of shallow pretensions striving 
to astonish others, is entitled to no sympathy. Never undertake to instruct 
others, especially in matters of art, the masters, the opera, theater, or anything 
else, unless you are fully familiar with your subject, or you will soon have 
your ignorance shown. 

Never adopt a boastful or patronizing style of conversation; nothing so 
offends a person of lower rank in- society. 

It is prudent never to repeat the conversations of friends, especially when 
they refer to each other, particularly if inclined to criticism. 

It is a disrespect to interrupt others in conversation, even if they have too 
much to say. Strive to wait until they have expended their loquacity. 

It is not essential to display a superservicable zeal in defense of your 
friends, unless the conversation be addressed to you. 

Flattery is a sure sign of a lack of mental resources. There is a difference 
between a deserved compliment for some recognized merit, and the unmeaning 
twaddle of a sycophant. It may be pleasant to the ears of silly young persons, 
but sensible people estimate such talk at its real value. 



1 82 THE ETIQUETTE OF CONVERSATION. 

It is wrong to suppose that ladies can only appreciate sentimental talk. 
Some may enjoy this style, but many do not. 

Slang in a lady detracts from her title to respect. In a lady or gentleman 
it is low and coarse Slang with many Americans is an important element of 
conversation. Such persons may be set down as of low associations in earlier 
life. The same rule will apply to cant. 

Set expressions in conversation show a lack of mental fertility. These are 
common among sentimental ladies and shallow-pated boys. For instance, 
to some of this class everything is beautiful; a beautiful dinner; beautiful 
cream; beautiful coffee; a beautiful time, in fact everything is monotonously 
beautiful. This style should be avoided. Give adjectives their proper sig 
nificance in their proper places. 

High sounding expressions in conversation are not an evidence of learning, 
or even ordinary intelligence.. Let every one speak naturally, and not be 
looking about for forms of conversation different from those used by sensible 
people. And above all avoid using foreign phrases, unless they have a specific 
application. 

Vulgarity of expression is to be condemned in all. In refined society the 
only conversation is that freed from all the excrescences of low thoughts and 
unguarded tongues. Double entendres, intentionally made, are an evidence of 
a vulgar mind, and should be rebuked. Where they are simply the result of 
inadvertence, let them pass unnoticed 

No gentleman will be guilty of profanity in the presence of ladies, and it is 
no credit to his sense of respect for himself or others ever to enliven conver 
sation in such a manner. Promiscuous profanity is an American institution. 

TO BE REMEMBERED. Do not indulge in remarks disparaging of 
others. Absent minded people have no right in society. Give advice when 
asked. Avoid making a confidant of ever) body. Do not ask too many 
questions. It is not polite to be "riding hobbies" in society. In a word, 
make your conversation harmonize with the tastes, feelings and opinions of 
others and you cannot go far amiss. You can show your ingenuity by 
promptly judging the subjects most interesting to those around you, and con 
fining yourself to them. Do not force the subjects of conversation. 

GOSSIP. The bane of society is gossip. People talk of each other be 
cause they have nothing else to talk about. A disposition to gossip is always 
a confession of malice, or of a small mind. In churches it generally takes the 
place of religious thought and fraternity, and rages like a pest. It has been a 
source of more enmities than any other cause. Gossiping is not confined 
to women, but is indulged in by so-called gentlemen. Those who indulge in 



THE ETIQUETTE OF SOCIAL ENTERTAINMENTS. 183 

this sort of conversation, as a rule, do not possess brains enough to suggest 
subjects of useful conversation, and are without culture enough to rise above 
such petty malice. 

THE ETIQUETTE OF SOCIAL ENTERTAIN 
MENTS. 

THE giving and receiving of entertainments reciprocally is one of the most 
atttractive features of the intercourse among refined and cultivated persons 
in polite society. 

CLASSES OF SOCIAL ENTERTAINMENTS. These entertainments 
may be classed as 

General Entertainments, including -Receptions, Drawing Rooms, or "At 
Homes," Balls, Parties, Soirees, Germans and Kettle Drums, &c., and 

Select Entertainments, including Dinners, Breakfasts, Luncheons, Coffees, 
Teas and Suppers. The former embrace persons in social relations with the 
host and hostess. The latter are limited to intimate friends, or those whom 
it is desired to specially honor for some particular reason, and no person in 
society has a right to feel slighted if not invited. 

HOURS. In all social entertainments, unless the hours are mentioned, 
the time of arrival should be from 8 to 10 p m., and the time of departure 
from II p. m. to 12 midnight. Dancing parties usually end at 2 a m. 

AT THE DOOR. Upon all occasions of receptions, balls, parties and 
the more elaborate social affairs it is customary to stretch a carpet, and often 
an awning from the carriage steps to the door. A footman or servant should 
be stationed at the carriage step to open the doors of the carriages of arriving 
guests, and to give them the numbers of their conveyances, and should aid 
them in securing their conveyances when they leave. The gentlemen should 
remember their numbers so as to avoid confusion and delay when they depart. 

GENERAL RULES. There are certain rules of decorum which apply to 
all social entertainments, and should be observed by host, hostess and guests, 
in order to preserve that degree of harmony and propriety which are essential 
to the full enjoyment of all present. Thest may be summarized as follows : 

ARRIVING. Upon entering the house proceed directly and quietly to 
the rooms set apart for ladies wrappings and gentlemen s hats and coats. To 
attempt to create a sensation is low. In ascending the stairs the lady should 
go first, and in descending the gentleman should go first to be ready to receive 
his lady at the foot. 



184 THE ETIQUETTE OF SOCIAL ENTERTAINMENTS. 

ENTERING. The gentleman should offer his left arm to the lady, which 
she should accept by gracefully and lightly resting her hand therein. The 
couple should then proceed to the drawing-room. Upon entering they should 
bow and address the host and hostess. After that they greet any of the 
guests they may meet in the course of the evening. It is not necessary to go 
through he entire party in regular order. 

THE HOST AND HOSTESS. In your own house all your guests are 
equal for the time being, and have equal claims upon your attention. A host 
and hostess should not overlook their younger guests. Their appearance in 
society is attended with natural reserve and timidity, and an effort should be 
made to make them feel at ease. The relief and encouragement which such 
treatment gives to a young lady or gentleman, mingling with older and more 
experienced persons, will never be forgotten. 

DON T. Avoid being officious by assuming to do the honors in another s 
house, unless requested, and do not constitute yourself master of ceremonies 
unless asked to do so by the host or hostess. 

Do not offer a person a chair from which you have just risen, unless there 
be no other in the room. 

Never take the chair of the mistress of the house, even though she be absent. 

Neve force yourself in a position to be recognized by another. If you de 
sire recognition make it appear as if you met by accident. 

AS GUEST. A gentleman shou d always address his wife in company as 

Mrs , and never by her initial nor her Christian name, nor "my 

wife." The Christian name should only be used among relatives or very 
intimate friends. This rule will apply with even more force to a lady. 

In a serial entertainment persons can open a conversation with each other 
without an introduction, as the place and circumstances indicate that none 
but persons of the same social class are present. The acquaintance, however, 
terminates with the evening, and no recognition is required thereafter. If 
the acquaintance is to be continued, the parties should be formally introduced. 

It is the heighth of impoliteness to take any one to a social entertainment, 
no matter how intimate your relations with the host or hostess, without first 
inquiring whether it would be agreeable. 

Lounging on sofas or easy chairs, in society, is impolite, and with ladies 
present, extremely vulgar. No one in good health should appear in society 
unless physically equal to the decorum of the occasion. 

To be wandering about the room, in company, and handling articles of 
vertu is an evidence of vulgar breeding. Such things can be admired more 
appropriately by the sense of sight than the sense of touch. 



INVITATIONS. 185 

Pride and display are never regarded as the evidences of consequence on 
the part of individuals, and generally inspires the contempt rather than the 
admiration of those whom it is designed to impress. Those most entitled to 
position make the least display of it. 

It is the height of impropriety for persons to carry their whims into com 
pany. If they are not in the frame of mind to be agreeable, their absence 
would be more satisfactory than their company In a mixed company no one 
cares about the grievances, afflictions or notions of others. Exhibitions of 
emotion in company should also be repressed. 

A person should never lose temper in company, and should not notice any 
supposed slight. If any one adopts an offensive manner, strive to appear not 
to notice it. If it should require attention do not disturb the entire company, 
but wait until the party retires. 

DEPARTURE. Upon withdrawing after a social entertainment of any kind, 
it is proper before leaving the Drawing Room and while taking leave to ex 
press to the host and hostess the pleasure you have experienced during the 
evening. In taking your departure do so with as little commotion as possible. 

RETURN CALLS. Those who have accepted social recognition in the 
way of invitations to social entertainments, should make a call upon the hos 
tess on her first reception day after the event. If she has no day for receiving, 
a call should be made or a card left within ten days. This applies whether 
the invitation were accepted or declined. 

INVITATIONS. 

The forms of Invitations vary according to the object of the entertainment,, 
or the event to be commemorated. Those of a special nature will be given in 
their proper places. 

In purely informal gatherings a verbal invitation from the hostess to her 
lady friends, whose company is desired, or by the host, or some male rela 
tive, or special friend of the family, at the request of the hostess, to the gen 
tlemen whose presence is desired, is sufficient. 

FORMS OF INVITATIONS AND DECLINATIONS. The ordinary 
forms of invitations are engraved in blank, as follows: 

Mr. and Mrs. 

Request the pleasure of 

Mr. and Mrs s company 

On evening, (date) , 

At o clock. 

(Character of Entertainment.) (Residence.) 



1 86 INVITATIONS. 

This is the best form, as it designates the name of the person for whom the 
invitation is intended. 

The day of the month may be written. The .hour should be numerals. 
The acceptance or declination should be written and partake of the same 
form as far as practicable, as 

Mr. and Mrs ... s 

Compliments to 

Mr. and Mrs , 

Accepting with pleasure their kind invitation for evening, the .... 

Or if declined, 

Mr. and Mrs 

Regret that they cannot accept the kind invitation of Mr. and Mrs , 

for evening, the 

The form of an invitation to a Drawing Room, or an "At Home :" 

Mr. and Mrs 

At Home 

Tuesdays, (Residence.) 

from 3 to 5 P. M. 

The following is the form of invitation to a Dancing party given during the 
season at the fashionable hotels : 

(Name of Hotel.) 

The pleasure of your company is respectfully requested for 

evening, at P. M. (date.) 

To Mr (and ladies) 

Compliments of 

This caid must be shown at the Door. 

" Not Transferable." 
Dancing. 

The following is the form of an invitation to an Assembly. 
The pleasure of your company is 

Requested at an Assembly to be given at 

(Place) on evening, (date) , at o clock. 

Committee : 



Secretary. 

An answer to the Secretary is requested. 

The following is the form of invitation used for the citizens reception and 
ball usually given on the night of the inauguration of the President : 



INVITATIONS. 187 

Inaugural Reception. 
Promenade Concert. 

(Appropriate designs with vignettes of the President and Vice- President, 
national arms, flags, eagle and other national symbols.) 

The pleasure of your company is requested at the , Washington, 

D. C, March 4, 18.. 

(Here, in appropriate arrangement, follow the names of the officers of 
the executive committee and the committee of arrangements.) 
Another form of Invitation is, 

First Grand Ball 

of the 

Marine Guard, 
Navy Yard, Washington, D C. 

To be held at Hall, 

On , at o clock. 

Compliments of 

Not Transferable. 

FRENCH PHRASES. The following ^re the abbreviations of French 
phrases, or terms frequently used in invitations, and the corresponding ex 
pressions in English. 

R S. V. P Repondez s^ilvous plait, answer if you please. 

Soiree Dansante, Dancing Party. 

Soiree Musicale, Musical Party. 

Cotillion, Cotillion. 

Bal Masque, Masquerade Ball. 

Fete Champetre, a rural Entertainment. 

Conversazione, (Italian,) An Entertainment for Conversation. 

Dejeuner, Breakfast, meaning at n, A. M. 

GENERAL RULES. The following rules should govern all invitations: 

Acceptances and regrets must be addressed to the hostess. 

An invitation sent to several members of the same family may be enclosed 
in the same envelope or sent separately. The forms of invitations are the 
same, the daughters may be included in one invitation and the sons in another, 
if unmarried and living at home. 

Never use an abbreviation in the wording of an invitation. 

All invitations to a private entertainment, which contain the words "re 
quest the honor or pleasure of your company," require an answer, whether 
the usual request be granted or not. It is not necessary to accept or decline 
invitations to receptions, unless requested to do so, as these are more of a 



1 88 INVITATIONS. 

ceremonial than of a social character. Invitations to an " At home " require 
no answer, as such entertainments are of an informal nature. 

Invitations to a reception should be sent out from ten to twenty days in 
advance, and to a dancing party, or ball, from ten to twenty days, according 
to the importance of the occasion. Levees, public receptions and drawing- 
rooms, are usually announced in the public prints. Invitations to "At 
Homes " are issued at the beginning of the season and designate the days 
and the months they will continue, and whether in the afternoon or evening. 
Invitations to dinner may be issued from ten to twenty days in advance, and 
must always be answered. 

All invitations to parties, balls, soirees, dinners, and formal breakfasts, 
luncheons, coffees and teas, should be promptly answered, not later than two 
days after received. It matters not whether an answer be requested or not. 
Should anything occur to prevent carrying out an accepted invitation a note, 
of explanation, giving the reason, should be sent at once. 

Acceptances or regrets may be sent through the mail 

Never send invitations to some friends and cards to others for a social af 
fair, except marriage announcements, 

TAKING A LADY. In attending a social entertainment of any kind a 
gentleman desiring to accompany a lady, should either call upon her and ask 
her to accompany him or address her a written note to the same effect. The 
usual form of such a note would be, 

Miss 

May I have the pleasure of your company to the , 

at , on evening, the of at o clock. 

With respect, 

Washington, D. C ,18.. 

The lady should reply promptly: 

Mr 

It will give me pleasure to accompany you to the , 

at , on evening, the of . 18.. 

Washington, D. C, , 18 

or, 

Mr 

I regret that a previous engagement (or stating any other 

reason) prevents me from accepting your kind offer for the at on 

, the ....of 18.. 

Washington, D. C, , 18.. 

All invitations, if not answered, are regarded as accepted. Where an answer 
is requested it would be discourteous not to give it. 



THE DEBUT IN SOCIETY. 189 

THE DEBUT IN SOCIETY. 

A custom much to be applauded, is the recognition of the entrance of a young 
lady into society by some suitable social demonstration. The custom of society 
has established the time for such an event in a young lady s life at any period 
between the years of eighteen and twenty. The pernicious practice of im 
patient mothers permitting their daughters to enter society earlier, cannot be 
too severely deprecated. To launch a young lady into society incomplete in 
education necessary to fit her to appear well among her associates; incom 
plete in judgment to protect her against the snares which beset her path, and 
incomplete in that discretion necessary to put her on her guard against actions, 
innocent though they may be, but upon which society will only too readily put 
its own construction, is to assume a responsibility which should be well con 
sidered beforehand. The standard of society is regulated entirely by the 
character and accomplishments of the ladies who compose it. For this reason it 
is all the more important that society should be made up of the best material. 

The importance, therefore, of the debut of any young lady can be appreciated. 
It marks the era in her life when she enters the arena of society as a woman 
and is entitled to all the proper and rightful privileges of her social position. 
She may now receive the courtly attentions of gentlemen, and may appear in 
public as the mistress of her own will. By her own acts she wins her way 
to the homage of her friends and glory of her sex by filling a high place in 
the social sphere, or falls a wreck to the many dangers which beset her 
path, and disappears forever from the society of her friends. The tender care 
of a mother still watches her footsteps, but maternal solicitude is no longer 
the law to govern her. She is her own mistress before the social world. 

THE PRESENTATION. The first step in tt& presentation of a daughter 
to the social world is for the young lady, in company with her mother, to 
call upon such lady friends whose acquaintance she wishes to retain. A day 
is then fixed for the debut and invitations are sent by messenger or mail ten 
days before the time. These invitations should be engraved and printed in 
fine style, like other invitations. The usual form is as follows : 

Mr. and Mrs. ... 

Request the pleasure of presenting their daughter, 

Miss 

to 



on evening, at o clock. 

Dancing at ( Residence. > 

The form of acceptance is the same as for other social entertainments: 



190 THE DEBUT IN SOCIETY. 

Mr. and Mr? 

Accept with pleasure 

Mr. and Mrs s 

Invitation for evening 

These invitations are sent to each member of the family and should be 
replied to in the same form. 

It would be proper for the more intimate friends of the family to recognize 
the event by sending on the day named some suitable floral or other tribute. 

On the evening of the entertainment the mother receives the guests as they 
arrive and formally presents them to her daughter. It is proper for guests to 
welcome her into the social world by appropriate expressions of congratulaiton. 

When the supper is announced the father, if present, escorts the debutante, 
while the mother is escorted by a gentleman selected by the father. If the 
father is not present the young lady should be escorted by the nearest relative 
of suitable age. In the dance the father or the nearest relative should be her 
first partner, and after that she can select or accept the offers of others. She 
should not dance twice with the same person. 

The daughter is now a young lady in every sense of the term in the 
vocabulary of polite society. . Thereafter all visits of etiquette, while made 
upon the mother, should also include her. 

Sometimes a debutante dinner is given, with a dancing party after. 

SOCIAL DUTIES. It is customary during the first season that ths de 
butante should not use a card of her own, but her name should be engraved 
on the same card with her mother. She makes no visits of etiquette alone and 
only receives them in company with her mother. After the first season she 
has her own card and receives her own company. 

ENTREE OF A GENTLEMAN. No ceremony attends the entree of a 
young gentleman into society. His youthful services to his mother and sisters 
have already given him a schooling in social affairs, which he employs in a 
broader sphere when the attractions of polite society begin to have an interest 
to him. 

It is not unusual to celebrate the arrival of a son at his majority, by inviting 
a few friends to a social gathering. 

The following is the form of invitation used for such an entertainment : 

Mr. and Mrs 

Request the pleasure of 

s 

Company to celebrate their son s majority 

on evening, , 18 

An early answer is desired. (Residence.) 



RECEPTIONS AND DRAWING-ROOMS. 191 

RECEPTIONS AND DRAWING-ROOMS. 

BALLS AND PARTIES. 

The ceremonial Receptions or Drawing Rooms axe. the usual forms of enter 
taining friends in Official or private life, socially. They also afford to strangers 
of social standing, in the city, an opportunity to pay their respects to the dis 
tinguished resident ladies and Officials which they otherwise might not enjoy. 

NEW YEAR S RECEPTIONS. The New Year s Receptions begin the 
season of social festivity, both in official and private life, at the National 
Capital as well as elsewhere. The custom of holding New Year s receptions 
originated in the practice among the sovereigns and ruling princes of the old 
world of granting an audience to the ambassadors, envoys and public ministers 
of sufficient rank, of other countries, for the purpose of receiving their con 
gratulations upon the opening of the New Year. The receptions of a similar 
character at the Executive mansion have the same object in view, the Diplo 
matic corps being present by invitation, and the representatives of the three 
co-ordinate branches of the Government and people by public announcement in 
the newspapers. 

The reception at the Executive mansion is followed by receptions held by 
the members of the Supreme Court, and the Cabinet, and their ladies, in so 
ciety, and the ladies of Senators, Representatives and others in social life. 
The announcements are usually made the day before in the newspapers. This 
is sufficient notice to all friends and proper persons that they will be welcome. 

The time for receiving New Year s calls in some cities begins at 10 a.m. In 
Washington it is customary for the members of the Cabinet, Diplomats, Sena 
tors and Representatives, officers of the. Army and Navy, and Officials, to call 
upon THE PRESIDENT first. As these receptions begin at II a. m., the recep 
tions at the residences of the Cabinet Ministers (except the Secretary of State) 
which begins after the Diplomatic breakfast, and in social life, begin at 12 
noon and last until 5 p. m. In some cases where a number of ladies are 
receiving at the same place it is not unusual for the hostess to invite a few gen 
tlemen to return in the evening to dance. 

In some instances ladies in society issue cards of invitation, which are in the 
name of the hostess, neatly engraved in form, as follows : 

Mrs 

At Home, 
January first, from I till 9 o clock P. M. 

(Residence.) 



192 RECEPTIONS. 

If any daughters or invited friends receive with the hostess, their cards 
should be enclosed in the same envelope. The issuing of invitations, how 
ever, is not desirable for many reasons. 

At all New Year s receptions the windows are darkened, so as to exclude 
the sunlight, and the rooms are brilliantly lighted. The hostess and receiving 
guests are in grand toilet. In official New Year s receptions the official is the 
principal receiving party. In social life the New Year s greetings are to the 
lady of the house. Gentlemen calling should provide themselves with a full 
supply of visiting cards, as the cards left on these occasions are preserved and 
referred to in selecting the guests for future entertainments during the sea 
son. This applies to official as well as social occasions. 

ROUTINE OF RECEPTIONS At New Year s Receptions a servant 
opens the door without delay to arriving guests. Gentlemen leave their cards 
in the receiver in the hall, and after disposing of their overcoats, enter the 
Drawing Room with or without hat in hand. The ladies who stand at the 
opposite end of the main parlor, receive them, Ihe hostess bows or extends 
her hand and acknowledges any complimentary remark with a suitable reply, 
or bow of recognition, and turning presents the callers to the ladies receiving 
with her The latter will simply bow. If any callers have been invited as 
the friends of one of the receiving ladies, the latter will greet them cordially 
and present them to the hostess. After this exchange of the compliments of 
the season, which should be brief, if other callers are approaching, the hos 
tess invites the callers to partake of refreshments. The callers retire alone, 
if disposed, and aie served by waiters. It is not irregular for the hostess 
to ask one of the receiving ladies to accompany any gentleman whom she 
wishes specially to honor, to the refreshment room. The lady should remain 
to see that the gentleman is waited upon, and may then excuse herself and join 
the receiving party. If the callers are few, the hostess can step to the re 
freshment room, but she must never be absent from her place when a caller 
appears. Nothing is so embarrassing to a caller as to be compelled to wander 
about looking for the hostess. A New Year s call should not extend beyond 
from five to fifteen minutes. After leaving the refreshment room, the caller 
should pass through the receiving parlor and bow to the ladies as they pass out. 

The refreshments should be light, consisting of coffee, chocolate, bouillon, 
sandwiches, cold meats, salads, cakes, ices and confections. The serving of 
wine is optional, and, as a rule, objectionable. Frequently gentlemen refrain 
from its use, not desiring to discriminate among their lady friends, and ladies 
accustomed to serving wines at other entertainments, refrain on this, on ac 
count of the danger of an abuse of the courtesy. 



194 RECEPTIONS. 

The proper dress for gentlemen for making formal calls should be the style 
in vogue for morning calls, or a dress suit with subdued colors in ties and 
gloves. 

In less formal New Year s receptions a lady may simply write on the lower 
left hand corner of her visiting card "January first," and send to such gentle 
man friends as she may particularly desire to see on that day. Refreshments 
must be served, but not on an elaborate scale. The costume for ladies in this 
case should be such as would be worn for ordinary visits of ceremony with 
light colored gloves. The reception room should not be illuminated, daylight 
being more suitable to the informal character of the occasion. 

The hours of receiving end the formalities incident to such receptions are 
the same as for a more elaborate affair. 

In the case of any lady, for reasons satisfactory to herself, not receiving, 
it would be proper to place a card-basket at the door to receive the cards of 
callers. Gentlemen unable to call may send their cards by mail or messenger, 
so as to reach the parties before the hours of receiving. Gentlemen may 
also visit each house and send their cards in by a servant. The upper right 
hand corner (felicitation) should be turned to show delivery in person. 

New Year s cards are frequently designed for the occasion, and it is proper 
to write on the upper left hand corner, For Mrs , "Com 
pliments of the season." It is not improper for a gentleman to leave a card 
for an elderly or invalid gentleman friend in the house. 

During the first week after the New Year s receptions it is usual for re 
ceiving ladies in society to make calls of congratulation among themselves. 
These personal calls are disposed of before the usual duties of the gay season 
fully consume their time. 

GEN ERAL RECEPTIONS. The evening receptions given by the higher 
members of the three co-ordinate branches of the Government have bsen 
mentioned elsewhere. The evening receptions in social life are conducted in 
the same manner, and include friends and acquaintances in and out of official 
life. The invitations should be sent out at least ten days in advance. 
The following are informs of invitations used on such occasions : 
To a reception in honor of a distinguished guest : 

(Initial. ) 

Mr. and Mrs 

Request the pleasure of your company 
to meet 

The Secretary of and Mrs , 

evening, the , from to 

o clock. 

(Residence.) 



GENERAL RECEPTIONS. 195 

Another form is : 

(Crest.) 

Mr. and Mrs 

Will be pleased to see 

Mr. and Mrs 

on the day of , from till 

o clock P. M. 

(Residence.) 
Another and simpler form is : 

Reception. 

Mr. and Mrs _. . . 

At Home 

evening, the at o clock. 

Or, 

(Monogtam.) 

Prof, and Mrs 

Reception. 

.. evening, . .... 

at o clock. 

For a public reception : 

(Initials.) 

Masonic Temple. 

Reception 

evening, , at o clock. 

Complimentary. 

Mr 

Yourself and ladies are cordially invited. 
Committee ot Arrangements : 



Invitations to receptions require no acceptance, unless specifically requested. 

The usual hours of holding evening receptions are from 8 to ri p. m. 
Ladies appear in grand toilet and gentlemen in full dress. The arriving 
guests are directed to the dressing-rooms and after removing their wrappings, 
the gentlemen join their ladies. Each gentleman offers his arm to his lady 
and descends to the -drawing-room, which the couple enter and pay their 
respects to the host and hostess. (See Etiquette of Social Entertainments.} 
The guests move about the room addressing their friends and engaging in 
conversation with them. Refreshments are served at 10 o clock. The gentle 
men, assisted by servants, in turn wait upon the ladies who accompanied them 
into the refreshment room. 



196 DRAWING ROOMS. 

After the host and hostess return to the drawing room the guests follow and 
after a few moments take leave and withdraw to the dressing rooms. Here 
they secure their wrappings and should depart quietly. Guests who arrived 
in carriages, leaving their ladies in the hall, should give their names or 
numbers of their carriages to the groom or a policeman outside, who will 
announce them, and rejoin their ladies to await notification. It is not unusual, 
where the throng of vehicles is great, for ladies and gentlemen to step outside 
and take their carriages at some point previously agreed upon. 

DRAWING ROOMS. The Drawing Rooms of ladies in official or social 
life are held on certain days and are governed by the same formalities. (See 
Reception Days and Receptions, Official Etiquette ) 

These receptions are held between the hours of 2 and 5 p. m., and are open 
to ladies and gentlemen, resident or strangers, in good society in Wash 
ington or at home. The proper costume for the receiving lady is evening 
dress but not grand toilet. Ladies calling should wear street costume and 
enter with bonnets. Gentlemen are also attired in walking costume and 
enter with or without hat in hand, but leave their overcoats in the ante-room. 

The Drawing Rooms of ladies in social life are held principally by those 
known in society and are frequently announced in the daily newspapers. 

In attending an afternoon reception hand your card to the usher at the 
door, who will announce your name and deposit the card in the card basket. 
If there is no usher, deposit the card in the card basket yourself, and announce 
your own name as you approach. 

The receptions usually termed "At Homes 1 may be held either in the 
afternoon or evening. These receptions, when held in the evening, are by 
invitation as follows : 

Mr. and Mrs 

At Home 

Wednesdays in January and February, 
from to o clock. 

These entertainments are designed for personal friends, and are less formal 
than receptions. They are frequently taken for formal receptions, however, 
and guests dress accordingly. They are properly intended to afford friends in 
the city an opportunity to call in a sociable way, but as a rule it is not always 
safe to regard them in that light. It is due to the host and hostess, and to 
the guests, that a distinction be made. An invitation to a Reception should be 
considered as an announcement that the official or private citizen and the 
ladies of his family would be pleased to see their friends in full evening dress 
and an "At Home," that they would be received informally in calling dress 



DANCING PARTIES AND BALLS. 197 

and bonnet. The safest distinction to make, is to regard an "At Home" 
during the day-time, a calling costume affair, and during the evening full dress. 

DANCING PARTIES AND BALLS. It is not considered elegant for 
ladies in polite circles to attend public balls. Exception, however, may be 
made on occasions of an official event in which a grand ball or public enter 
tainment is the opening or closing ceremony. 

In giving a private ball or formal Dancing party, it should be done in good 
style, or not at all. 

The cards of invitation should be issued not less than ten days in advance 
in order to allow the ladies ample opportunity to make their preparations. 
The invitations to a Dancing party are in the name of the lady. The number 
of guests should be determined by the accommodations. Over crowded 
apartments are an inconvenience to the dancers, and detract from the pleasure 
of the occasion. One hundred dancers is a large number for an ordinary 
private ball or dancing party. It is generally safe, however, to invite one- 
fourth more than a convenient number. 

The following is the usual form of invitation to a dancing party: 

Mrs 

Requests the pleasure of the company of 

Mr. and Mrs 

On evening, 

at o clock. 

(Residence.) 

An answer is desired. 

Dancing. 
If the entertainment be simply a parly, use this form : 

Mr. and Mrs s 

Compliments 

For evening, , 

from to o clock. 

(Residence.) 

The favor of an early answer is requested. 

Dancing. 
An invitation to a private ball should read, 

Mr. and Mrs s 

Compliments 

to Mr. and Mrs , and request the pleasure 

of their company at a ball evening the 

.... of 

An early answer is requested. (Residence.) 



198 DANCING PARTIES AND BALLS. 

It is always desirable to state the character of the entertainment. 

If the party or ball be in honor of a debutante her card may be enclosed 
with the invitation. 

The acceptance or regrets should be sent within two days after the invita 
tion. In event of an occurrence, subsequently, preventing attendance, a note 
of explanation would be admissable. The following general forms are used: 

Mr. and Mrs s compliments and accept with pleasure the 

polite invitation of Mrs , for .. evening, the , or 

Mr regrets that absence from the city (or any other reason 

may be stated) will prevent his acceptance of the kind invitation of Mrs. 
, for evening, the 

These may be sent by messenger or mail and should be addressed to the 
lady. 

The dress suitable for such entertainments is grand toilet for ladies and full 
evening dress for gentlemen. White or light colored kids should be worn 
and should not be taken off until supper. 

The selection of guests should be with reference to their ability to dance. 
Nothing so destroys the pleasure of this class of entertainment as to have a 
large proportion of persons who cannot or will not dance. The success of a 
Dancing party depends largely upon three requisites, a smooth floor, a good 
supper, and excellent dancers. 

There should be dressing rooms for ladies and gentlemen sufficient to ac 
commodate the guests conveniently, and servants to attend upon them. In 
each dressing room should be blank cards for the use of the guests. A tablet 
or printed list of the dances, with blanks opposite, would be convenient for 
ladies and gentlemen to note their engagements. Intimate friends may arrive 
early so as to extend their greetings before the throng becomes great. Guests 
should arrive from 9 to 10 p. m. The lady of the house should occupy a 
place in the drawing room most convenient for the guests to pay their 
greetings. 

The gentlemen should always wait at the dressing room door for their 
ladies, and when ready, should offer the left arm to his lady and escort her 
to the lady of the house, where both should extend their greetings and pass 
on to make way for those who follow. Persons not accustomed to good 
society, stop to enter into conversation, to the great annoyance of the hostess 
and impatience of the guests who follow. A lady, as a rule, should never 
enter the drawing room unattended. If she has no escort let her accompany 
a gentleman and lady friend. 

If the lady you are attending has other admirers, it is proper deference 
to her and to the pleasure of the general assembly not to absorb all her time, 



DANCING PARTIES AND BALLS. 199 

but like a true gallant permit her to have some range to her caprices, being 
always watchful, however, that she is not neglected. 

The host should always see that all the guests are enjoying themselves. 
The hostess should be dressed in a subdued manner, and should be equally 
polite to all. 

There should be seats provided around the room for those who are not 
dancing. 

On all occasions, private or public, where there is dancing there should be 
a tl Master of Ceremonies" If the occasion be a private dancing party the 
hostess may select a competent gentleman to act, and he should not decline. 
He should call the dance, see that those who wish to dance are supplied with 
partners, and that all are in their proper places. He then signals the musicians 
(who should recognize no other authority) to begin. Gentlemen should engage 
their partners for the dance before the music begins. Should a gentleman 
be unacquainted with a lady, he should be presented by the Master of Cere 
monies, or some mutual friend, before he asks her to dance, otherwise, in. 
polite society, she would unhesitatingly decline. 

When the dance is over the gentleman should promenade a few moments 
with the lady resting on his left arm, and then escort her to a seat, or sur 
render her to her partner for the next dance The gentleman thanks her for 
the pleasure the dance has afforded him. Should a lady feel fatigued, and 
desire not to dance, it would be polite for the gentleman, unless other 
wise engaged, to remain with her during the progress of the dance. 

The time for supper is between eleven and twelve o clock. The host con 
ducts the principal lady to the supper room, followed by the guests. Each gen 
tleman should escort a lady to the supper room, should there be a sufficient num 
ber present, wait upon her and return to the drawing room with her. The 
hostess usually lingers until the last to see that everything is in order. Should 
a high official or specially honored guest be present she will follow the host 
and lady to the supper. It is the grossest impoliteness to permit a lady to 
look out for herself. 

If the entertainment be a ball, the supper room should remain open until the 
end. At an ordinary dancing party refreshments are served at a stated hour. 
There should always be iced water or lemonade where convenient to the guests, 

It is no compliment to the ladies and no credit to the gentlemen to pass 
most of the evening after supper in the dressing rooms smoking and per 
haps indecorous drinking. 

The dancing should be resumed after a brief intermission after supper. 

A dancing party or ball should not be kept up too late, no matter how urgent, 
for politeness sake, the host or hostess may be. The older guests should set 
the example for the younger to follow, with respect to leaving. 



2OO DANCING PARTIES AND BALLS. 

Guests should not make undue commotion in leaving. Take leave of the 
hostess. If she cannot be found readily, it is not etiquette to be running over 
the premises in quest of her, but to await her appearance or leave quietly. 

The invitation to a ball or dancing party should be recognized within the 
week after. The ladies call in person. The gentlemen call in person or by 
card. 

GENERAL RULES. The following are the general rules of etiquette 
governing the decorum of dancing parties or public or private balls. 

Pi esentation to a lady in a public ball room, for the purpose of dancing, 
does not entitle a gentleman to an acquaintance. Meeting her afterwards he 
should await recognition. 

Lead the lady lightly through the dance, do not drag her nor seize her 
by the hand roughly. 

Never take part in a dance unless you know at least enough to keep out 
of the way of those who are familiar with its figures. 

Gentlemen should dance quietly. Dancing is an exhibition of the grace 
and not the muscularity of motion. 

Should a lady politely decline the invitation of a gentleman to dance, and 
subsequently dance with some one else, it is not to be taken as an offense. 
She may simply have prefened another. A lady cannot be expected to dance 
\vith those who come first, or not at all. She is entitled to the selection of 
her own partner in the dance. 

If a lady engages to dance with a gentleman, in some future dance, the latter 
should be mindful to present himself at a seemly time before the dance is 
called, otherwise he might prevent the lady from obliging some one else. Such 
an oversight might be treated as an insult. 

A lady waltzing with a gentleman, the latter should rest his open hand 
lightly on the lady s waist. 

It is no evidence of gallantry to be officious in defense of the ladies, and 
no notice should be taken of such a performance, except in an extreme breach 
of decorum. In lesser matters a lady will take better care of herself. In a 
matter of this kind she has the decided advantage of a would-be gentleman. 

Never take an uninvited friend to a ball or dancing party without previously 
asking permission. A person so invited should also return a card. 

Want of reserve in either sex, slang, and defiance of the restraints of polite 
society, are without excuse, even in a ball room. 

"THE GERMAN." The etiquette of the "German," is the same as 
for a Dancing party. The hostess should exercise care in the choice of the 
leader of the dance, and the favors provided for those who dance should be 



THE GERMAN. 2OI 

carefully selected. The hostess should strive to have the favors as evenly 
distributed as possible, or at least should encourage those who are less for 
tunate than others. 

The usual forms of invitation are 



The pleasure of your company is requested at the 
Leap Year German 

evening, , 

Hall. 

Dancing at 8 o clock. German at 10 o clock. 

Committee: 

Or, The German Club 

Request the pleasure of 

s company on evening, the day of , at 

o clock, at 

Dancing at o clock. German at o clock. 

It is customary to pass the early part of the evening in the waltz or other 
dances, and to begin "The German" after supper. 

It is often the custom for certain ladies and gentlemen to practice "The 
German. " In this case the lady of the house at which the dance is to be 
practiced issues the invitation as 

Mrs 

Asks the pleasure of your presence at a meeting of 

"The German," on evening, , at .... 

o clock. (Residence.) 

It is said that this elaborated form of cotillion was first danced at a ball 
given to the allied sovereigns after the battle of Waterloo. The favors are 
simply to enhance the pleasures of the occasion. 

FASHIONABLE DANCING. The Quadrille is the favorite of all classes, 
as it affords ample field for grace of motion, without much previous knowl 
edge of intricate steps. It is also a conversational dance, and therefore is a 
source of entertainment to those \v ho dance more for politeness than pleasure. 
The dance admits of as much state or gayety as the participants are disposed 
to bestow upon it. But the energy of the gentlemen should not be carried to 
the extent of roughness. An easy graceful motion is in best form. 

The Landers, a more animated dance, is also more complicated. It is best 
adapted to young people, with whom it is a great favorite. As a rule, only 
persons familiar with its complicated movements should attempt to dance it, 
or at all events to lead, so as to set the example to those less familiar with it. 

The Round dances, as waltzes and polkas, should be danced with grace. The 



2O2 OPERA AND THEATRE PARTIES. 

old time prudery against round dancing by ladies and gentlemen not related 
is less rigid of late years. It is a subject which should be governed by the 
lady s own inclinations. She may dance with a gentleman relative or friend 
with propriety, but a lady will never waltz with a comparative stranger, nor a 
ball-room acquaintance. The gentleman and lady in waltzing should not ap 
pear to be leaning upon each other. The gentleman should be firm but gentle 
in holding the lady s hand, and should not seize her so as to embarrass her 
step. The Americans are the best waltzers in the world. 

The Minuet, the ancient dance of French royalty, is the culmination of 
grace, comprising an easy motion, stately step, graceful courtesy and dignified 
bow. It is well adapted to the display of elegant toilets with trains, but is 
not a popular dance on account of the difficulty of dancing it well by a mixed 
company and without previous careful training. 

The " German" or cotillion, the etiquette of which has been given, is the 
favorite dance in army and navy and the select circles of fashionable dancers. 

The Galop, the Virginia Reel, and Sir Roger de Coverly are usually the clos 
ing dances, and are generally somewhat rompish, but should never be carried 
to rudeness. 

No one in polite society should make fashionable entertainments a school 
for dancing. Every lady or gentleman, if they wish to dance, should avail 
themselves of previous training under the tuition of a dancing master. 

In society, to be a good dancer is a great accomplishment. To be a poor 
dancer shows a hck of training, but to be rough shows a lack of the instincts 
of a gentleman. 

OPERA AND THEATER PARTIES. It is proper in polite society 
for a young gentleman to invite his lady friends to an opera or theater party. 
The parties of this character are designed for young gentlemen who have 
the means and who desire to return social kindnesses received by them from 
their friends, and who have not the facilities for reciprocating at their own 
homes. In all opera or theater parties, where young ladies form part of tne 
company, it is necessary to secure the presence of a married lady of suitable 
age and experience, a relative if possible, to chaperon or matronize the party. 
The invitations are given by the young gentleman in person to the mothers or 
guardians of the young ladies, and may also include a suitable gentleman 
relative, if possible. He should also mention the name of the lady who is to 
matronize the party, and the names of all the young ladies and gentlemen in 
vited. His invitation having been accepted he should give directions for the 
assembling of the party. The invited guests should meet at the residence of the 
matron, or one of the party, or the principal box occupied by the matron, 
at the place of amusement. In the latter case the tickets of admission should 




AN OPERA BOX PARTY 



204 FANCY DRESS AND CARD PARTIES. 

be left with the invitations. After the entertainment, the guests may be in 
vited to supper ordered in advance at a suitable restaurant. The matron of 
the party presides, and the same decorum should be observed as if it were a 
formal dinner. The matron also indicates the time to return home. The 
host should call en the matron and the families of the young ladies within 
a week, to inquire after the health of his guests. The young ladies should 
call within a week on the matron. 

When an opera or theater party is given by a lady from her own home, 
a more elaborate form would be to give a dinner to her guests, but that is not 
necessary, and then visit the opera or theater, and have light refreshments 
after their return. The lady issues invitations, and appoints the hour for as 
sembling at her own house. She should include an equal number of young 
ladies and gentlemen, rarely exceeding four or five couples. The invitations 
s hould be written, and should state the character of the entertainment, as follows : 

Mrs 

Compliments to Miss (or Mr.) 

And requests the pleasure of her (or his) company at an 

Opera (or Theater) party on evening, the 

(date) of (month) 

Dinner at o clock, (Residence.) 

This invitation should be accepted or declined on the same day, if possible. 

The toilets of the ladies and the costumes of the gentlemen must be suitable 
for the occasion. The opera admits of more elaborate toilets than for the 
theater. Gentlemen may appear in full dress, with dark tie and colored 
gloves. 

Each gentleman guest should call or leave a card within a week after the 
entertainment. 

FANCY DRESS PARTIES. If the guests are expected to appear in 
fancy dress or masked, this should be noted on the lower left hand corner by 
the words " Bal Masque, or Fancy dress," from which the guests will under 
stand what is expected of them. No persons should accept such an in 
vitation unless they intend to comply with the wishes of the hostess. In 
vitations to this character of entertainment should be sent out not less than 
two weeks in advance, so as to give time for the preparation of costumes. 
The formalities and rules of decorum in all these entertainments are the same 
as apply to general social entertainments. 

CARD PARTIES. At an evening party where card playing is to form 
the feature, the tables should be in a room apart from the rest of the com 
pany. If there are more than four present and all express a desire to play, 



KETTLE DRUMS AND MUSICALES. 205 

each person should draw a card. The persons drawing the highest are ex 
cluded. The four persons who have drawn the lowest cards again draw for 
partners, the two highest become partners, and the two lowest have the choice 
of seats and the deal. 

If you do not understand the game, decline to play. Nothing is so annoy 
ing as to be compelled to put up wich the blunders of persons unfamiliar with 
the game. In society never be too exacting in enforcing the penalties of the 
game. Whilst the cards are being dealt they should be allowed- to remain 
on the table in order not to confuse the dealer. Every one should scrupu 
lously observe the rules and give their whole attention to the game. To 
be playing and conversing with a friend is a gross disrespect to the others 
l n the game. In losing or winning show no undue temper or exultation. It 
is not uncommon in English and Continental society to wager sums of money 
on the game. This is not permitted by the sentiment of American society. 

TEA PARTIES OR KETTLE DRUMS. Tea Parties, with music, may 
be held either in the afternoon or evening, usually at the former time of day, 
from 3 to 6 or 4 to 7 P- rn. The invitations are in the usual form of invitation, 

with "Kettle Drum" or "Tea at o clock" inserted in the lower left hand 

corner. The etiquette observed on such occasions is the same as for any 
other informal social entertainment. 

The use of the term Kettle-Drum is English, having originated from the 
social entertainments given among the officers and families of the English 
garrisons, a drum-head often serving as a tea tray. The dress suitable for 
such occasions is visiting costume for both ladies and gentlemen. The enter 
tainments are entirely informal. They are limited to the more intimate friends 
of the hostess, an I the time is generally passed in discussing the social topics 
of the day. 

MUSICAL AND LITERARY ENTERTAINMENTS. There are other 
entertainments of a less formal and yet very enjoyable character. These may 
be termed Literary reunions, Conversaziones, Theatricals, Musicales, Rosebud 
dinner parties, etc. (The latter being of a social and literary character, and 
designed for the entertainment of young ladies who have recently graduated.) 
The general forms of invitations are the same as for other social entertain 
ments, the character of the gathering being noted in the lower left hand 
corner. 

If the object be conversation the fact is stated, and the selection of guests is 
made with reference to their learning, wit or any other intellectual accom 
plishments. Social entertainments of this character are frequent in Washing 
ton society, and are in the nature of "Literary Reunions." If the enter- 



206 MATINEES AND SOIREES. 

tainment is to consist of private theatricals this should be noted on the 

invitation, lower left hand corner, as "Theatricals at o clock. Dancing 

at o clock." 

The form of invitation is : 

Mr. and Mrs 

Request the pleasure of 



company, on evening, the day of , at o clock. 

(Conversazione.) (Residence.) 

It is customary to vary the entertainment of the evening with music, 
recitations and essays. Where music forms part of the evening s enjoyment, 
it would be well to remember that like compliments or anecdotes, it should be 
made brief. All persons do not enjoy music, some prefer conversation. 
Nothing so contributes to the enjoyment of an evening as diversity of 
entertainment. Music, therefore, now and then has its place, but should not 
absorb all the time unless it be the object of the gathering. Amateur 
singing, with rare exception, if long indulged in becomes a bore. Profes 
sionals in private society will always be found chary of the time they thus take 
from the general entertainment of the company. It is the heighth of rude 
ness to keep up a conversation while people are singing. 

MATINEES AND SOIREES. A custom in vogue at the social centers 
of the old world is to divide certain fashionable entertainments into two classes. 
Matinees, affairs of polite society before the dining hour, 6 or 7, p. m., and 
Soirees, which embrace those coming after that gastronomic distribution of 
the day. 

The hours of the former may be from 1 1 A. M. to 2 p. M., or 2 to 4 P. M. 
They refer more particularly to Musical, Literary, Conversational or Theatri 
cal entertainments, or even dancing parties or Germans at Private Houses 
and must not be confounded with Drawing Rooms. The Matinee is mostly 
patronized by ladies and gentlemen of leisure, although they are often the oc 
casion of gatherings of distinguished personages for some specific object, 
possibly to meet some distinguished stranger or guest. These occasions are 
more informal. The proper costume for ladies is that in vogue for calls, with 
perhaps a trifle more elaboration, and for gentlemen, street dress. 

The Soiree, while less general in the character of entertainment is not a 
"bonnet " affair. It is more of a gathering of persons brought together for 
for some special object like an assemblage of social lights. Like the Matinee* 
it is a gathering by selection, and is, therefore, more exclusive than an evening 
reception, a ball, or any of the general social gatherings to which "every 
body" is invited. 



GARDEN AND CHILDREN S PARTIES. 207 

The proper dress for ladies is demi-toilet, and for gentlemen, e /ening dress. 
It is proper to have light refreshments. 

GARDEN PARTIES. This form of entertainment, popular in the earlier 
social life of Washington, of late years has returned to favor on account of 
the suburban residences which have been growing in numbers and favor 
among the wealthier officials and residents for summer and autumn occupany. 
The form of invitation is the same as for any other social entertainment with 
the announcement in the lower left hand corner "Garden Party," and the 
name of the place in the lower right hand corner. It is also customary to 
enclose a printed card stating how the guests if not provided with their own 
carriages may reach the place. 

The amusements of the guests may be dancing, lawn tennis, croquet, arch 
ery, or any of the other suitable rural sports for fashionable ladies and gen 
tlemen. There should always be music with a well appointed garden party. 

The hostess should receive under a gay Marquee on the lawn if practicable, 
or on the veranda, and should be in out-door custume with a neat ornamental 
heidcoverirg. 

The lady guests should be in bonnets and the gentlemen in out-door dress. 

As a garden party is an open air affair, the refreshments should be cold, ex 
cept the coffee, tea, or chocolate. Salads, sandwiches, jellied dishes, iced 
beverages, &c., should be served. 

CHILDREN S PARTIES. The gatherings of young persons not in 
society, but whose parents give and receive social entertainments, are under 
the patronage of the mother, and include young persons of the same age and 
of the families of friends in intimate social relations. 

The invitations should be printed on small note paper and enclosed in a small 
square envelope, and may be tinted. The form is 

(Young Miss name) 

Requests the pleasure of 

Your company on 

from to o clock. 

An answer will oblige. (Residence.) 

Master 

Compliments 

For evening, the 

From 6 to 9 o clock. 

An answer will oblige. (Residence.) 

These invitations must be accepted or declined within two days. 



208 THE ETIQUETTE OF DINNER PARTIES. 

The usual hours for such parties are from 4 to 7 p. m., or from 6 to I o p. 
m., according to age. The invitation should be accepted the same as for 
regular parties. 

The usual gathering of young persons of both sexes is on the occasion 
of birth-day celebrations. 

THE El IQUETTE OF DINNER PARTIES. 

practice of giving ceremonious dinners or feasts has been in vogue from 
time immemorial, among men of all races and countries, cilivized or savage. 
The influence of the festive board in affairs of state and of private life, has 
been demonstrated to a degree that has become proverbial. Tallyrand said 
that the dinner table was the best place for the transaction of public busi 
ness. 

That kindly Frenchman, Brillat Savarin, thus epitomizes his meditations 
upon transcendental gastronomy. 

The universe would be nothing were it not for life, and all that lives must 
be fed. 

Animals fill themselves ; man eats. The man of mind alone knows how 
to eat. 

The destiny of nations depends on the manner in which they are fed. 

The pleasure of the table belongs to all ages, to all conditions, to all coun 
tries, and to all eras; it mingles with all other pleasures, and remains at 
least to console us for their departure. 

Those persons who suffer from indigestion, or who become drunk, are utterly 
ignorant of .the two principles of eating and drinking. 

The order of food is from the most substantial to the lightest. 

The order of drinking is from the mildest to the most foamy and perfumed. 

The most indispensable quality of a good cook is promptness. It should 
also be that of the guests. 

To wait too long for a dilatory guest shows disrespect for those who are 
punctual. 

He who receives friends and pays no attention to the repast prepared for 
them is not fit to have friends. 

The mistress of the house should always be certain that the coffee be excel 
lent ; the master that his liquors be of the first quality. 

To invite a person to your house is to take charge of his happiness as long 
as he be beneath your roof. 

INVITATIONS. The invitations to a dinner party should be given in 
the name of the host and the hostess at least ten days in advance, if possi- 



DINNERS. 209 

ble, and should always be answered, whether requested or not, within two 
days. In compiling a list of the persons to be invited, attention should be 
given to their congeniality, for nothing could be more flat and embarrassing 
than to gather around the hospitable board persons of different pursuits, tastes- 
and social rank, and especially should a personal disagreement exist between 
any of them. 

The following are the usual forms of invitations to a Dinner party : 

Mr. and Mrs 

Request the pleasure of 

Mr. and Mrs s 

Company at dinner on , (date) 

At o clock. 

An early answer will oblige. (Residence.) 

Another form is, 

Mr 

Requests the pleasure of 



Company at Dinner on , 

At o clock. 

An early answer is desired. (Residence.) 

If the Dinner be given in honor of a distinguished person, the fact may 
be stated by enclosing with the invitation a card containing the words 

To meet 

The Secretary of and Mrs 

Or, Mr 

of 

Or the invitation itself may contain these words engraved at the end of the 
usual form. 

The request for an answer is fast going out of date, as common politeness 
would suggest the propriety of sending a prompt reply to an invitation to dine. 
The following are the usual forms of acceptances and regrets, which should 
be returned within two days. 

Mr. and Mrs accept with pleasure Mr. and Mrs 

. .. invitation for evening. 

(date) (Residence.) 

Mr regrets that he is unable to accept Mr. and Mrs kind 

invitation for evening. 

(date) (Residence.) 

Mr regrets that a previous engagement prevents his acceptance 

of Mr kind invitation for evening. 

(date) (Residence.) 



210 DINNERS. 

An invitation to a Dinner having been accepted, no excuse but illness 
should prevent its fulfillment, and any one failing to appear without sufficient 
excuse previously made in writing, and for the reasons stated, could not 
expect an invitation in the future. 

All invitations to dine should be answered to the persons and in the form 
given. If the declination be in mourning that in itself would indicate sufficient 
reason for not accepting. But in all cases it is presumed that the reason for 
declining would be satisfsctory, if stated. 

DRESS. The dress suitable for a formal dinner for ladies is grand toilet 
and for gentlemen costume de rigueur. 

HOURS. The usual hours for a formal dinner are 7 or 8 p. m. An in 
vited guest should never arrive earlier than thirty minutes before the hour 
designated. When the hour of summons arrives it is not necessary for the 
host to delay for any of the guests not arrived, as tardiness is not entitled to 
consideration. Fifteen minutes grace may be allowed by the host, but beyond 
that would be discourteous to the guests present, as by their promptness is 
entitled to consideration. 

THE GUESTS. A servant should be stationed at the door to admit the 
arriving guests and to indicate to them the way to the dressing rooms. 

The host and hostess should stand in the principal room and should 
receive their guests as they enter. The formalities of arriving, entering the 
drawing room and being received, are the same as for grand receptions. The 
host should see that all the guests are acquainted, and introduce those who 
are not. 

The number of guests must be governed by circumstances; from twelve to 
twenty may be considered a full number for dinner. It would be well never 
to allow thirteen to be seated at the table, as some persons are superstitious 
respecting this number. 

At a dinner consisting of guests from both official and social life, those in 
whose honor the dinner is given take precedence of all others. This is the 
common law of the dinner table and those who object to such reasonab e 
distinctions should not be present. The wishes of the host are supreme in 
his own house. Where, however, there are persons of official rank present 
it would be manifestly improper for the host, after the particular guests to be 
honored, to adopt any other arrangement at the table than that suggested 
by the proprieties of official precedence. It would be the part of genteel 
breeding, however, not to notice any apparent slight, as it might have 



DINNERS. 211 

been the result of ignorance. A future invitation might be declined or the 
return call might be omitted. 

It would be improper to invite a gentleman without his wife, or a lady 
without her husband, where both ladies and gentlemen are present, unless the 
families be very intimate and the object being understood to add another guest 
to fill out the company. 

ARRANGEMENT OF GUESTS. The arrangement of the guests at 
the Dinner Table should be a subject of careful consideration by the host and 
hostess, and should be absolutely determined beforehand. 

The arrangement of the guests having been determined, the name of each 
lady should be written on a card, which should be enclosed in an envelope 
bearing the name of the gentleman who will escort her to the table. These en 
velopes placed on a silver tray are presented by a servant to each gentleman 
after he has been received by the host and hostess. The gentleman selects 
the envelope bearing his own name, and at once seeks out the lady whom he 
is to escort. He offers her his left arm, if promenading, or otherwise places 
himself at her service. This should be done before dinner is announced. 
Another plan is simply to write the name of the lady, and the gentleman to 
escort her, on a card, which is handed on a tray to each gentleman by a ser 
vant. Sometimes the host himself immediately after receiving a gentleman 
guest mentions to him the name of the lady whom he is to escort, and also 
whether they will occupy seats on the right or the left of the table. 

In addition to the above, the name of each lady and gentleman should be 
written on a card, more or less rich in quality, according to the ceremonious- 
ness of the Dinner, and laid on the plate at the seat each person is to occupy, 
each couple being grouped together. 

THE ANNOUNCEMENT. When the Dinner is ready, the principal 
servant standing in the entrance of the drawing room should bow to the host f 
who should be ready for the announcement. The host bowing to the lady 
whom he is to accompany, offers her his left arm and proceeds to the dining- 
room, the guests follow in couples, as previously indicated, and in the follow 
ing order : 

The host and honored guest, if a lady, or the wife of the honored guest, if 
an official or gentleman in private life, or the principal lady on account of social 
position, years or accomplishments. 

The guests follow in convenient order. 

The hostess, with the honored guest, if a gentleman, or the gentleman of 
the highest official rank or greatest distinction, who enters last. 

The host hands his lady to the seat on his right, which is arranged for her 



212 DINNERS. 

"by a servant ; the remaining guests take their places according to the arrange 
ment of their plate cards, the hostess being handed to her seat by her escort 
who takes his place on her right. The guests being in their places the hostess 
takes her seat, a servant adjusting her chair. Each gentleman guest arranges 
the chair of his lady and sees that she is seated, and then seats himself. A 
servant arranges ihe chair of the hostess. Guests, in getting seated, should 
act as quietly as possible. 

It is usually more convenient for the host and hostess to sit opposite to 
each other and at the center of each side of the table instead of the ends. 
This arrangement is best suited to conversation. 

If there is no host, the hostess invites a gentleman relative or the most 
distinguished gentleman friend to sit at the place usually assigned to the host, 
who also accompanies the principal lady. In this case the hostess leads the 
way to the dining-room, and the assisting gentleman, with the principal lady, 
enters List. 

If there be no hostess it is not customary to have ladies present at a dinner 
party, unless a close lady relative be present to do the honors of the occa 
sion. At a dinner party where there are none but gentlemen present, the 
formality of couples is not observed, but the host inviting the honored guest 
and highest in official and social station, into the dining-room, enters himself, 
the guests following. Those of less rank should permit those of greater 
official importance or age to precede them. The arrangement should be 
with reference to the importance of each guest, the relative importance of places 
at the table being the same as explained. The table cards will indicate the 
seats of guests. The hostess place should be ocupied by some familiar 
friend, who can contribute to the pleasure of the entertanment. 

If THE PRESIDENT of the United States be present, he is simply so inform 
ally, while THE PRESIDENT invites persons of suitable rank to dine with 
him, he never accepts an invitation to a formal dinner. He is therefore only 
present as a distinguished individual. The acceptance, by THE PRESIDENT, 
of a dinner in his honor, is not in accordance with the view, as a rule, taken 
of the high prerogatives, official and social of the Presidential office, by the 
distinguished citizens who have filled that office, from Washington down. 
THE PRESIDENT, as the representative of the sovereign power of the nation, 
has no cfficial or social equal, and only returns the ceremonial call of a Sov 
ereign, Ruling Prince, a member of a Royal Family, President of a Foreign 
State, an Ex-President or President-Elect. When THE PRESIDENT, in an 
informal way is present, the host should lead the way with the first lady, and 
the hostess should be escorted by THE PRESIDENT. Or, if the dinner be 
given in honor of some distinguished personage, and THE PRESIDENT be 



DINNERS. 213 

present, he should enter the dining room with the lady assigned to him, and 
list before the hostess, upon whose left he should sit. The fact of THE 
PRESIDENT being present at a dinner, at a private house, is a concession on 
his part to the usual and proper formalities of such an occasion. The Presi 
dents, however, have been chary of their presence at private dinner parties, 
outside of the residences of the members of their cabinets. When THE 
PRESIDENT has consented to be present, the guests should be selected with 
a view to that fact, and, therefore, should be taken from the higher grades of 
official rank. 

If there should not be ladies enough to form couples, those who take pre 
cedence either by rank, social position or age, should be provided for first. 
The remaining gentlemen should seat themselves on either side, at the ends. 
The first four couples, alternating on the right and left of the host and hostess, 
respectively, should always be arranged beforehand, whether the formality be 
preserved throughout or not. 

Where the guests are in official rank, after the host and hostess and the 
lady and gentleman whom they honor with precedence, the arrangement should 
be in the order of official precedence of those assembled. (See Order of Offi 
cial Precedence. ) 

If the dinner be given to a gentleman, he accompanies the hostess to the 
table, and the host escorts his wife, if present, otherwise he selects the lady 
who shall take precedence If the entertainment be given in honor of a 
lady, the host escorts her to the table and the hostess is escorted by her hus 
band, if present. The rest of the guests are arranged according to official or 
social precedence, and are seated in the order given. 

If the entertainment be given by an official, no matter what his rank, he 
takes precedence for the time being of all his guests, and may select the lady 
whom he will accompany to the table. Her husband, if present, escorts the 
hostess. The rest of the gentlemen guests are arranged in their order of 
precedence, the ladies being assigned to them to suit the wishes of the host, 
either from official or social life. 

If the dinner be an informal affair and but few guests present, the host 
will indicate the gentleman to escort the hostess, and will himself select the 
principal lady guest. The rest of the guests will select their own ladies to 
escort. It would be proper for the gentleman to extend his left arm to the 
lady to whom he might be paying attention at the time of announcement, 
unless he have previously selected his companion. Gentlemen leaving the 
room last should see that all the ladies are provided with escorts, or if an odd 
one, tender her escort. 



214 DINNERS. 

TABLE PRECEDENCE. The relative order of importance to seats at a 
dinner table is as follows : 

1. The seat of the host in the center of the right side of the table, approach 
ing, with the seat of the principal lady guest on his right. 

2. The seat of the hostess, in the center of the left side of the table, ap 
proaching, with the principal gentleman guest on her right. 

The same rule applies should the host and hostess sit at the ends of the 
table. The hostess should always sit at the end or side of the table nearest 
the place of serving. 

3. The seat of the second lady on the left of the host and the escorting 
gentleman on her left. 

4. The seat of the second gentleman on the left of the hostess and the lady 
escorted by him on his left. 

And so on alternating, according to official or social importance along the 
side of the table, in couples. I. On the right of the host. 2. On the right of 
the hostess. 3. On the left of the host. 4. On the left of the hostess, until all 
the guests are seated. This arrangement should be continued throughout, 
where the discriminations are made by official rank. The persons of least rank 
in the scale of official precedence occupying the last seat furtherest away 
from the host or hostess. 

Where the dinner is made up of guests from social life exclusively, or 
a mixed company, it would be better to attempt no discriminations as to 
persons or places after the seating of the first four couples, that is the host 
and lady and hostess and gentlemen in their proper places and the couples as 
signed to the seats on their immediate left respectively, as explained. In a 
social dinner it might not be agreeable to discriminate beyond the principal 
lady with the host and honored guest with the hostess and the couple as 
signed to the places on the left of the host and hostess respectively. 

SEATED AT THE TABLE. Remove your gloves, open your napkin 
and spread it across your lap. With some it is customary to fasten the napkin 
across the chest. This practice is not in best style. (See Table Manners.) 

SERVING THE DINNER. It is hardly the part of etiquette to enter 
into the details of arranging the dinner table or of serving the dinner. Those 
unfamiliar with this art would do well to have an experienced caterer 

There are several styles of serving a dinner. In the English style the whole 
course is placed upon and served from the table, except such dishes as require 
carving, which are first stood upon the table and afterwards removed to a 
side table and carved and served by servants. In the Russian style, or a la 
Russe, the dessert of fruit and nuts and wines are placed upon the table, 



2l6 DINNERS. 

which is tastefully decorated with flowers and bonbons. Each lady has a 
bouquet and sometimes a small reticule of silk filled with confections. The 
dishes carved and ready for serving are passed to each guest by servants, the 
principal dish of each course first and the accessory dishes immediately after. 
The American and French style is a compromise upon the two styles named. 
The raw oysters are served before the guests are summoned. The soup is 
served by the waiter. The waiter then places the plates of the remaining 
courses in their order before the host or hostess first and follows with the dish 
to be served. The course is then served by the host and placed before the 
guest by a waiter. The pastry, dessert and coffee in their proper order 
are placed before the hostess. As the plate is ready it is placed on a salver 
and is conveyed by a waiter to and placed before the guest. The other 
dishes of the course are served by the servant, who passes them on the 
left of the guests, who help themselves. When the last guest has finished 
and the plate has been removed the next course is brought on and served in 
the same way. In a large dinner the Russian custom is generally favored, as 
the host and hostess are then at liberty to enjoy the company of their guests. 

"When a dinner is served in the Russian style the guests never ask for 
anything. Thecrder of courses regulate how the dishes will be served. 

The piincipal lady should be served first. If THE PRESIDENT be present 
he should be served first. After the principal guest is served it is proper 
to begin to eat at once without waiting for all to be served. 

THE ORDER OF DISHES.. The menu or bill of fare in a ceremonious 
dinner is arranged by the caterer, subject to the supervision and approval of 
the host and hostess. It is often printed or written in tasteful style and 
placed by the side of each plate. The following is the order of arrangement 
in which the courses selected should be served : 

1. Huitres, Oysters. 

2. Potages, Soup. 

3. Hors d" 1 Oeuvres, Side dishes (cold). For appetizers, such as cucumbers, 
sardines, &c. 

4. Foissons, Fish. 

5. Ilors if Oeuvres, Side dishes (hot). As sweet breads, &c. 

6. Releves, Removes. As the roasts. 

7. Here a Roman punch is often introduced. 

8. Entrees, Side dish. As croquettes, &c. 

9. Entremets, Side dishes (dainty). As cauliflower, asparagus, fritters, 
&c., served alone. 

10. Rotis, Roasts. As game. 



DINNERS. 217 

11. Salade, Salad. 

12. Frontage^ Cheese, macaroni dressed with cheese, &c. 

13. Entremets, Side dish, (sweet,) Puddings, Jellies, &c. 

14. Glaces, Ices, Ice Cream, &c. 

15. Dessert, Dessert, Fruit, Nuts, Cakes, &c. 

1 6. Cafe, Coffee with Biscuits. 

The Wines are served with reference to the courses. The usual order is 
white wines with the raw oysters; Madeira with the soup or fish ; champagne 
with the meats ; claret with the game, and Burgundy with the dessert. The 
liqueurs are served after coffee. 

In serving the wine any guest not wishing to partake should simply rest 
the index finger on the glass when the servant appears with the decanter. 
This would be sufficient signal that you do not desire any. It would be the 
height of ill manners on such an occasion to express opinions against the use 
of wines. Persons invited to dinner should acquiesce in all its accompani 
ments or decline the invitation. 

HOW TO EAT. The following points of decorum at a dinner should be 
observed by persons desiring to appear well : 

Use the smallest fork for the first course, if raw oysters ; use the next size 
larger for the fish ; and observe the same rule throughout as the forks are re 
placed, the largest forks being used for the most substantial dishes. 

Use your fork in the left hand to convey food to the mouth, the knife in 
the right hand is for cutting only. The spoon when in use should be held in 
the right hand. 

At the end of each course lay the fork and knife in use on the plate. A 
spoon should always be laid in the saucer, and never left in the cup. 

Bread should be broken with the hand and never cut with a knife by the 
guests at the table. 

Every one accepts oysters or soup whether they wish them or not. 

Fish and fruit should be eaten with silver knives and forks or the former 
with a fork and a piece of bread, but never with a steel knife. 

Never tilt a soup plate and never drain a wine glass. 

Take a wine glass or goblet by the stem and not by the bowl. 

Always wait until the next course is served and never ask in advance. Any 
course can be declined. 

Eat with as little noise as possible, 

Vegetables should be eaten with a fork. Asparagus, radishes, cresses, 
olives and cheese may be eaten daintily with the fingers. Meat or fowl 
should always be handled with the fork. Small game may be eaten daintily 
with the fingers, but with the fork would be better. 



21 8 DINNERS. 

If asked your preference as to the part of the fowl you prefer answer 
promptly, and do not compel the host or hostess to decide. 

It is proper to prepare an orange, pare an apple or divide a peach by hold 
ing it in your fingers and using a knife. It is proper to pare fruit for a lady if 
s he requests it. 

The napkin resting on the lap should be used after eating anything leaving 
a trace of moisture on the lips or moustache. In removing anything from 
the mouth, or in using a toothpick, do so quietly behind your napkin. 

The pits of fruit or skins of grapes should be delicately and quietly received 
from the mouth into the hand. 

As soon as a guest has finished, his plate should be removed immediately 
by the servant. 

"Where the service is complete guests do not help each other at a ceremonious 
dinner, but quietly ask the servant. 

When the finger bowl is placed before you on a plate with a napkin or doyley 
place the bowl in front of your plate and the napkin or doyley at the left. 
Put the fruit on the plate when passed. 

Finger glasses should be used by wetting the ends of the fingers and the 
lips and wiping them with the napkin. 

In rising from the table place the napkin by the side of the plate or fold it 
and lay it there. 

LEAVING THE TABLE. After the dessert, or coffee, if the latter be 
served at the table, the hostess having allowed ample time for all the guests 
to finish, bows to the principal lady guest, which is the signal for all the 
guests to rise. 

When the ladies leave the table before the gentlemen the latter should rise 
and remain standing until the last has left the room. A better form is for the 
gentlemen to escort their ladies to the Drawing Room, and then return to 
enjoy a cigar if invited to do so by the host. The time thus spent should not 
exceed half an hour. 

It is sometimes customary, but in a ceremonious dinner not desirable, to 
serve the coffee and liqueurs in the Drawing Room. When this form is 
used, about half an hour after the guests have returned to the Drawing Room 
the coffee will be brought in on a tray by the servant and placed on a table- 
The hostess pours out and invites the guests to partake. The gentlemen may 
wait upon the ladies, the servants following with cream and sugar and a caraffe 
of brandy on a tray, which they offer to each guest. 

After reaching the Drawing Room, unless coffee and tea be served there, a 
a person seldom takes a seat. This is preliminary to leaving. Those leaving 



DINNERS. 219 

at once should do so without attracting the attention of the others. This can 
be done by speaking quietly to the hostess and departing without taking a 
formal leave of all. 

The stay after dinner should not be prolonged over half an hour to an hour 
unless additional company has been invited and there is to be an evening 
party. 

TABLE MANNERS. A lady or gentleman should observe the following 
rules accepted as proper among persons in good society : 

Never ask twice for the same dish. The host, however, may tender a 
second supply, which may be accepted. 

When in doubt what to do, wait and see what others do. 

Use your knife and fork quietly. It is vulgar to smack your lips or relieve 
your teeth by suction at the table. 

When a plate is handed you take it and keep it ; to pass it only causes 
confusion and disarranges the plans of the host or hostess. 

When a dish is passed you by a servant help yourself and let it be passed 
on, otherwise you will show yourself ignorant of how to conduct yourself at 
dinner. 

Sit up in your seat and never lean back when you are waiting to be served. 

Always use the implements of serving and eating as they are designed. 
Do not spread your bread with the butter knife nor serve yourself to sugar 
with your own spoon. 

Never pour your coffee into the saucer to cool. 

If you find an intruding hair or other foreign substance in your food and 
wish to remove it do so quietly. 

When you wish to cough or sneeze turn your head and repress the violence 
of the effort as much as possible. Withdraw from the table if it is to be a 
prolonged effort. 

If you wish to be served again place your knife and fork on one side of 
your plate or rest the soiled end on a piece of bread. The former is preferable. 

If you want anything on the table, and within reach, help yourself, and if it 
be the last hand the dish to the servant. He can then replenish the supply or 
remove the dish. 

Never make disparaging remarks about the food. When you partake of 
hospitality always be pleased. Sometimes the best devised plans and choicest 
viands are spoiled by the cook. 

Never talk about dishes or wines unless you are sure of your information. 
It is not polite for a host or hostess to press their guests to eat more than 
they wish or to taste a particular dish. 



220 BREAKFASTS. 

Ladies should not eat with their gloves on unless their hands are not fit to 
be seen. 

A guest should never speak "harshly" or "dictatorially" to a servant. 
It does not exalt him in the estimation of others. At a strange table when 
served always say "thank you" or "if you please," which can be toned not 
to express familiarity. 

Should a guest or servant break anything, the hostess should appear not to 
notice it, no matter how she may inwardly feel. 

It is the heighth of inelegance for a hostess to reprimand a servant in the 
presence of her guests. It embarrasses the latter as much as the former. 

Should the cloth be soiled during dinner, a napkin should be placed over 
the soiled parts. 

Talk low on all occasions in society, and especially at the dinner table. As 
conversation is the chief feature of table manners, the guests at such enter 
tainments should make themselves as agreeable as possible without being ob 
trusive or boisterous. 

RETURN CALL. Each guest at a dinner party should call upon the 
hostess or leave a card in person within one week after the event. If she 
have a day "At Home" the call should be made at that time if it be within the 
week. It is proper for a lady returning a call after a dinner party to leave the 
card of her husband or other close gentleman relative if present. If it is 
impossible to make a call, owing to sudden departure from the city, sickness 
or .any other sufficient reason, a card should be sent through mail. 

THE ETIQUETTE OF BREAKFASTS, LUNCH 
EONS, COFFEES AND SUPPERS. 

THERE are certain occasions of a social character which are less formal in 
their surroundings and conditions than a dinner party, and yet form part of 
the enjoyments of social life. These are the ceremonious and informal break 
fasts, luncheons, teas, coffees or suppers. It was said by an authority on the 
subject that a dinner is a mere formality, but you invite friends to breakfast 
because you wish to see them. 

BREAKFASTS. A formal or complimentary breakfast to which invitations 
have been issued does not differ from an ordinary family breakfast except in 
having a more elaborate menu or bill of fare. Breakfast in the ordinary sense 
is not regarded as a meal of ceremony. In some families the members of the 
household breakfast when they please, and can leave the breakfast table at any 
time, or can remain there to read the newspapers. The servants can remove 
> the dishes when the parties have finished. 



BREAKFASTS. 221 

The table at breakfast should always be well appointed as to linen and ser 
vice, but no decoration other than perhaps a tasty bouquet, if convenient, 
should be indulged in. Fruits in season tastefully arranged would be decora 
tion enough. 

The invitation to a formal breakfast, luncheon, coffee or tea should be 
sent out within five days, but if given simply to meet friends it may be sent 
later. The form may be a simple visiting card with the words : "Breakfast 

(day) , atio:30 a. m (date) ," written on the lower left 

hand corner, or it may be a friendly note, as follows : 
Dear , 

A few friends will breakfast with me on , at o clock. Ij 

would give me much pleasure if you would join us. 

Yours truly, 



An invitation of this kind admits of much elegance of expression. It should 
be accepted within two days. 

For a formal breakfast the hours vary to suit the host, and usually range from. 
9 to II o clock a. m., and sometimes as late as 12 o clock. The guests should 
be punctual. 

The dress suitable for a breakfast is ordinary morning style, though some 
times full evening dress for gentlemen is indulged in, but this is affected 
and out of taste. It is not usual to invite ladies to a breakfast, but should they 
form part of the company they should dress in morning costume. In a private 
house the hostess, if any, should preside. 

If the number of guests is large, and includes ladies, after the principal or 
honored guests, they should be seated with regard to official or social prece 
dence, as prescribed for formal dinner parties. The arrangement of the 
guests should then be indicated at the table by plate cards, and cards with 
the name of the lady the gentleman is to escort should be handed to the 
gentleman after saluting the host and hostess, or left in the gentlemen s 
dressing-room. 

When breakfast is announced the host escorts the honored guest, or the 
highest in official rank present, to the table. If ladies be present the honored 
guest, if a gentleman, escorts the hostess and the host the honored guest, if a 
lady or the wife of the honored guest or the principal lady, or if no formality 
is observed the wife of the highest in official rank or the eldest lady in the room. 
The rest of the guests follow without formality unless the affair be of an 
elaborate character, when the rules above indicated should be observed. The 
host leads the way, and the hostess, if present, enters last. The guests find 
their seats and the gentlemen assist the ladies, if any present, to their seats. 



222 LUNCHEONS. 

The serving of the guests is either from the table by the host, the plates 
being passed by a servant and followed by the side dishes also passed by 
servants, or may be served by servants from a side table. The hostess, if 
present, always serves the coffee, tea or chocolate, the service being placed in 
front of her. 

The guests enjoy the meal with less ceremony than at a dinner and having 
finished, at the signal of the hostess or host leave the table. Within a half 
an hour after breakfast the guests withdraw, thanking the hostess and host for 
the pleasure they have enjoyed. 

After a formal breakfast the guests should leave a card for the hostess or 
make a call in person on the day "At Home" within ten days, or if no hostess 
were present call or leave a card at the usual hour for calling in the evening. 

LUNCHEONS. The fashionable gatherings known as luncheons are an 
established institution in Washington and other large cities, and chiefly differ 
from a dinner party in that they are less formal, and the guests, who are ladies 
or gentlemen, or both, as a rule, are not seated at the table. It is possible, 
therefore, to invite a large number of friends. 

A lady who desires to give a series of luncheons, coffees or teas prepares 
her list with great care, reference being had particularly to the congeniality of 
her lady guests in tastes and accomplishments or social surrounding, and 
from this list she apportions the quota for each entertainment. 

The luncheon is often given in honor of some event, as a birthday, the arrival 
of a distinguished friend, the meeting of an official body, the return of a 
bridal party, or to present some person celebrated in literature, art, science or 
learning. 

The usual hour for luncheon is from I to 2 p. m. The dress suitable for 
the occasion for ladies or gentlemen is morning, calling or walking costume, 
and bonnets are worn during the entertainment, except by the hostess. 

The invitations are written on fine quality of stationery and enclosed in an 
outer envelope, and usually in the following form : 

General requests the pleasure of the company of Mr 

at luncheon, on (day) (date) , at o clock, to meet 



An answer will oblige. 

A Luncheon to gentlemen is usually a "stand up" affair, and the time of 
arriving is not so exacting, but it is well to be punctual. The invitation should 
be answered to the person who sent it. If ladies are in the party the invita 
tion is in the name of the hostess, and should be answered to her. 

Another form is, when given by a lady to ladies : 



COFFEES TEAS. 223 

Mrs requests the pleasure of Mrs company at luncheon 

(day) ., . (date), at o clock. (Seated.) 

When the word "seated" is mentioned it is necessary to arrive promptly 
and in demi-toilet. When it is not mentioned it is understood to be an in 
formal stand up affair, and while punctuality is polite, a little tardiness in ar 
riving nrght be pardonable for sufficient reasons. At a ladies luncheon it is 
sometimes a custom to bring the hostess a bouquet, but this is not a duty. 

The table arrangements are largely decorative, both in the disposition of the 
service, the floral display, which may be profuse, and in the fruits, cakes and 
confections. The dishes, consisting of bouillon oysters in several styles, cold 
meats, salads, fruits, ices, tea, coffee, chocolate, &c., which are not served 
in course, excepting terrapin, which comes on later, are placed on the table 
and are served from there by the gentlemen, who help themselves or are as- 
sited by servants. There is no special order of entering the lunch room. 
The host leads the way inviting the guests to enter without form. 

The guests should return the compliment of the invitation to luncheon by 
calling in person or leaving a card within ten days, on the lady s day "At 
Home" or at a convenient hour on any other day if the lady have no day 
"At Home. 1 An invitation to a gentleman s lunch may be returned by a call 
or card left at the host s residence at a suitable time, or if ladies in the family, 
the card may be left during a call upon them as above. 

COFFEES. These entertainments are for ladies exclusively and by invita 
tion the same as luncheons. The dress is demi-toilet and the hours from 4 
to 6 p. m. The ladies bring some favorite needle or fancy work with them^ 
and the enjoyment of the occasion is made up of conversation and this con 
genial occupation. The refreshments consist of coffee and cakes passed 
around by servants. 

TEAS. The afternoon tea party is an informal affair, though it may be 
made formal if desired. It is given by ladies by announcement. While such 
parties are particularly for the enjoyment of ladies, gentlemen are often in 
vited. The announcement of the day and hour is simply noted on the lady s 
visiting card which is sent out. The announcement, unless requested, re 
quires no answer. The most fashionable ladies confine the menu to tea, cof. 
fee, chocolate and bouillion, the latter served in cups with macaroons, dainty 
biscuits, light sandwiches and often an ice. The time is generally spent in 
conversation on social topics . The hour is usually from 3 to 6 o clock p. m. 
The customary afternoon dress for ladies and gentlemen is proper. The tea is 
usually served by the hostess, who is soon relieved by the servants, which 
enables her to join in the conversation of her friends. Any guest having other 
calls to make can leave after the first half hour. 



224 THE ETIQUETTE OF WEDDINGS. 

The form of invitation for a more elaborate affair of this character is : 

Mrs , 

requests the pleasure of 

Mr. and Mrs s 

Company at , 

On 

Mr will read a lecture on 

It is not unusual to associate some special entertainment before partaking of 
the tea and refreshments. In such an event it is proper to write in the few 
lines space usually allowed at the bottom of the card of such a blank form of 
invitation to a Tea, as above. 

SUPPERS. These entertainments are designed exclusively for gentle 
men either out of compliment to a distinguished official, stranger or resident, 
or in honor of some important event. In addition to the usual ceremonious 
supper, which is supplied in courses, and is but little less elaborate than a din 
ner, there are fish suppers, terrapin suppers, game suppers, wine suppers, 
.&c., in each of which the article named is the chief feature of the entertain 
ment, and the rest of the dishes bear some relation to it. The formalities are 
the same. 

The invitations to a supper may be given five days, or even a shorter 
time, in advance. They may be verbal, by a friendly note, or by a simple 
visiting card, addressed to the person and containing the words : "Supper at 
o clock (day) (date) " 

The usual hour for suppers is from 8 to 10 p. m. , chiefly 9 p. m. The gen 
tlemen appear in full dress with dark cravats and gloves. The dishes and 
wines are served from side tables by servants. The entertainment usually 
breaks up at midnight, or even later. 

THE ETIQUETTE OF WEDDINGS. 

THERE are certain occasions which, while forming part of social life, are 
ceremonial in their nature. Among these are weddings. The first step to 
a wedding is the betrothal of the parties and usually the presentation of a 
suitable ring by the gentleman to his betrothed. The character of the ring 
suitable for such an occasion should depend upon the means or taste of the 
gentleman. The ring should be worn on the first finger of the left hand of 
the lady. 

As the time for the marriage approaches the lady fixes the day, after which 
all future arrangements must conform to that. The wedding trousseau, which 
is the first thing to be considered, should be adapted to the means of the 



226 WEDDINGS. 

parents. It is folly to enter into useless extravagance in matters of this kind 
simply for show. 

LAST CALLS. Before issuing the wedding cards, and after the day of the 
ceremony is fixed, the bride, with her mother or the person who has been 
charged with the care of her maiden years, should call on all lady friends whom 
she wishes to retain as the companions of her married life. If she cannot 
call upon all in person she may send her card with the words : Pour prendrc 
conge, or P. P. C., or To take leave, " printed in the lower left hand corner 

The groom determines whom he wishes to retain in his friendship by 
sending wedding invitations to such persons. It is also often customary for 
a gentleman who is about to be married to give a dinner to his bachelor friends, 
which is understood to be his conge, u^ess he chooses to renew their acquaint 
ance. 

WEDDING CAR DS AND INVITATIONS. The wedding cards should 
be sent out at least two weeks before the time fixed for the ceremony, espe 
cially if it is to be a dress affair, as this will give the ladies time to determine 
their toilets. They may be delivered by hand, but by mail is now permissable. 

The styles of ivedding invitations and cards vary according to the tastes of 
the parties interested and the caprices of fashion. They should be neatly 
engraved and printed on note sheets of rich paper, or white board, with the 
arms, crest or monogram of the contracting parties, and may consist of the 
following parts: 

1. The accepted form of invitation to the ceremony, which should be en 
graved on a note sheet or card, is as follows : 

( With or without monogram or initial ) 

Mr. and Mrs 

request the pleasure of your company 

at the Wedding of their daughter (name of bride) 

to (name of bridegroom) 

Church of the , (location) 

(day of the week) (month) (day of the month) 

At o clock. 

2. The invitation to the reception, which should be issued by the parents 
of the bride, as follows : 

Mr. and Mrs 

Request the pleasure of your company at the wedding reception of their 

daughter on (day) (month) (date) 

From until o clock. 

(Residence.) 



WEDDINGS. 227 

Or a simpler form : 

Reception 
at (residence) .. .at (name the hour) 

3. The card of admission to the church which should bear the words : 

Admit to the church. 

4. The card announcing the Deception after the return of the couple from 
their honeymoon, which should be in form : 

Reception, 
Wednesdays in February. 

(Residence.) 

5. The card of the bride : 

Miss 

6. The card of the groom : 



If the bride be the eldest daughter her card should contain the words 

Miss 

The last two are usually tied together by a satin ribbon. 

Another form for the invitation to the church, printed in fashionable style is: 

(Monogram) 
The marriage of 

Miss to Mr 

Will be solemnized at the 

Church of the 

On (day of week) (month) (day of month) 

At o clock. 

Another form is : 

(Monogram) 

Mr. and Mrs 

Will be pleased to see you at the marriage reception of their daughter 

evening, (month (date).... 

From to o clock. 

(year) 
(Name of church) 

(location of church) (name of city) (day) evening 

(month) (date) 

At o clock. 

With these are enclosed the cards of the bride and groom. 
There are other styles of invitations which are adopted to suit the fashion of 
the times or the tastes of the individuals. 

These cards are enclosed in a large inner envelope, with or without initia 



228 WEDDINGS. 

monagram and made of the finest stationery. The paper and cards within 
should correspond in quality and shade. The inner envelope, upon which 
should be written the name of the person for whom intended, should be en 
closed in an outer one for the address. 

The invitations to the wedding or reception at the house or wedding break 
fast should be promptly recognized by a call on the mother and bride or leave 
cards. 

The wedding cards should be sent to all the acquaintances of the partie s 
whom they wish to retain to apprise them of the event. The cards are sent 
by the bridegroom to his acquaintances, and by the parents of the bride to 
theirs. At a church wedding many persons are invited to be present at the 
ceremony who are not invited to the reception, which is eminently proper. 

When the ceremony is performed at home the invitation to the church 
and card of admission are omitted. In this case the reception invitation, 
should be engraved on a note sheet. A card announcing the hour of the cere 
mony should be enclosed as follows : 

Ceremony at o clock. 

The invitations to a wedding at home are confined to relatives and the most 
intimate friends. 

WHAT THE PARENTS OR FAMILY OF THE BRIDE FURNISH. 

The wedding trousseau, the wedding cards, carriages, and give the wedding 
reception, breakfast or luncheon. 

WHAT THE BRIDEGROOM FURNISHES. His own card, the 
"fyancel" or wedding ring, a bouquet to the bride, what presents he wishes 
to give the bride, a souvenir to the bridesmaids and ushers, and the marriage 
fee to the clergyman. 

THE BEST MAN. This important personage should be an unmarried 
brother, a close relative or most intimate friend, unmarried, of the groom. Where 
a best man or first groomsman fully understands his duties he relieves the bride 
groom of all the detail of arrangements, for carriages, presentation of friends 
handing the marriage fee, which should be according to the groom s means, to 
the officiating clergyman, and seeing the new couple on their journey. 

THE BRIDESMAIDS. The bridesmaids in number may be suited to 
the wishes of the party, not to exceed eight, and a groomsman for each 
bridesmaid. Sometimes groomsmen are omitted and ushers lead. This, 
however, is modified and arranged to suit the tastes of the season. Some 
times there is only a best man and maid cf honor. 



executive MAMSIOH* 

WASHlNOTONi 




A PRESIDENT S WEDDING INVITATION AND BRIDAL CAKE BOX, ^ REDUCED 

SIZE. (229) 



230 WEDDINGS. 

DRESS. The groom and groomsmen should wear the conventional fulj 
dress, if the ceremony take place after the seven o clock dinner, and morning 
dress of frock coat and light pants, &c., if before. Gloves are optionable. 
There is an exception, however. If the bride wear a bonnet the bridegroom 
should wear a frock coat, black or some appropriately light colored vest and 
light pants. The bridesmaids and groomsmen should dress accordingly. 
Under no circumstances should any of the guests appear in mourning. If 
the bridegroom be an officer of the army or navy he should wear the uniform 
of his rank. 

The bride s dress for a display wedding should be white, and the brides 
maids the same, with trimmings of a light delicate color and generally alike. 

PRESENTS. The presents are always sent to the bride and are generally 
received a week or two before the wedding day. They are often exhibited 
to gratify the curiosity of the guests at the time of the wedding, and are not 
unfrequently a subject of inelegant importance in the ceremony. Though 
custom has made presents almost obligatory, and thus a severe drain upon 
those who often can ill afford to comply with the extravagant notions of the 
age in such matters, it is well to be courageous and give according to your 
means. If you can afford nothing, give nothing. If invited for the present 
you may give it might be a greater compliment to yourself to stay away. 
Those who can afford the expense can do no more worthy act than to extend 
such recognitions. With each present should be sent a card with the donor s 
name. It is proper for the bride to give each of her bridesmaids a souvenir 
on the day of the wedding. It would be the height of impropriety for the 
bridesmaids to omit to give the bride a present. 

THE HOUR. The usual time for a wedding is some hour in the after 
noon or early evening, though morning for special reasons is proper. 

THE CEREMONY. The style of the wedding also varies according to 
circumstances and the forms of the church. To have a grand wedding simply 
to enlist favorable comment is no compliment to the common sense of the 
parents nor a matter of justice to their daughter. It would be far more con 
siderate to measure the scope of the occasion by the probable manner of 
living of the young couple starting out in life. The latter will then suffer no 
mortification on account of the comments of these self same persons. Those 
who have the means should afford to make a display, if that be their taste, but 
those who have not should not feel compelled to do the same simply to be in 
the fashion. 

THE BRIDE. The bride should carry a bouquet of appropriate white 
flowers, generally presented by the bridegroom or first groomsman. The 



WEDDINGS. 231 

bridegroom should present a bouquet to his future mother-in-law. The 
parents of the bride should present to each bridesmaid a bouquet, and to the 
groomsmen each a boutoniere. 

The bride drives to the church, if a church wedding, with her parents; the 
bridegroom attended by his best man meets her at the church door, assisting 
her to alight. The bridesmaids and groomsmen have already arrived and 
should be in waiting. 

RELATIVES. In the church the front seats should always be reserved 
for the family and friends, and ushers should see that they are not encroached 
upon or occupied by others. White ribbons are often stretched across the 
aisles to indicate the space for relatives and intimate friends. 

THE BRIDAL PROCESSION. As soon as the bridal piocession begins, 
the doors of the church should be closed and no one should be permitted to 
enter until the ceremony is over. 

The ushers form the procession usually in the following order. 

1. Ushers in twos. 

2. Bridesmaids in couples, or sometimes in the wedding march singly. 
When there are groomsmen there is one to each bridesmaid, who walk in 
couples, sometimes a few couples of young girls under their teens follow. 

3. The bride, resting upon the arm of her father, a near relative or guar 
dian. 

4. The mother of the bride, resting on the arm of the bridegroom, or if the 
latter be at the altar to receive the bride, then his nearest relative. 

5. The immediate relatives of the families. Sometimes they occupy seats 
near the altar. 

AT THE ALTAR. Approaching the altar, the ushers, groomsmen, and 
and bridesmaids separate to the right and left, allowing the bride to advance 
and be received by the bridegroom at the foot of the steps if he be awaiting her 
with his best man at the altar, or to advance himself if in the procession to 
join her before stepping to the altar. He takes her lightly by her right hand 
and conducts her to the altar where both kneel. 

The positions at the altar are usually as follows : The bride stands on 
the left of the groom before the altar. The bridesmaids take positions near 
the bride; the groomsmen, best man, or ushers near the groom, and the 
parents near the couple and a little behind. 

The first bridesmaid should be at hand to receive the bride s glove, which 
she removes, if the covering of the wedding rmg finger be not turned back, 
from her left hand to receive the wedding ring upon the third finger, placed 



232 WEDDINGS. 

there by the bridegroom with the words of the ceremony. The ring provided 
by the groom should be in readiness when called. The style of ring should 
be of standard gold, plain, and of good weight. Any engraving should be 
on the inside. 

The groom and parents, relatives and most intimate lady friends of the 
bride and groom, should salute the bride first. The promiscuous kissing 
sometimes indulged in is not in good taste. The couple can be congratu 
lated without resorting to this process. 

LEAVING THE CHURCH. Upon leaving the church the new couple 
lead, the father and mother or their representatives following, then the brides 
maids and groomsmen and ushers in reverse order. 

THE RECEPTION. After the ceremony the pair return to the bride s 
house together, and after readjusting their toilets return immediately to the 
reception room, where they take a prominent position, and standing receive 
their guests, who are presented by the groomsman. The friends may then 
offer their congratulations to the bride, the groom and the parents, and ex 
change civilities with the bridesmaids and groomsmen. Should any one be a 
stranger to one of the couple the person should speak first to the one known 
and ask an introduction to the other. 

At a wedding entertainment there should always be refreshments and a 
bridal cake. If not a formal affair, cake and wine should be passed and a 
bridal cake cut, which should close the ceremony. 

Evening entertainments to the bridal couple should always include all the 
bridesmaids and groomsmen. 

WEDDING BREAKFAST. Should the wedding ceremony be performed 
with the bride and groom in traveling costume, and there be no formal recep 
tion at the time, there should be a wedding breakfast or luncheon, at which 
the bridal party and a few intimate friends should be present. 

RETURN CALLS. All who received cards should call within two weeks 
if the couple be "at home," and good form wouM be to invite them to the first 
social entertainment thereafter. 

HONEY MOON. It is customary, but not necessary, for a newly married 
couple to leave on the day of marriage for a tour. 

GENERAL RULES. Upon their return the young couple may expect 
visits from all who received cards, and a series of entertainments should be 
given in their honor by their more intimate friends. 



WEDDINGS. 233 

To those who leave cards at the residence of the newly married par dur 
ing their absence on the "honey moon" cards should be sent to inform them 
of their return. 

If the newly married people reside with their parents or relatives their names 
should be written on the cards to prevent mistake. 

When persons without parents are married they should send their cards to 
their acquaintances. 

After the wedding it is sometimes customary to issue cards of announce 
ment in the prevailing style, as follows : 

Mr 

Miss 

Married (day of week) (day of the month) (year) 

and enclosing the marriage card 

Mr. and Mrs 

At Home, 

(Wednesdays in May). (Residence.) 

To this may be tied, by a satin ribbon, the card of the bride. 
The time and place for receiving callers may be placed on the cards. These 
should be enclosed in a handsome envelope. 

WEDDING ANNIVERSARIES. The celebration of wedding anni 
versaries has always been an occasion of enjoyable reunion among the partici 
pants in the event itself, and a few intimate friends. In order to adapt the 
occasion to some suitable recognition, designations have been given to these 
anniversaries, and while gifts are not obligatory, and the announcement "No 
presents received " on the invitation cards is desirable in the later anniversaries, 
a remembrance of an inexpensive character of the material named greatly 
contributes to the entertainment of the occasion. 

These yearly anniversaries are as follows : 

The first anniversary is the Cotton Wedding. The invitations are printed 
on cotton and any presents should be of the same material. 

The second anniversary is the Paper Wedding. The invitations are printed 
on paper, and the most suitable presents are books or any other articles of 
paper. 

The third anniversary is the Leather Wedding. The invitations are printed 
on leather, and any presents should be of the same material. 

The fourth anniversary is the Straw Wedding. The invitations are printed 
on straw colored paper, and presents should represent straw. 

The fifth anniversary is called the Wcoden Wedding. The invitations 
should be printed on thin cards of wood, or on wedding paper, enclosing a 
ard of wood. The presents should be of any article of wood. 



234 WEDDINFS. 

The seventh anniversary is the Woolen Wedding. The invita:ions should 
be printed on woolen and presents should be of the same material. 

The tenth anniversary is called the Tin Wedding. The invitations should 
be printed on tin foil, with a mongram in silver, or on wedding note paper in 
black, enclosing a tin card. Presents should be of tin. 

The twelfth anniversary is called the Linen Wedding. Invitations are 
printed on linen in gold or silver. The envelopes should also be of linen. 
Any presents should be of the same. 

The fifteenth anniversary it called the Crystal Wedding. The invitation 5 
should be printed on sheets of gelatine or white wedding note sheets, enclosing 
a card printed on mica. Pre.ents of any articles ot glass are appropriate. 

The twentieth anniversary is called the China Wedding. The invitations 
are printed on cards with a china finish. Presents should be of china. 

The twenty fifth anniversary is called the Silver Wedding. The invitations 
should be printed on silver bronze or fine white paper with monogram or crest 
in silver. The presents should be of silver. 

As articles in silver are expensive, out of consideration for many who might 
not be able to afford a present, it is proper to print at the bottom of the invita 
tion : "It is preferred that no presents be offered." 

This rule will apply to all wedding invitations following the tin wedding. 

The thirtieth anniversary is called the Pea>l Wedding. The invitations 
should be printed on pearl tinted paper with monogram of pearls stamped in 
silver. The presents should be appropriate if given. 

The thirty-fifth anniversary is called the Coral Wedding. The invitations 
should be printed on fine quality of pink- tinted paper. Any presents should 
be of jewelry representing coral. 

The forty-fifth anniversary is called the Bronze Wedding. The invitations 
are printed on bronzed stationary, and any presents should be of bronze. 

The fiftieth anniversary is called the Golden Wedding. But few couples 
ever reach this ripe old age of matrimonial companionship, and the occasion 
therefore is more of a family nature, the effort being made to bring together 
as many of the descendants and relations as possible. The inviations are 
engraved and printed in gold with monogram or crest in gold. The presents 
should be in gold, but as such presents are expensive this is optional. The 
more close relatives should give something. 

The seventy-fifth anniversary is called the Diamond Wedding. The in 
vitation should be diamond shaped and printed on the finest paper. 

At the silver or golden wedding the marriage ceremony adapted to suit th g 
occasion is sometimes performed by a clergyman as part of the entertainment ^ 
The motive of this would be to symbolize the continued trust and confidence 
the honored couple bear towards each other. 



WEDDINGS. 235 

The usual forms of invitations used for wedding anniversaries areas follows: 
Wooden Wedding. 
18721877. 

Mr. and Mrs 

Would be pleased to see you on evening, (date) 

At o clock. 

An early answer requested. (Residence.) 

Still another form is : 

1860. China Wedding. 1880. 

Mr. and Mrs 

At home 

evening (date) 

An early answer desired. (Residence.) 

Another form is : , 

Silver wedding. 

18551880. 
(name of groom) (name of bride) 

Mr. and Mrs 

Request the pleasure of 

s 

Company, on evening, the day of 18 

At o clock 

An early answer requested. (Residence.) 

Another form is : 

18251875. 

The honor of your company is requested at the 

Golden Wedding Reception 

of 

Mr. and Mrs 

On evening, (date) 

At o clock. 

R. S. V. P. (Residence.) 

CHRISTENINGS AND BIRTHDAY CELEBRA 
TIONS. 

IT is proper after the birth of a child for the lady friends of the mother to 
leave their cards with inquiry after her health. The mother, as soon as con 
venient, should return her own card, to indicate to her lady friends that they 
may make personal calls. Gentlemen friends of the parents may make a visit 
to the father, if sufficiently intimate, for congratulation. 



236 CHRISTENINGS AND BIRTHDAYS. 

CHRISTENINGS. The christening being a matter of religious ceremony, 
is conducted at the time suggested and according to the forms of the denomi 
nation with which the parents worship. 

Where circumstances will admit, a present of some suitable character should 
be given by the god parents to their god-child. The god-mother should pre 
sent the christening robe and cap. 

After the christening ceremony there may be a Reception or christening 
luncheon, to which all those invited to the ceremony should be asked. The 
principal rooms should be suitably decorated. 

When the christening ceremony is performed in the church, on the Sabbath 
the Reception may be held during the week following. When it is performed 
at home, the ceremony i> followed by a Reception. In the latter case the 
room in which the ceremony is performed should be decorated with flowers. 
. The hours for the christening ceremonies at home are usually from 4 to 7 
p. m. 

The invitations, which are confined to intimate friends, may be written or 
printed in script or engraved as follows : 

Mr. and Mrs 

Request the pleasure of your presence at the 
Christening ceremony of their son (or daughter) 

At o clock (day) (date) 

Reception from to o clock. 

(Residence.) 

The acceptances or regrets should be sent within two days, in form the same 
as for social entertainments. 

The invited guests should appear in visiting toilets at the hour named and 
should pay their addresses to the host and hostess the same as prescribed for 
an ordinary reception. After the ceremony, if at the house, or after receiving 
the congratulations of the guests, refreshments are served. The godfather 
should propose the health of the child. Gifts of an inexpensive character 
would not be inappropriate. The child in the arms of its nurse may be 
present durng part of the time. 

CAUDLE PARTIES. The practice of "caudle parties " is more common 
in foreign countries than in the United States The two-hardled caudle-cups 
for passing around, souvenirs of this ancient custom, are highly prized as 
heir-looms in old families. It was the vessel used to drink to the health of the 
little stranger by congratulating ladies on their visits to the mother within 
three to five days after the event. The caudle beverage was originally a spiced 
and wined gruel of oat meal. The father also gave a "stag " party when the 



VISITING. 237 

punch bowl was a prominent feature in the gayety of the occasion which was 
not confined to married men, but included established bachelors. 

The modernized representative of this ancient custom is a set affair when the 
mother can be present, with invitations seat out a week or ten days in advance, 
as follows : 

Mr. and Mrs 

Request the pleasure of 

Mr. and Mrs s 

Company on afternoon at o clock. 

Caudle. ( Residence.) 

No presents expected. 

BIRTHDAY CELEBRATIONS. It is customary among families in so 
ciety to commemorate the birthdays of their children. The invitations, which 
may be written or printed in script, are issued to the companions of the chil 
dren whose parents are in the same social circle, and are in form as follows : 
Birthday Celebration. 

Master (or Miss) s 

Compliments 

For evening, (date) 

From to o clock. 

An answer will oblige. (Residence.) 

Or 

Mr. (or Master) 

Would be happy to see you on evening, 

(date) at o clock, to celebrate 

his birthday. 

An answer will oblige. (Residence.) 

The usual hours for such entertainments are from 4 to 7 p. m.,or later, ac 
cording to the ages of the children. Suitable refreshments are served. The 
children should be seated at the table and served there as a matter of conven 
ience. It is not improper to bring some inexpensive present, but it is not 
necessary to do so. The evening is usually passed in games and dancing. 

As the age of the child increases the birthday celebrations become more 
elaborate, and after the young lady or gentleman has entered society they as 
sume the character of social entertainments. (See The Debut in Society.) 

VISITING. 

The invitations for a visit should be specific as to time and duration. Where 
this is not done the visitor should early indicate the length of intended stay. 
Unless the time be fixed in the invitation a visit should not extend over a week. 



238 GIVING AND RECEIVING PRESENTS. 

A lady making a visit of some duration at a friend s house must conform 
to its rules and may render such assistance as will be received in the house 
hold duties of her hostess. 

A guest should never invite a friend to call, nor to dine, except having first 
obtained permission of the hostess. 

A guest should never accept an invitation to a place of amusement without 
first consulting the hostess. 

A guest should avoid criticism of persons and things, and should have no 
conversation with servants other than to treat them kindly. A guest interro 
gating a servant about domestic matters in a friend s house, should be treated 
as unfit for polite recognition. A small present upon departure to a servant 
who has served you is not improper. 

Children should not be brought with parents unless specially invited, and 
. then they should be kept in restraint. 

Guests should pay their own incidental expenses, such as carriage hire, 
washing, &c., unless the host or hostess should object. 

Having returned from a visit, it is the duty of a guest to write to the hostess, 
giving some expression of appreciation of the hospitality shown. 

GIVING AND RECEIVING PRESENTS. 

There are many points of social usage in the giving and receiving of presents 
which cannot be too scrupulously regarded. 

GENERAL RULES : The general rul-s which might well be remem 
bered in giving and receiving presents are the following : 

In making a present it is always in good taste to accompany the article with 
a card with the name of the person to whom presented and by whom sent, 
Avith the words "Compliments of " 

Never make a present expecting a return. 

Presents should have significance, either of affection or friendship, and have 
reference to the object of giving them. 

No unmarried lady can in justice to herself receive an expensive gift from 
a gentleman unless a member of the family, a relative or her betrothed. In 
expensive presents like a book, a piece of new .nusic, a bouquet, or some 
articles of bric-a brae, she may accept with propriety if she teels so inclined. 
Receiving presents is apt to produce a sense of obligation often embarrassing 
in the end, especially when circumstances and surroundings change with the 
advance of life. 

A young lady may with propriety make a present of her handiwork to a 
young gentleman who is a relative or old friend. She should, however, be 
chary of such evidences ot her friendship as iheir value will be thus enhanced. 



ETIQUETTE IX PUBLIC. 239 

A married lady, with the permission of her husband, may receive a present 
from a gentleman as an expression of appreciation of the hospitality shown in 
her husband s house, but the occasion must be one of special propriety. A 
present from a married lady to a gentleman, the occasion for which would be 
exceptional, should always be in the name of herself and husband. 

It is not necessary to depreciate your gift as a reason for its acceptance, 
nor in receiving one to put on an impression that you are robbing your friend. 
When a present is made it is presumed that it is given in sincerity, and no 
apologies are needed for taking it. Of course it is proper to show an ap 
preciation of the act, but to do this it is only necessary to express your gratifi 
cation. 

It is not the price but the spirit and motive of a gift which gives it its value. 
A gift beyond your means had better never be given. It troubles your own 
sense of justice to yourself and embarrasses your friend, as it cannot well be 
refused without mortification to yourself, and cannot be accepted without a 
sense of commiseration. 

Never be too demonstrative in giving thanks either by letter or word. A 
happy medium savors more of sincerity. 

It is no compliment to accompany a present with the remark that it is of no 
use to you. 

Wedding presents are an exception to the general rule, and are frequently 
more ceremonial than social. They are testimonials of the best wishes of 
friends to the bride, and are regarded as involving no other obligation than 
an appreciation of the spirit which prompted the gift. 

It is not polite to recall a gift to a friend. 

ETIQUETTE IN PUBLIC. 

It is the pride of our social institutions that a lady in public demeaning 
herself as becomes the modesty, reserve and delicacy of her sex, is as protected 
from remark, indignity or familiarity as though she were attended by a 
legion of zealous courtiers. Of many countries this cannot be said. 

ON THE STREET. A gentleman accompanying a lady on the street 
should look to her safety and secure her from being jostled by the crowd. It 
is not a special evidence of politeness to be changing sides at every crossing of 
the street so as to keep on the outside. This looks like straining for effect. 
Circumstances should govern the side upon which a gentleman should walk. 
All things equal the side toward the street would be best. Where there is a 
great cro\s d it is not improper for a young lady to accept her escort s arm. 

It is more graceful for a couple on the street to keep step 



240 ETIQUETTE IN PUBLIC. 

Should a lady be carrying a parcel, the gentleman accompanying her should 
insist upon carrying it for her. 

In some cases it would be proper for a gentleman to assist a strange lady 
over- laden with parcels to her carriage or into a street car. 

A lady on the street should give the first sign of recognition, which should 
be promptly returned by a gentleman by lifting his hat A nod to a lady on 
the street is impolite. 

In passing on the street the recognition received from a lady by one gentle 
man should be returned by all the others in the party, though strangers. This 
rule does not apply to several ladies in a party unless they be personally ac 
quainted with the gentlemen. 

It is impolite to address a friend, lady or gentleman on the street by name 
in a loud coarse voice. They might not desire their names paraded before the 
public. 

Meeting a gentleman on the street, and engaging for a moment in necessary 
conversation, it is not required that he should be introduced to others in the 
company. He should, however, make a parting salute. Introductions, when 
necessary in public, should be in a low tone. 

It is not necessary to be pulling off the glove every time a person shakes 
hands in public. If the glove be off, very well, but if not, it is ridiculous to 
keep the person waiting while extricating the hand from the glove. 

In moving along tJ.e street it is inelegant for a lady to be gadding into win 
dows and hotel doorways. A lady can see and hear all that she should on the 
street without letting everybody know of it. She should go about her business 
quietly and for her own sake, attracting as little publicity as possible. 

As a rule it is not polite for ladies to stop on the street to converse with each 
other, and only under imperative circumstances is it proper for a gentleman to 
stop a lady for that purpose. When such conversation is necessary the parties 
should slowly pursue their way together. 

Ladies kissing on the street is inelegant, and shaking hands with gentlemen 
in public is not polite. Simply formal recognition should be made in public. 

"Cutting" is only justified by the bad conduct of the person to be "cut r > 
A formal bow or increased ceremony are the least offensive ways. A person 
must be extremely dull not to understand this. In society sometimes the only 
way to judge of a person s feelings is by this manner. 

Persons properly introduced must not be slighted in public without good 
reason, as the offender might be called to account. 

If you meet a gentleman acquaintance with a lady take off your hat instead 
of nodding. This is out of respect for the lady. 

A lady asking a question on the street for information should be answered 
respectfully, and in answering, a gentleman would naturally lift his hat. 



ETIQUETTE IN PUBLIC. 241 

SEATS IN PUBLIC. Ladies ar.d gentlemen should never occupy more 
space than rightfully belongs to them if others are incommoded thereby. 

A parcel or any article left in a seat while the occupant is absent on an 
errand gives sufficient title to its possession. 

A gentleman will, as a rule, surrender his seat to a lady unless infirmity or 
effects of debility render it painful for him to stand. This applies as well in. 
a street car as in other local conveyances. 

REGARD FOR OTHERS. It is always laudable in public to consult the 
comfort of others. Some persons will open a window in the depth of winter 
without regard to those near by. Any one under such circumstances could 
properly request an officer or authorized person to close it. 

The habit of some men of bringing up the names of ladies in public places 
and in mixed companies of men is to be deprecated, and it would not be im 
proper for a friend to rebuke any "person who is so unmindful as to neglect to 
observe such a course of propriety. 

It is impolite to read anything aloud in a public place unless requested to 
do so. 

It is a mark of respect to all present to remove your hat while seated in 
a restaurant. Never sit in the presence of ladies indoors at all with your hat 
on, whether it be in a private parlor or place of amusement. 

AT A PLACE OF AMUSEMENT. If a gentleman desires to take a 
lady to the Opera, Theater, Concert or Lecture he should invite her the day 
before, if possible. If by note, the lady should answer at once, so that should 
she decline, the gentleman may find a lady to take her place should he desire- 
The seats should be secured beforehand, so that the lady will not be kept 
waiting in the lobby in a crowd It is not imperative for a gentleman to en 
gage a carriage for the occasion. If he have the means to do so conveniently 
it is proper, but otherwise propriety would be on the side of not doing so. 
Nothing so ill becomes a young man of moderate means as an effort on such 
an occasion to imitate the ways of persons of wealth or large income. 

A gentleman should arrange the time so as to arrive before the curtain rises. 
He should walk by the side of the lady entering the place and in advancing 
to the seats secured if the way is wide enough to permit. Otherwise he 
should precede her. 

Arriving at the seats the gentleman should allow the lady to enter first 
When seated he should hand her a libretto or programme secured at the door. 

It is the height of ill-breeding for a gentleman to be running out during the 
intermissions. This is the time which he should devote to the entertainment 
of his companion. He must never give up his seat to another, even a lady. 



2 4 2 

it is unappreciative and LSI* mannered i<" a ia<iy i<> be criticising iiu-enter- 
tainment even if not good. Having accepted the invitation, she should enjoy 
it or say nothing out of respect for the feelings of the gentleman who has in 
vited her. 

It is unpardonable to be talking or making a noise during the entertainment 
to the annoyance of others. Applause at proper times is appropria&. 

When a gentleman visits a lady in her box at the theater he should depart 
when others enter, so that they may also make their compliments. 

In leaving the entertainment the gentleman should lead. 

The gentleman should call upon the lady the next evening, if agreeable to 
her, to inquire after her health. 

Persons visiting a museum or picture gallery should never handle anything, 
This is the first evidence of common breeding. Nor should they touch any 
thing with a cane <.r umbrella, or unnecessarily delay at any object, and 
especially avoid crowding themselves in front of other persons viewing the 
same object. So few persons have any real knowledge of art that criticism 
often results in an exposure of ignorance. 

IN CH U RCH. Remove your hat at the door and walk by your lady s side 
to the pew, then advance turn and face the lady ard make a slight inclination 
of the head as she enters. Never take a seat in a strange church until shown 
there by an authori/ed person. 

Never appear giddy or thoughtless of the solemnity < f the place. 

In a church of a different denomination than your own be observar t of its 
forms and show special deference. No matter how different the services may 
be, or how they may strike you, give no evidence of diversion or what you 
think. Always arrive before the services begin. 



To indulge in this habit at any time in society, public or 
private, is vulgar and disgusting. 

SMOKING. The practise of smoking should be exercised with much dis 
cretion in public or private. As a rule it is offensive to ladies in this country 
no matter how much they may disclaim the fact. It would be a proper course 
and a respect to ladies for a gentleman not to smoke while in their society. It 
is customary in some houses for gentlemen to smoke at the close of dinner, but 
this should only be after the ladies have retired from thejtable. Sometimes 
the gentlemen are invited into another apartment for 8inoking, and rejoin the 
ladies in the drawing-room after they have disposed of their cigars. It is at 
all times inelegant to be puffing away at a cigar while walking with a lady 
on the street or engaging her in conversation. Smoking a pipe in public is 
not only inelegant but is offensive to most people. 



MMVIN O, AND CYCIJNO. 



243 



THE ETIQUETTE OF RIDING, DRIVING AND 
CYCLING. 

For fashionable driving the establishment s .ould be in good style. The 
i f/ni lc should be of popular de. ign and superior finish. The Jurses should 
be well fed and well groomed, and the equipments should be neat and in per 
fect order. Tht coachman and footmen should be in neat, clean livery, and 
.li MiM it erect with ey< to the front. They liould avoid a loungingattitude. 

CARRIAGE ETTIQUETTK. If you invite a friend in:o your carriage 
offer the best seat. This is the right seat facing the horses. A lady should 
always be offered this seat and the gentleman should sit on the seat opposite 
unless invited to sit by her side. If the lady be in her own carriage she should 
always occupy the right hand rear seat, no matter who else may be in the car 
riage with her. 

In alighting from a carriage the gentleman, if any present, should step out 
first, under all circumstances, and then assist each lady. If a footman be 
present he should alight first and open the carriage door. The gentleman 
should alight and assist the ladies. If no gentleman be present the ladies 
may ask the assistance of the footman if required. In handing a lady from 
or to her carriage a gentleman ihould raise his hat either before or after. 

I IORSEHACK RIDING. Equestrianism has become one of the popular 
diversions among the officials and unofllcials in the fashionable life of the 
Capital. It received a marked 
impetus through the organized ef 
forts of the Washington Riding 
Academy, under the proprietory 
management of Col. J. D. lirown. 
This large i nd thoroughly ap 
pointed establishment, unrivaled 
in the United States, during the 
season is the resort of the mem 
bers of polite circles. In the re 
ception-rooms will be met ladies 
and gentlemen representing every 
branch of the civil, military, and 
naval service, in the spacious riding ring may be seen the fashionable pupils 
and experts in the equestrian art, and in the galleries a thousand spectators, 
thoroughly representative of the very best of the social life of the seat of gov 
ernment. 




THE ENTREK. 



244 



HORSEBACK RIDING. 



Under such circumstances and surroundings the observance of the rules of 
etiq uette is particularly important. 

THE MOUNT. The horse is the first consideration. 

There are five requisites to a good saddle horse. I. To be sound and of 
good wind. 2. Gentle. 3. Well trained. 4. He should have courage. 5. 
Intelligence. 

A thoroughbred is always the best. He should be fifteen hands two or 
four, of dark color, with broad back, round body, graceful neck, small head, 
small ears, clean-cut legs, and be firm on his feet. 

A vicious horse is not fit for a lady s 
mount. A spirited horse with a good 
temper is best. 

A "weed" from the racing stables is 
not suitable for a lady. They are too 
anxious to be first, and have too many 
" coaching" tricks. 

In a word, the horse should be known, 
sure footed, of easy gait and have no 
vicious habits. The saddle should be 
securely girted and examined before 
mounting. The bridle should also be 
carefully examined by the gentleman. 
The responsibility for the lady s safety 
rests with the gentleman, not with the 
groom. 

THE HORSE EQUIPMENT. Al- 
w ays get the best equipment. It is stylish 
and the cheapest in the end. 

Everything should fit and be comfort- 
A WASHINGTON BELLE. able Great care should be exercised in 

selecting the saddle, for either lady or gentleman. A small racing stirrup for 
gentlemen is the safest. A lady s saddle should fit the horse well on account 
of her position. It should be light and safe. 

A severe bit is not necessary. A lady s bridle of bit and bridoon is the 
best, and will suit most horses. By its use you have complete control, and 
can use either curb or snaffle, to suit your animal. The bit should be nickle- 
plated and kept clean to look well. 

THE HABIT. The riding costume of a well-turned out lady on horseback 
should be made of dark material, in the style of the prevailing fashion, and 




.246 HORSEBACK RIDING. 

be well fitted. It should have a smooth service and stand rain or snow. 
Meltons or stockinett or cloths are best. The long flowing fo ds, so dangerous 
to life in case of accident; plumes, to serve as "sky-scrapers;" the veil, ob 
structing her vision, and the fear of showing a well-proportioned figure have 
become obsolete. 

A habit consists of the bodice or jacket, the skirt, the trowsers or breecnes, 
the hat, and the boots. 

The skirt should be about two yards around the hem, extend three or four 
inches below the left or stirrup foot, the bottom running horizontally, and fit 
well, closely, about the hips, with fullness for the knee. The bodice o>\ jacket 
should fit snugly and yet not tightly at the arm holes, to give the appearance 
of constraint. It should be large enough for a chamois under jacket for cold 
weather. The collar should be standing or turn -over. The loose trowsers far 
habits are not desirable, being two cumberson and inconvenient with boots. 
The breeches arc, in every respect, neater and more comfortable. .They should 
be of the material of the skirt, jersey or stockinnet, lined from the hips down 
with chamois, and buttoning four inches below the knees or close at the ankles, 
and fitting inside the boots. The hots should be of the softest calf- skin, with 
pebble-leather uppers reaching well up to the bend of the knees. The boots 
should fit easily and have a low flat heel. In winter, woolen under stockings 
with silken ones drawn over are suitable. 

The hat should be an ordinary silk high one, or a Derby, held in place by 
an elastic. A black cloth band will lessen the apparent height of the hat. 
Jockey caps and felt hats are allowable, but are not in best style. These 
should be worn by children. 

A veil is unnecessary, but if worn should be a black net pinned in a knot 
under the leaf of the hat. 

The gloves should be of heavy kid, buckskin or soft leather, of dark color, 
with four to six buttons, and double stitched with black on the backs. 

Jewelry is entirely out of taste. 

The collars and cuffs should be spotless. Fasten them with stitches, and 
never with pins, if you wish to secure them against disarrangement from the 
motion of the animal and be miserable. 

The underwear, vest, drawers, (tights are the best,) and stockings should 
be lisle, silk, or wool ; and a soft perfect fitting corset. 

It is not necessary for a lady to wear a spur to ensure prompt obedience of 
the animal. If she does, a "sheath" spur is preferable to rowel, which is 
likely to tear her habit and start the animal every time she arranges its folds. 
A nickle-plated spur, with strap over the instep and buckle on the near side 
gives finish to the boot. 



HORSEBACK RIDING. 



247 



The whip should be of the jockey pattern as most serviceable, 
the best, with buckthorn, wood, or fancy metal crook. 



Bamboo is 




A GENTLEMAN S MOUNT. The rules applicable to a lady s mount, 
as regards the horse and equipments, will apply to a gentleman. There is 
less difference on account of the 
color of the steed. The gentle 
man should dress in dark, out 
door costume, and wear a high 
hat, if he wishes to be in best 
form, although a cap or soft hat 
would be permissible. The spurs 
should be nickle- plated and neat, 
and a late style of jockey whip 
would be the best. 

MOUNTING AND DIS 
MOUNTING. In mounting, the 
lady should seize the pummel of 
the saddle with her right hand and 
gather her riding train in her left. A STYLISH MOUNT. 

She should stand close to the animal with her right side. She should place 
her left foot in the gentleman s hand and spring with the right limb, poising 
herself with her hand on the pummel, turn her body as she clears the saddle 
and places herself squarely in the seat. She should then spread her skirts and 
gently raise her right knee over the pummel. The gentleman should place her 
left foot in the stirrup. If the lady is not easily seated she can raise herself in 
the stirrup and loosen the tension of her train upon her waist. 

The gentleman may now mount taking the reins in the left hand, resting it 
on the pummel, the right he places on the cantle, the left foot he rests in the 
stirrup, and with an easy spring straightens his left leg at full length and 
swings the right easily over the cantle and seats himself. He then places his 
right foot in the right stirrup. 

Before alighting a lady should entirely disengage her limbs and habit, and 
resting her left hand on the pummel and placing her left foot in the gentle 
man s left hand she should gently raise herself slightly out of the saddle and 
allow the gentleman to place her easily on the ground. 

THE GROOM. The groom attending a lady or gentleman on horseback 
should never canter his horse, but should follow at a trot or, if necessary, 
gallop, sitting erect in his seat keeping his eyes to the front. A groom lazily 



248 SADDLE ETIQUETTE. 

seated on his horse glancing at every object, and particularly the maids, de 
tracts from the dignity of being attended by a groom. 

When a groom is summoned forward to the side of his mistress he should 
advance quickly on the off or right side, touch his hat in acknowledgement of 
the command, listen respectfully, eyes cast down, an 1 again touch his hat upon 
departing to carry orders. 

SADDLE ETIQUETTE. A gentleman should ride on the off or right 
side of the lady in order to avoid her train. If two ladies are in the party the 
gentleman may ride between them, but he must exercise cau ion. 

The speed of the horse must be governed by the skill and wishes of the lady. 

A gentleman should be vigilant in watching the horse equipments and his 
motions, especially if the horse be strange to him. 

Do not permit your horse to crowd your companion s horse into all the ruts. 
Divide the road. Horses are selfish. Riders are sometimes thoughtless. 

Do not splash at full speed through mud puddles, particularly when riding 
near persons afoot. 

When riding near pedestrians be careful not to startle them, and generally 
it is safer to give them the right of way. 

A gentleman should always pull up and pass a lady at a walk. 

Never gallop up suddenly behind another, particularly a lady, as few horses 
will quietly take such a surprise, and many timid or inexperienced riders may 
be alarmed or discommoded by a sudden stait. 

If a person unintentionally alarms another s horse ride a few moments side 
by side until the frightened horse becomes quiet. 

If your horse hive a faster gait do not urge your companion. Gallop ahead 
a short distance and return. Your animal may then be less restive. 

It looks well to see a lady s horse cantering beside that of a gentleman 
whose animal is trotting, but not so the reverse. A gentleman on a cantering 
horse beside a lady on a trotter does not harmonize. It looks too much like 
the gentleman trying to keep up. 

Ride a borrowed horse scrupulously according to the owner s desire. 

For cross-country riding take up the stirrup one hole. 

Never permit an animal to crop boughs or grass, it gives him a slovenly 
appearance. 

Watering horses, except on long and rapid rides and unless needed, un 
necessarily soils the bridle and bit. 

Ignorance has ruined many fine horses. A light, firm hand is necessary. 
Use the whip and spur very sparingly, and only for intelligent correction, but 
not brutally. 



CYCLING ETIQUETTE. 249 

RULES OF THE ROAD. In passing on the road, when meeting keep 
to the right, when overtaking a person pass to the left, but when overtaken 
keep to the right, so as to leave the road free at the left. An exception is 
when leading a horse, pass yourself next to the rider, as a led horse is often 
inclined to kick. 

When approaching a lady always do so on the off or right side. 

CYCLING ETIQUETTE. Among the many diversions of the National 
Capital, cycling occupies a prominent place. The scores of miles of concrete 
and asphaltum avenues and streets, the long stretches of well-kept gravel 
drives in the public parks, and the 
excellent suburban roads afford fa 
cilities for the enjoyment of the ex- 
hilerating pleasures of the "silent 
steed" unrivaled in any city of the 
Union. The use of the cycle gives 
polite, recreative and healthful ex 
ercise, not only to gentlemen in 
official and unofficial life, but to 
ladies in fashionable circles. 

Cycling has been one of the in 
stitutions of Washington since 1879, 
when the second oldest and one of 
the foremost clubs in the United 
States, the C-Bi-C., (Capital Bicy- 
cle Club,) was organized by H. S. 
Owen, who brought the first bicycle to Washington, and was one of the best 
non-professional riders during the pioneer days. From this beginning cycling 
at Washington has grown to the extraordinary numerical dimensions of thou 
sands of "wheels" of all designs. 

THE MOUNT. There are various designs of cycles. For men, upright 
and safety bicycles and stars. For ladies, safety bicycles, constructed with a 
frame curved down so as to allow the skirts to hang free. For ladies and 
gentlemen, tandem-safety bicycles and tricycles and sociables. The weight of 
the ladies bicycle is but thirty-six pounds. 

COSTUME. The lady s habit for cycling should be blue or brown for 
winter, and blue or gray for summer, and be made of cloth or flannel, with 
blouse-like waists and a straight round skirt of full length, and cloth leggings, 
buttoning to the knee for protection in the movement of the limbs and against 




250 



CYCLING ETIQUETTE. 



dust. The foot covering should be a laced shoe, which will afford the flexi 
bility of motion necessary to free action upon the pedals. The hat should be 
of jockey style, with a stiff visor and of the color of the suit. A veil is not 
necessary. The gloves should be of the riding style, in dark color, and large, 
so as to admit of a free use of the hand, and fingerless gloves for summer. 
The hair should be arranged low in the neck or in a loop braid. 

A gentleman s proper costume should be of dark, or his club color, of stout 
material, and consist of knickerbockers or knee breeches, norfolk or closely 
fitting jacket, and laced or 
tennis shoes, jockey hat or ::::|!i!!? 

derby, leggings or long hose 
of heavy wool, and stoutgloves 
for winter. A high silk hat is 
not in style. 




HOW TO MOUNT. There 
are two methods of mounting 
a cycle for ladies. Always 
standing on the left side of the 
machine. I. The still mount, 
by placing the right foot on 
the right pedal, which should 
point upward toward the han 
dle-bar, and rising easily, thus dividing her skirt equally to the saddle, the 
weight of the right foot on the pedal giving the machine the proper impetus 
to preserve the equlibrum until after the saddle is reached. 2. The moving 
or pedal mount, by walking or trotting along on the left side of the cycle for 
a few steps, simultaneously placing the left foot on the left pedal, when the 
pedal hangs towards the ground and is commencing to ascend, thus rising 
gently with the pedal, at the same time passing the right foot quickly to the 
right pedal, remaining on the pedals for a few revolutions until the skirts are 
equalized, then seating herself slowly in the saddle. While at first seemingly 
difficult, it is the most graceful, easiest, and quickest mount. The art of rid 
ing is a matter of instruction entirely. 

The gentleman s mount is by the step, while trotting along after the machine, 
rising forward seating himself in the saddle and placing his feet on the pedals. 

RULES OF THE ROAD. The gentleman should see the lady safely 
mounted and started before mounting himself If sure of her success by ex 
perience he may mount at the same time. 



CYCLING ETIQUETTE. 



251 



A gentleman should always ride on the left side, in order to be between 
passing vehicles and the lady. 

In places of danger, as descending steep llillSj the gentleman should lead. 




In narrow places or path riding the gentlman should ride ahead, so as to 
show the way. 

If two ladies are in the party the gentleman should ride on the extreme left. 



252 



ETIQUETTE OF TRAVELING. 



In passing a vehicle the gentleman should ride on that side and a little ahead 
as a protection against accident. 

If a number of ladies are in ihe party the gentleman should keep on the left 
and a little ahead, in order to pick the way. 

TRAVELING. 

The American peo 
ple are instinctive 
ly a traveling race. 
Fondness for adven 
ture, change, r nd 
instruction is one of 
the national charac 
teristics. The in 
termingling of all 
classes is also a part 
of popular institu 
tions. The PENN 
SYLVANIA RAIL- 
ROA D COM PAN Y was 
the first to recog 
nize the public de 
mand for increased 
comfort and ele 
gance in the facili 
ties for fashionable 
travel. The modern 
special cars for pas 
sengers have be 
come palatial in de 
sign and appoint- 
I M ITFH ments> Coincident 
: Llrl I I hlr with the increased 
luxury of travel, the 

Pennsylvania Company was the pioneer in the consolidation of trunk and 
auxiliary lines, making them practically one line from great terminal points, 
thus abolishing the public nuisance of frequent changes. Travelers, as the 
result of the enterprise, liberality, and consideration for the comfort of the 
public which has always been shown by this company, can now take a place 
in one of their palaces on wheels and traverse the vast stretches of States and 




ETIQUETTE OF TRAVELING. 



253 



regions under the national jurisdiction, from the metropolitan points on the 
Atlantic to the inter-oceanic, gulf and Pacific cities, enjoying at the same time 
the ease, luxury, and seclusion of their own drawing-rooms and the pleasures 
of their own dining tables. 

These special facilities available to the public present the most luxurious 
traveling by rail in 
the world. 

The Pennsylvania 
company, fully ap 
preciating the en 
ergy of the people, 
also expedited the 
running of trains 
between terminal 
and principal inter 
mediate points. 

The culmination 
of the luxury, safety 
and speed of Ameri 
can railway travel 
has been reached 
in the New York 
and Chicago and 
Washington Lim 
ited trains. These 
embrace vestibule 
sleeping, dining, 
drawing-room and 
smoking-room cars, 
the most superb and 
luxurious railway 
coaches ever built. 
The vestibule feat 
ure renders the train practically one elongated car, through which passengers 
may pass with the utmost ease and freedom. In the perfectly appointed 
restaurant meals are served from bills of fare representing all the substantial 
and delicacies of the season, and for a reasonable consideration. The smoking 
car is furnished with every comfort, card-tables, chessmen, checkers, etc., and 
for free use a well-stocked library and desk supplied with note papers, envel 
opes, pen and ink, etc. A complete barber-shop and bath-room perfect the 




tlAITED 



254 



ETIQUETTE OF TRAVELING. 



conveniencies of the train. The extra charge for this special service secures, 
in addition to increased comfort, seclusicn from the rush and not always agree 
able experiences of the general element of travel. 

THE ETIQUETTE OF TRAVELING. The long lines of travel in the 
United States naturally throws persons who are strangers to each other into a 

certain degree of 
association, which 
may continue for a 
week or ten dajs 
without cessation. 
The etiquette of 
traveling therefore 
becomes an essen 
tial feature of the 
polite education of 
every lady and gen 
tleman in the land. 
The cardinal rules 
of etiquette govern 
ing persons travel 
ing by railway may 
be stated as follows : 
If a lady traveling 
in the United States 




LIMITED; 



marks or glances, it 
is as a rule her own 
fault. 

A lady attending 
to her own business, 
and asking ques 
tions only for information from officials or others employed for that purpose, 
will never be approached or annoyed by strangers. If necessary, however, 
word to an officer would stop further annoyance. If she behave herself as 
becomes her sex, a lady can travel from Washington to the remotest parts of 
the country without even a fear of discourteous treatment. Those who stare at 
everybody and everything, and are ready to answer questions from any one, must 
expect to be treated by an irresponsible public according to their own estimate. 



THE CHAPERON. 255 

Some women, perhaps, artlessly tell any strangers, who will listen to them, 
all about their private affairs, and are ready to be beguiled into familiarities, 
with presuming persons to the annoyance of reputable people. 

It is of course desirable, where convenient, to have an escort, but now-a- 
days ladies, as a rule, have had some experience in traveling, and, except with 
a relative or intimate and tried friend, it is more convenient to travel alone 

Traveling acquaintance between elderly gentlemen and ladies maybe made, 
but should not lead to an exposition of private business and should cease with 
the journey. A young lady should not admit of such an acquaintance. She 
may ask a question for information of a gentleman, if no officer be present, 
without making it necessary to open a conversation. 

Under some circumstances a lady may accept passing services from a stranger 
in a slight way, such as assisting in carrying her parcels from one train to an 
other, or raising or closing a window, but in doing so she should thank him 
politely and resume her reserve. It is not necessary to entertain a s! ranger 
for the rest of the journey on account of the politeness and service which the 
instincts of a gentleman would suggest towards any lady. 

At a public table, at a railway station, on a steamer or at a hotel it is unbe 
coming to rush for a seat and gather in all the dishes within reach. 

THE CHAPERON HER CHARGE AND DUTIES. 

If a young girl or unmarried lady values herself, she cannot be too exact in 
observing certain conventionalities and proprieties which society has raised as 
safeguards about her, against the snares and allurements of the gay world. 
The safety of society requires certain ceremoniousness and conservatism out 
side the family circle, and in the social intercourse of young women and their 
gentleman acquaintances. A married woman has her husband to shield her. 
A widow holds her own or not, as she keeps herself aloof from the appearance 
of improprieties. 

NECESSITY OF A CHAPERON. The natural chaperon of a daugh 
ter is her mother. The Europeans take care of their daughters and young 
girls. The Americans are tco indifferent as to the proprieties, and but for the 
good sense and strength of character of American young women, and the 
natural instinct of chivalry and respect for women among American young 
men, American society would be far different. American institutions are cal 
culated to inspire self respect and self control in the individual members of 
society, but regard for appearances is a safe rule under all circumstances. 

Every American woman is aware that the loftiest position which is ope a to- 
women in a republic is possible to her, and that neither poverty nor obscurity 



256 THE CHAPERON. 

necessarily obstructs her way ; therefore, being ambitious, she cannot be too 
careful of her conduct or speech, lest she have a retrospect which envious 
gossips may bring forth against her. Even though it may be but a remem 
bered disregard of the best social usages of her times, its resurrection will be 
an infliction to her ; therefore, she should follow only the safest of society s 
customs. 

It is not good form in foreign countries to place an unmarried daughter over 
a widowed father s household, without a chaperon, a relative, or person of 
matronly years. The disregard of this in America is reprehensible, and has 
often led to disagreeable comment. Young people have their own company 
and pleasures, and a father would make a poor chaperon. 

WHAT A CHAPERON SHOULD BE. A chaperon should have 
passed the age of feminine frivolities, and understand society and its wiles. 
She should be of conservative manner and of unexceptional standing in society. 
The vivacious or flirting chaperon is worse than none at all, as she is using 
the innocence of her charge as a means to her own gayety. 

A chaperon should be dignified and courteous, and not take up too much 
of the conversation, or absorb too much attention She is simply a social 
mentor. 

A chaperon should not be unnecessarily rigid about the dancing engage 
ments cf her charge, but an objectionable partner should not be tolerated, and 
should be disposed of in a gentle, lady-like way, if possible. A sensitive, 
well-intentioned and refined man, will not add to the difficulties of the situa 
tion, though he may feel that he is misjudged by one or both of them. Only 
a vulgar man can express anger by his manner, speech or expression, and 
only a vulgar girl will pretend to misunderstand the sentiments of her chap 
eron or be disobedient to her wishes. Deference to the wisdom of her elders 
is counted one of the charms of girlhood. 

DUTIES OF A CHAPERON. The duty of a chaperon is to have a 
supervisory care of her young lady charge in her public and personal relations 
to society, to instruct her in its customs and protect her against the appear 
ance of impropriety through inexperience. 

A chaperon should see that the young lady is first properly introduced, that 
her acquaintances are proper, and that her conduct is conservative. 

The most consummate tact, socially speaking, should be possessed by a. 
chaperon . 

ETIQUETTE OF CHAPERONING. A lady chaperoning one or more 
young ladies, if at a Drawing Room, should enter with her charge on her 



RULES OF DECORUM. 257 

left and slightly in advance. She should exchange courtesies with the hostess 
first and then present her charge. 

A gentleman will not ask the young lady to dance, promenade, or go to 
supper without the approval of her chaperon. 

He cannot ask a young lady to the opera or theater without the consent of 
her parent or chaperon. In foreign countries it would be proper form to in 
vite the mother, but in Ihe United States this propriety is not observed. A 
young lady of self-respect will not accept such an invitation from a simple ac 
quaintance, and the character of a friend, with her own good sense, should 
be sufficient to protect her. 

A young lady ambitious to reach social appreciation above the degree to 
which she was born will never be seen alone in a theater box or private room 
of a restaurant with her gentleman escort, no matter who he may be. 

All theater or opera parties should have a chaperon. (See Etiquette of such 
parties. } 

A gentleman giving a tea, supper, or dinner, at a restaurant, in a private 
room, to his lady friends, should always have the presence of an elderly mar 
ried lady as chaperon. A married kinswoman would be best. No young 
girl with self respect would accept such an invitation under any other circum 
stances, nor will a gentleman, accustomed to polite society, make ary other 
arrangements. 

A COMMOM LAW. American girls are self-conciously able to take care 
of themselves, but the world, and particularly that portion of it called fash 
ionable society, is very uncharitable in its opinions. The safe side, is to 
recognize the usages and proprieties of the same as any other wise regulation 
for the good conduct and order of human intercourse. 

RULES OF DECORUM. 

An inherent sense of self respect, a regard for the feelings, opinions and 
convenience of others, and an appreciation cf the proprieties incident to good 
manners, in the company of friends, acquaintances or strangers, have led to 
certain general rules of decorum, which are recognized in polite society. 
These may be stated as follows : 

Those of higher rank or elder in years should always be given precedence 
in society. It is more polite to concede to others their rank than to offens 
ively assert your own. Never put on an air of superiority. A person really 
superior will better assert that by modesty. 

Those who have recently come into social position should be careful how 
they demean themselves towards their seniors and superiors. It is the latter 
who should make the advances for acquaintanceship. 



258 RULES OF DECORUM. 

In the presence of persons of official or social rank show respect, but do 
not forget what is due to yourself. Persons of distinction appreciate the ap 
plause of their fellow beings, but to be effective it must be dignified and not 
obsequious. 

In entering a doorway or ascending a stairway a gentleman should open the 
door or pause and bow and permit the lady to go first. If leaving a building 
or descending he should bow and go first. In the first instance, after the 
lady shall have passed out he closes the door and joins her or returns as the 
case may be. 

Never presume to take a friend to the house of another even for a social call, 
no matter how intimate your acquaintance, without first inquiring whether it 
would be agreeable. This is not an uncommon fault in American society, and 
should be severely rebuked. Instances are numerous where such a course 
has resulted in much evil. 

It is not polite for gentlemen to take their hats into the drawing-room to 
be carried out by a servant. 

Avoid affectation. A proper question deserves a kind answer. 

A gentleman rises when saluted. A lady not necessarily, unless greeted 
by a superior in age or station. 

A bow of recognition should always be returned unless there be a reason 
for not doing so. 

Always pass in the rear of persons seated or standing in conversation, or 
apologize if necessary to pass between them. 

Be pleased yourself and strive to please others. Such a course will make 
your presence doubly agreeable. 

Do not remain seated while ladies are standing. Offer your seat and if 
declined resume it. 

Do not aim to show off by too familiar use of names of individuals in public 

Drumming with your fingers on the table or your feet on the floor or s aring 
around the room are not only vulgar but signs of a vacant mind. 

Exhibitions of excitement, impatience or anger in the presence of ladies are 
a disrespect, no matter what may have happened. 

Eccentricity should not be noticed. If feigned it fails of its object, and if 
real the person s feelings are not hurt. 

Formality among intimate friends maybe dispensed with, but with strangers 
it would be discourteous to omit the ceremony of established customs. 

Grasping or poking a person is not the best form of calling attention. A 
few words of address are better. 

Having promised to perform a service for a friend, be sure to do it. Keep 
all appointments with punctuality. 



THE INAUGURATION BALL ROOM. 



259 




THE CORTILE OF THE U. S. PENSION BUILDING. SCENE OF THE BALLS IN" 
HONOR OF THE INAUGURATION OF THE PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED 
STATES. 

This immense structure of brick, 400 x200 / and 75 high, consists of a range of 
apartments on four sides of an immense cortile or covered court, 316 long, IK/ wide, 
and 1 2(X high. The central columns are 75 high, and 7}^ in diameter. The court 
will conveniently accommodate li>,000 persons at a ball, and with balconies and corri 
dors closely packed, 59,000 persons can get within the spacious edifice. It was first 
used, when yet unfinished, for the ball in honor of President Cleveland, 1884. 



260 RULES OF DECORUM. 

It is manly to accept an apology. This does not necessarily restore former 
relations, but it shows a willingness to be just. 

In society watch your tongue to avoid trouble. 

Jokes are never safe in society. They may not be taken in the kindly spirit 
in which given. 

It is not polite for gentlemen or ladies to make their feet the most con 
spicuous objects in the room. Tables and window sills were not intended for 
foot rests. 

Stretching the limbs at full length may call attention to a fine form, but 
the drawing-room is not the place for such exhibitions. 

Spitting is emphatically a vulgar habit. It would be well to leave that habit 
at home or on the street. 

Never have the appearance of curiosity. Never ask a question prying into 
the affairs of others. Originality is better than imitation in word or manner. 

Picking the nose or the teeth, or the biting or paring the nails is not be 
coming in society. Pointing at a person shows lack of training. 

Take things as they come, and practice patience if you wish to make a 
favorable impression. 

Tell the truth or say nothing. To deceive a friend will destroy confidence 
in the future. Under all circumstances avoid familiarity. 

Laughing at the appearance, manners, dress or mishaps of others is unpar 
donable. Making remarks about others, whatever may be their peculiarities, 
is reprehensible. Looking over one s shoulder is not polite. 

When you enter a room do so quietly, close the door gently, if you found 
it closed, or allow the servant to do so, make a general bow, and greet the 
host and hostess. Before entering a room knock so as to announce your ap 
proach, unless the occasion be a public one or a servant be present. Never 
speak or laugh boisterously nor otherwise show a tendency to coarseness. 
These are the elements of a boor. Never slam a door or make other unneces 
sary noises in private or public places in the presence of ladies. Never resume 
your seat after starting to leave unless there be special reason for so doing. 

It is not polite in company to be fumbling over cards in a card basket, 
especially for want of something else to do. If permission be granted or 
attention be called to them it is proper. 

A stiffness of manner is a poor imitation of dignity. 

Any little service or assistance needed by a lady should be promptly 
accorded, such as picking up her handkerchief or assisting her to a seat. 

It is not refined in manner for a man in company to back up against the 
fire-place any more than is it delicate for a woman to plant herself over a 
register. 



FUNERAL CUSTOMS. 261 

FUNERAL CUSTOMS AND SEASONS OF 
MOURNING. 

The announcement of a death having been made to the friends of the de 
ceased through the usual form of printed notice in the local newspapers, or 
by a close friend calling in person upon the relatives or others most intimately 
associated, the preliminary arrangements and details of the funeral are en 
trusted to the sexton of the church, undertaker or person engaged for that pur 
pose, who acts under the directions of a relative or near friend who has general 
supervision and arranges all matters of a closer nature, and carries out the 
wishes expressed by the members of the family or those most closely asso 
ciated with the deceased. 

OFFICIAL OBSEQUIES. If the deceased were an official or a member 
of any branch of the Government, or an officer of the army or navy, or mem 
ber of a civic organization, and the funeral arrangements are to be in charge 
of such branch of the Government or service, it will be necessary to notify the 
chief officers or persons immediately, so that they can confer with the relatives 
and make the necessary arrangements. The details of the obsequies of the 
higher members of the three co-ordinate branches of the Government have 
been explained in their proper places. 

FUNERAL INVITATIONS. The practice of issuing invitations to at 
tend a funeral is not common in the United States, but it is not improper. 
It is usually expected that the friends will be present unless there should 
be reasons to the contrary. If the disease were of a contagious nature or 
for other reasons no friends were desired to be present, at the end of the 
printed notice should be stated "Funeral private." If the presence of 
friends would be speciaUy agreeable and no invitations are sent, at the end 
of the printed announcement should be added the words, "Friends invited 
without further notice 

If formal invitations are sent they should be printed on mourning paper and 
enclosed in mourning or black bordered envelopes. The border should be 
wider for an adult than a child. 

The following are the usual forms of invitations for such an occasion from 
the residence : 

Yourself and family are respectfully invited to attend the funeral of 

, on (day of week) , the of 18 , at 

o clock m., from his late residence, No street, to proceed to 

cemetery. 

(City.) 



262 FUNERAL CUSTOMS. 

If the funeral be conducted from the church, the form is the same, with the 

substitution for the words "from his late residence, No street," 

the words frcm the church of the : " 

These invitations must be delivered by a messenger, or by mail. And ex 
cept in cases of illness, recent affliction or absence, should be accepted by the 
presence of the person to whom sent. 

FUNERAL CUSTOMS. It is proper only for relatives or near friends to 
send flowers on the day of the funeral, which should be of appropriate varieties. 
These should be placed around the coffin. 

The "bearers of the pall," Pall Bearers, consisting of six or eight gentle 
men, who were associates of the deceased, should be invited by written note 
to perform this office. They should wear black gloves, if the funeral be of a 
grown gentleman or lady, and white gloves if of a young lady. A mourning 
emblem of a black crape, or white silk scarf is sometimes worn either over the 
right shoulder or around the left arm. The pall bearers either carry the dead 
to the hearse, or act as a guard while others perform that duty. The latter 
form is always used at a public funeral of an official. 

The custom of crape at the door warns all comers of the affliction within. 
Black crape tied with black ribbon, indicates the death of a person of years, 
or married; tied with a white ribbon, the death of an unmarried young person, 
and white crape with white ribbon the death of a child. 

None but the closest relatives or friends should call upon the family before 
the funeral. The afflicted family may properly decline to see others. Persons 
assisting in the preparations should do so without noise or confusion. 

THE CEREMONY. A list of invited friends should be handed to the 
person in charge in order to arrange them for the carriages. Where no invi 
tations were sent, the list should be made up before the ceremony. Where 
an invitation has been sent to a friend it would be a breach of etiquette not to 
be present, if possible. 

As friends arrive they should be received by some designated relative, but 
not of the immediate family. All hats should be removed within the house. 
Friends should not arrive until a few minutes before the hour fixed. Those 
who desire to view the body, which is generally placed in the principal room, 
should do so before the family enter and the services begin. Always approach 
from the foot and pass away by the head. If the services are in a church, it is 
customary to place the coffin in front of the chancel and remove the lid. After 
the service an opportunity may be afforded the friends or relatives present to 
take a last look at the departed. 



FUNERAL CUSTOMS. 263 

As soon as the service or funeral ceremonies are over, the pall bearers, 
under the direction of the person in charge, and led by the clergyman, convey 
the remains to the hearse. The clergyman and pall bearers occupy the first 
carriages, then follows the hearse, then the carriages containing the nearest 
relatives, and then friends. As the remains and mourners pass, all heads 
should uncover. The officiating relative should see the relatives in their car 
riages, and the person in charge, the others. 

At the cemetery the same order is observed in the procession from the hearse 
to the grave. At the grave all heads should be uncovered during the services, 
and the lowering of the body into the earth. It is also becoming to linger for 
a few moments after, and a relative or friend should always remain to see the 
grave entirely closed. 

After the ceremony, friends should return directly to their homes. It is not 
necessary to return to the house. Those from a distance may do so for re 
freshments, if specially invited, but it would be more becoming to decline. In 
some sections, especially in the country, the custom of having a funeral dinner 
is in vogue. It is in bad taste and generally leads to indifference. 

A sense of propriety dictates a subdued style and shade of dress for per 
sons in attendance at a funeral. In the United States ladies form part of the 
company at the grave. In some countries this is not customary. 

The floral tributes to the memory of the deceased should be white, and 
should be contributed before the ceremony begins. Where the deceased held 
some rank in the Military or Naval service, an appropriate display of the 
National colors or his accouterments on the coffin may be made, and if a 
mounted officer, his riderless horse may be led by a groom after the hearse. 

MOURNING CUSTOMS. Immediate members of the family ordinarily 
should not appear in public while the body remains in the house. Helping 
friends will attend to everything necessary. Ladies do not appear in church 
for at least a week after. Complimentary mourning, as for a relative by mar 
riage, does not require seclusion. 

CARDS. It is proper for friends to send cards of sympathy or condolence 
to a bereaved friend. 

Where cards of inquiry have been left, they should be recognized by cards 
of " Thanks for Kind Inquiries." 

The proper time of returning cards after a death, for visits of condolence, 
must be a matter of feeling with the bereaved parties. These cards indicate 
that they are ready to receive visitors. 

MEMORIAL CARDS. The custom of sending Memorial Cards, much 
in vogue in England, is a fitting recognition of friends. They should be sur- 



264 FUNERAL CUSTOMS. 

rounded by a black border. The border for an elderly person should be wider 
than for one of younger years. Such cards should be sent within the week 
after the funeral. 

The general form is, In memory of (name) (if an official here 

insert the title.) Born ^ .., Died , (Inscription here.) 

A memorial card must be acknowledged by an appropriate letter. 

Letters of condolence are appropriate, and shou d be sent as soon as the 
announcement of the death is authoritatively known, and be couched it suit 
able terms. 

RE-ENTERING SOCIETY. Persons who have been in mourning should 
leave cards upon their friends indicating that they will receive and return calls. 

The making or receiving of formal visits, or appearance in general society, 
within a year after the death of a member of a family is not regarded as proper. 

MOURNING STATIONARY. While in mourning, cards, paper and 
envelopes bordered with black, according to the prevailing custom, may be 
used. Too much black has the appearance of ostentation. 

MOURNING DRESS. The subject of mourning dress belongs more to 
the private affairs of families than to society. It is usually governed how 
ever, as to material and design, by the prevailing customs. A widow dresses 
n the plainest of crape, and wears a veil to conceal her face for three months, 
and a smaller veil of the same material for one year. Many never again 
resume gay colors, unless they should re-marry. 

The " weed" on a gentleman s hat is usually cut according to the proximity 
of the relationship of the deceased. 

Some people do not approve of mourning attire for reasons of their own. 
The wishes of such persons are respected by those around them. 

Servants should be put in mourning when an important member of the 
family dies. Upon the death of young children, the nurse only. 

PERIODS OF MOURNING. The Seasons of Mourning, as regulated 
by the conventionalities of social customs, are as follows : 

For a husband or wife, father or mother, mourning and seclusion from gaiety 
one or two years. Many widows retain mourning for life. For a grand parent, 
six months to one year. For children above ten years, six months to one year. 
For children under ten years, three months to six months. For an infant, six 
to seven weeks. For a brother or sister, six to eight months. For an uncle 
or aunt, three to six months. For cousins, or uncles or aunts related by mar 
riage, six weeks to three months. For distant relatives or friends, according 
to intimacy, three weeks to three months. 



SOCIAL AND OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 265 



ETTER WRITING, in a land where the diffusion of intelligence is the 
main pride of the State and the facilities of intercourse are free and un 
rivaled, is one of the most convenient means of communication among 
individuals in the affairs of social and official life. It is presumed in this in 
stance that the person is familiar with this most useful and indispensible art. 
In fact the use of the forms of social correspondence, whether in letters, notes 
or invitations, may be fairly accepted as the best gauge of culture and educa 
tion in the person writing. The object in view in this connection is not 
to instruct in letter writing as an art, but simply to point out the general rules 
governing the forms, usages and etiquette of letters, notes and invitations 
as employed in social or official life. 

LETTERS IN GENERAL. All social or official letters, or notes are 
personal, or confidential, public or general. 

A private letter embraces every class of letter designed for the sole perusal 
of the party to whom addressed, or those directly interested, unless designated 
to the contrary. The person receiving a private letter becomes the custo 
dian of the confidence, to the extent of the contents of the letter, of the 
writer. Any one violating that confidence, might justly be deemed guilty 
of as great a breach of etiquette or faith as if he had divulged the secrets com 
municated to him under the most solemn pledges. 

A public letter is designed for public perusal, and is addressed to an indi 
vidual, simply to give the subject or information a sort of personality or identity 
apart from the general mass of public matter which appears in the current 
publications of the day. 

A postal card, in polite society, may be employed simply to announce a fact, 
such as safe arrival at destination, or to make an inquiry, or a simple statement, 
In no case, however, is it considered a compliment to ihe person addressed to 
permit postal cards to take the place of social correspondence, except within 
the limits above mentioned. 

The superscription determines the ownership of every class of communica 
tion after it has once started on its journey. After that moment the writer is 
no more entitled to arrest it than is the postman, whose duty it is to deliver it. 



266 SOCIAL AND OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 

FASHIONABLE STATIONERY. The extent to which letter-writing is 
carried, has suggested a variety of fashionable stationery and appliances suita 
ble to every taste. The choice of materials for letters, rests with the individual 
interested. The sizes and styles of paper change from season to season. The 
standard styles in socieiy are what are known as letter paper, official paper, and 
note paper. It is in good style to use heavy paper, in social or official corre 
spondence. It is always in best taste to use white, but fashion sometimes 
authorizes the use of tinted stationery. Gentlemen may use heavier paper 
than ladies. 

It has become fashionable, and is often a convenience to use Correspondence 
Cards. These are more frequently used by ladies, and are made with envel 
opes of corresponding size and material. Much elegance and taste in mono 
grams and designs is displayed in this class of epistolary stationery. The 
correspondence card may be used for informal invitations, acceptances or re 
grets, in answer to formal invitations, or social notes among friends, and should 
be written by the person. The plain white card may be used by gentlemen for 
the same purpose. 

The other classes of fashionable stationery, such as visiting cards, formal 
invitations, plate cards and menus, have been described in their proper places. 
In social or official correspondence stationery of good qualily should always be 
used. 

MATERIALS OF LETTERS. The following are the general rules gov 
erning the materials of correspondence : 

1. Letter or note paper is always admissible in social letters or notes. 

2. Ladies generally use a smaller size of stationery than a gentleman. 

3. Never use foolscap paper, or if no other style is at hand, an apology 
for using it is necessary. 

4 A private letter, except on business, without regard to length, should not 
be written on less than a full sheet of paper. 

5. Gentlemen should use only white or bluish paper, and only white, but 
not perfumed, on all occasions to a lady. 

6. Ladies may gratify their taste as to color of paper, except never to use 
blue. They may also use perfumed paper. 

7. "Mourning" paper may be used by a gentleman or lady for a stated 
time upon the loss of a near relative. The depth of the border may indicate 
the nearness of the relative. 

8. Ruled or unruled paper is admissible in social correspondence. L T nruled 
is considered more elegant, but to an unpracticed hand ruled paper would be 
more creditable, for irregularity in execution without lines, would more than 
detract from the attractiveness of a letter on unruled paper. 




THE VIRGINIA REEL, THE AMERICAN SIR ROGER DE COVERLY. (267) 



268 RULES FOR LETTER WRITING. 

9. Letters to officials should always be written on letter paper, wide ruled, 

10. Official letters should always be written on official, letter or foolscap 
paper as used by the Government. 

11. All official communications should be enclosed in official envelopes 
which take the full width of the paper. 

12. The color of ink most durable and tasteful on all occasions and for all 
correspondence, is black. Red ink should never be used for the body of a 
letter. Blue ink may be. Fancy inks may answer for ladies, but is not in 
taste for gentlemen. 

13. The envelope in social or official correspondence should always match in 
size, color and material with the paper used. In social correspondence, o 
invitations, the envelope should take the sheet in one fold, or the card in 
full. In the former case the sheet should be folded by placing the top and 
bottom together. In this shape it should fit the envelope. The sheet and 
envelope should not be too large. It is better for mailing to be oblong or 
square, and not much above the usual size. In the case of official or other 
letters, not of a personal character, the length of the envelope should be the 
width of the sheet, which it should take in two folds, either by placing the top 
and bottom together and repeating this, making four parts in the fold, or by 
placing the bottom at about one third the length of the paper and repeating 
this, making three parts. 

14. The monogram, initial or crest, printed or embossed, plain or colors, at 
the head of the first page of the sheet, and on the " fly or flap " of the envelope. 

15. The use of wax is still permissible and elegant, but it is now a^ost 
exclusively used in official or private correspondence containing valuables or of 
special secrecy. The advantage of wax is the perfect security it gives against 
opening letters. It is always a sign of good taste to see a beautifully sealed 
letter ; red wax being used by gentlemen and fancy colors by ladies. The 
use of black wax is confined to persons in mourning 

STRUCTURE OF LETTERS. Convenience and good taste have sug 
gested a certain arrangement of the different parts of a letter as follows : 
(Crest or Monogram) 

(i) (Name of place and State) (Date) 

(2) (Name of person addressed) 

( Residence) 

(3) (Salutation) 

(4) (The body of the letter.) 

(5) (The complimentary closing) 
(6) (Signature) 



SOCIAL AND OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 269 

The general rules applicable to these divisions of a social letter are as 
follows : 

i. LOCALITY AND STATE. The name of the place and state and any other 
designation of the residence of the writer, and date of writing, should be 
placed near the upper light hand side of the sheet. In official letters the 
designation of the office from which the letter is written, should be printed on 
the first line of heading. In social letters the writers initial, monogram, coat 
of arms or crest printed near the top and in the center of the page is in gcod 
taste. In the United States coat of arms or crests are not much in vogue and 
unless inherited from an ancestry entitled to such marks of distinction in the 
old world, are not desirable. 

The headings of a social letter should be as follows : 

Washington, D. C., January, 18.... 

1500 Massachusetts Avenue, 

Washington, D. C., January, 18.... 

Washington, D. C. 

Wednesday, January, 18.... 

Templeton, Jones County, Pa., 

January 18.... 

Or an official letter: Department of Justice, 

Washington, D. C., January l8._.. 

In social letters it is not uncommon to begin at the body of the letter, the 
name of the locality and date being placed at the lower left hand side of the 
sheet on the line below the signature. For example : 
(Salutation) 

(Body of the letter) 
Washington, D. C., (Signature.) 

January 18 

All formal letters written in the third person are in this style, omitting the 
salutation and signature, as the name of the writer should appear in the body 
ot the letter. The place and date if not in the body should be placed at the 
end as above. 

THE SALUTATORY ADDRESS. The introductory portion of a social letter 
should consist of the name and direction of residence of the person to whom 
the letter is written, which should begin at the left side of the page on the 
second line below the heading. If the address be written at the bottom it should 
be in the same position on the line below the signature. The usual form 
in either case is for the name and title to occupy the first, the number or city 
the second, and the State the third lines, each line beginning a little further to 
the right. 



270 RULES FOR LETTER WRITING. 

THE SALUTATION. The proper salutatory use of titles in social or official 
correspondence is a matter of close study and experience and can only be ac 
quired by observation and practice. This will apply with particular force to 
foreign titles. The salutation in a letter should always be adapted to the re 
lations extsting between the parties, or the rank of the person addressed, and 
should begin on the left side of the page on the line below the address or 
the date. 

In the complimentary address and salutation every principal word must 
begin with a capital. 

In all cases where a person has a title other than that of address or of cour 
tesy that should be used, or if he have several titles, the highest should be used. 
The proper use of official and honorary titles is given in their proper places. 

The forms of salutation in social correspondence vary according to the 
views of the writers or their relations to the persons addressed, as follows : 

To a stranger, Sir; Madam or Ladies; Miss 

To an acquaintance, Dear Sir; Dear Mr ; Dear Madam; Dear 

Mrs ; Dear Miss 

To a friend, My Dear Sir ; My Dear Madam ; My Dear Mrs ; My Dear 

Miss 

The plural is always Gentlemen, Mesdames, Misses or Ladies. The latter 
being the best form. 

Among relatives it is proper to use terms of endearment as My Beloved 
Mother; My respected Father ; My Dear Sister, &c. 

Sentimental salutations as a rule are flat and do not improve the tone or 
character of social correspondence. 

Where persons of both sexes are addressed the ladies should come first, as 
Ladies and Gentlemen. 

The salutatory titles used in addressing persons in any of the three co 
ordinate branches of the Government will be found in their appropriate places. 
Military or Naval officers are addressed by title of rank and name and Sir. 

In the diplomatic service the styles of salutatory titles are governed by the 
degrees of nobility or gentility of the person. The most common form is 
"Your Excellency." See foreign titles for specific degrees of titles. 

Among the ecclesiastical classes the style is Reverend and Dear Sir for a 
clergyman or Right Reverend and Dear Sir for a Bishop. 

Among the professional classes generally the complimentary address is best 
by giving the name and scholastic or professional titles and the simple salutary 
terms as, Sir, Dear Sir, &c. 

THE BODY OF THE LETTER. In the arrangements of the body, of a letter 
begin on the line below and at the end of the salutation or complimentary 



SOCIAL AND OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 271 

beginning, allow a blank margin on the left side of the page of about half an 
inch on the usual sizes of paper used in social letters, or notes and about an 
inch on official paper of large letter or legal cap size. 

Each disconnected subject should form the beginning of a separate paragraph. 

In social letters it is always more convenient to the reader to follow the 
pages of the sheet in their regular order, but where the alternate pages are 
used the first and third should be written across the page and the second and 
fourth lengthwise. 

The practice of crossing the writing on a page is a disrespect to the person 
addressed, not to speak of the difficulty of reading it after written. 

It would be well for those desiring to make themselves proficient in this 
essential art in polite socieiy and official life, to read the correspondence of 
persons eminent in public affairs or letters. There are also selected collections 
in epistolary literature which might be studied to advantage for styles of cor 
respondence. 

A plain legible hand is always preferable to flouiishes. 

Letters for publication should be written only on one side of the sheet. 

Interlineations, blots and other defects are not creditable and should be 
avoided even if the letter must be re- written. A single word of interlineation 
inserted in a very small hand may be overlooked. 

THE CONCLUSION. After the body of the letter follows the complimentary 
close and the signature. The complimentary closing of a letter should begin 
on the second line below the end of the body of the letter and about one third 
to one half the distance across the sheet from the right towards the left of the 
page. 

There are many forms of closing a social letter. The most common are : 

To a stranger, Respectfully, Very Respectfully, or Yours Respectfully. 

To an acqaintance, Yours Truly, or Truly Yours, or Very Truly. 

To a close friend Affectionately Yours, Yours Sincerely. 

As a rule all persons make their own selections of the terms of compliment 
ary closing. Care should always be taken that the complimentary close have 
some relation to the complimentary beginning. 

It would not be appropriate to begin with Sir, and end with Your Sincere 
friend. 

In official letters the close is more formal. That commonly in vogue is : 
I ha\e the honor to be, Sir, (or to remain,) 
Your obedient servant. 

(Name.) 

This form is varied by saying With much respect, or With the highest con 
sideration, Your obedient servant. 



272 RULES FOR LETTER WRITING. 

Or simply, Very Respectfully, 

(Name ) 

If the complimentary closing is too long for one line, make two or three, as 
follows, in an official letter: I ha ve the honor to be, 

With great respect, 

Your obedient servant. 

Each line in the complimentary closing of a letter, and the signature should 
begin a little further to the right. It is therefore important to begin the first 
line far enough to the left to admit of this. If the address or title should 
follow the signature the same rule should be observed if practicable. 

In official letters the title is sometimes longer than the name, in this case 
the address or title may begin on a line with the first line of the compliment 
ary closing or further to the left. 

Very Respectfully, 

William Williams, 

Supervisor Surgeon General. 

The Signature of a letter should be plainly written, especially by those who 
do not write a legible hand. 

If letters are of any importance at all, the inside address, signature, and 
superscription should be clear and distinct. 

A lady in addressing a stranger should write her nime so that her sex may 
not be mistaken, and also to show whether married or single. If a married 
lady be a widow, she should use her own name with the prefix. 

All official signatures should be followed by the official rank of the persons 
on the line below. 

William M. Evarts, 
Secretary of State. 

FOLDING A LETTER. If the envelope is the full width of the paper, note, 
letter or official size, one or two folds across the page will suffice. 

The style of paper used in social correspondence by ladies as a rule fits 
into the envelope in one fold, the envelope being shaped with that view. 
In three folds of a letter sheet for the ordinary envelope, the most convenient 
operation is to fold the sheet in half by bringing the bottom of the letter to 
the top and then without changing it, turning the right third of the width 
over to the left and bringing the left third back over the right thus folding on 
the center. 

In which ever way the paper is folded, some persons having their own taste 
in the matter, it should possess symmetry. (See the Envelope for Folding.") 

In folding a sheet it would always be well to use a folder as the folded 
edges are less apt to be marked. A sheet should be inserted in the envelope 



SOCIAL AND OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 273 

so that when taken out it will open conveniently and by consecutive opera 
tions of the hands. 

THE SUPERSCRIPTION. The superscription should give the name, title, and 
post office, (county if a small place,) and State, If in a city, the local address 
should be inserted after the name and title in a clear hand. 

The name should tegin about the middle of the envelope and about one 
third the distance from the left edge and run horizontally towards the right. 
The rest of the superscription should follow in parallel lines below. Each 
beginning a little further to the right. The county or number and street may 
be put in the lower left hand corner. Where there is uncertainty as to the 
address, the presence of the party, or any other consideration, which would 
cause doubt of the letter reaching the party, it would always be well to use 
a "special request envelope," or write on the envelope if not called for in 5 

days please retuin to (or forward) to (giving address.) The 

stamp for the convenience of the postal clerks should always be in the right 
upper corner. 

The old forms En ville, Present, Addressed, for social letters are practically 
obsolete. 

The accepted form of superscription for local delivery by mail is 

(Name of the person addressed) 

City. 

(Number of Residence.) 
By the hand of a friend. 

(Name of person addressed) 

(name of place or) "City." 

By politeness of 

By special messenger. 

(Name of the person addressed) 

(Number of Residence. ) 

The generally accepted forms of superscription in social or official corre 
spondence are as follows : 

(Title and name,) 

(Locality,) 

(State,) 

(Number and street,) 
(or County,) (or in whose care,) 

For an official letter: The form of superscription is given in its proper 
place. 

The titles of address, rank or profession are numerous. Those of general 
application to the superscription of a letter are: 



274 RULES FOR LETTER WRITING. 

Mr. before the names of and to men of .all classes. Plural Messrs. (Mess 
ieurs. ) 

Mrs. before the names of and to all married ladies. Plural Mesdames- 
Ladies. 

Miss before the name of and to a young or unmarried lady. Plural Misses. 

Esq. (Esquire) after the name of a gentleman, and when used the prefix Mr. 
is omitted. Its indiscriminate use in the United States lias much detracted 
from its force as a title of address. It should never be applied in the United 
States if used except to a person of years in social standing. In England 
where the title belongs, the legal right to its use, appertains to the sons of 
peers and their first sons and their eldest sons and others of designated mark. 

Hon. (Honorable) is applied to the Head of a great executive department, 
a Senator, a Diplomatic representative, a Representative in Congress, Judges 
of courts, executive officers of the United States Government, the Governors 
and executive officers of States and Mayors of cities. In the address inside 
of a letter or the superscription it is more formal and in excellent taste not to 
abbreviate, as Hon., but to write out the word as Honorable, (see official titles ) 

The use of titles of rank or office are explained under the class of officials 
to which the titles appertain. 

The uses of titles of foreign subjects is also explained in their proper places. 

The professional titles are used either before or after the name or both as 
Rev ; Dr , M. D.; Prof 

The collegiate or university titles should always be abbreviated. 

CLASSES OF LETTERS. In addition to the ordinary social or official 
letters there are different styles of letters adapted to a specific object. These 
may be stated as follows : 

LETTERS OF INTRODUCTION. These letters should be regarded in social 
or official life as credentials of character from one person to another, respect 
ing a third and a guarantee that the party introduced may be admitted to 
friendship and such social relations as his future conduct may warrant. 

A letter of this character should always be written on good stationary and 
in the prevailing size and style. 

The superscription should, be : 

(Name of party.) 

(Address.) 

Introducing, (name of party) 

The form is like any other letter. 

The following rules should govern the giving and use of letters of introduc- 
ion. A letter of introduction whether of a social or official character shou d 



SOCIAL AND OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 275 

be given with discrimination. The party introducing is responsible for the 
conduct of the introduced, and should not present any one socially whom he 
would not be willing to have introduced into his own family. The character 
istic of all letters of introduction should be brevity and not fulsome praise. It 
is embarrassing to both parties to keep them waiting long, while the letter is 
being read. 

The letter should be unsealed and addressed the same as an ordinary letter 

with the addition of the words "Introducing Mr " in ihe lower left hand 

Corner. 

A letter of introduction may be given by one friend to another presenting a 
stranger provided the stranger has been properly vouched for by some one on 
appropriate terms with him. Under certain circumstances it may be given 
by a person to whom the person receiving the letter and the person introduced 
are strangers, but in this case the persons should all be well known for some 
marked characteristic or ability or be in official station. Such a letter is purely 
formal and has special reference to some specific object stated, and only need 
receive the recognition which the writer, the person receiving it or the person 
introduced would be entitled to in consideration of his rank, abilities or 
business. 

Letters may be given to persons going to another country or city, or 
place, or another person in the same city. It is not necessary to present a letter 
of introduction because it is given. Sometimes there are reasons which 
become known after receiving the letter which would make such action un 
desirable. No offense would be committed by withholding it but it might be 
well to return it .to the writer with .thanks and stating some reason for not 
using it. 

Under ordinary circumstances the least embarrassing mode of presenting a 
letter of introduction would be to call at the residence, official place or busi 
ness house of the party, according to the intention of the introduction, and 
send the letter with your card to the person to whom addressed. This 
would afford the person an opportunity to read it apart from your presence, 
and to determine how to receive you. 

If a gentleman of higher or equal official rank has a letter of introduction, 
he should send it to the parry with his card. The person receiving it should 
call promptly ar.d leave his card. To leave the letter unnoticed, would be a 
disrespect to the writer, if not to the person, which no subsequent attentions 
could cancel. The person to whom addressed will not be obliged to invite 
the person to his house, unless he sees fit. 

Should you receive a letter of introduction through the mail, leave your card, 
or call upon the person on the day of his arrival. It is presumed, of course, 



2j6 RULES FOR LETTER WRITING. 

that no such letter would be written, except by an intimate fiiend, and in 
troducing one altogether worthy. The person introduced must recognize 
the visit by leaving a card, or calling in person. This should be done on 
the next day. The rest must be governed by circumstances. If it is desired 
to continue the acquaintance, an invitation to your house, or any other civility 
will indicate your disposition. These civilities may be declined without a 
violation of good manners. It will thus be easily determined whether the ac 
quaintance be mutually agreeable. 

Particular care should be observed in giving a letter introducing a gentle 
man to a lady. This is assuming a responsibility, as it might be forcing 
an uncongenial acquaintance upon the lady. The letter with the gentleman s 
card should be sent in advance. The lady should be prompt to indicate 
her wishes in the premises. If she makes no reply it will be understood that 
she does not wish to receive ihe gentleman or she may address a note or 
send a card stating a time when she would be at home. 

It is not as a rule proper for a lady to receive a letter of introduction to 
a gentleman. If visiting a strange place she will be presented by her friends 
to those of the same social scale. If she has any personal wishes she can in 
timate them to her friends who have her in charge and can send a card with 
her address and time for receiving a call. These acquaintances are exclu 
sively her own and if in a different social sphere it cannot be expected that 
they should be presented to those with whom she is sojourning unless it be 
their wish. 

A letter of introduction from one lady to another introducing a lady is 
regular and should be delivered by messenger or mail. The lady receiving 
the letter should call at once. If she is agreebly inclined to recognize the 
letter a continuance of the acquaintance must be governed by the impression 
made and by social considerations. 

In England a person bringing a letter of introduction is invited to dinner. 
The object of the invitation is to present the person to the hosts of friends. 

LETTERS OF RECOMMENDATION. These, like letters of introduction, 
should be given with discreiion, and especially in the w r alks of private life. 

The carelessness of officials, particularly holding elective offices, in giving 
recommendations and signing applications and other papers for constituents, 
and even strangers, is a matter of notoriety. Such papers, as a rule, are rightly 
received for just what they are worth. It is now seldom that they have any 
weight whatever, except, perhaps, to be placed in the files for reference. 
Personal influence has superseded machine recommendations. 

LETTERS OF CONGRATULATION. These can only be sent to an intimate 
friend, and should be of a vivacious style. A letter ot congratulation can be 



SOCIAL NOTES. 277 

sent to a fellow-citizen, a personal stranger, who has received some high honors, 
but should be formal in style and expression, unless the party is a. personal 
friend. Such letters should be written on the day of the event subject to con 
gratulation, or as soon as learned. The occasions of congratulations among 
intimate friends in social or official life, are numerous, but should not descend 
to trivial affairs. 

LETTERS OF CONDOLENCE. These follow the general rules of letters of 
congratulation, the difference being in changing the style to the comforting 
and sympathetic. This is the most difficult of all correspondence, as an error 
of expression, or figure of speech, would make the letter appear ridiculous or 
indifferent. Such letters should be written as soon as the event becomes 
known. 

LETTERS OF ACCEPTANCE OR REGRETS. This class of social correspond 
ence has been given in the connections in which they are usually employed. 

There are also Letters of Application, Letters of Friendship, Letters of Re 
quest for Favors, Letters of Affection, which, however, do not belong strictly 
to what may be known as Social Correspondence. 

SOCIAL NOTES. A more informal means of social communication is by 
notes. When they take the place of invitations, however, they are formal and 
are often written in the third person, and are peculiariy adapted to corre. 
spondence between persons in different ranks in the social scale. Care should 
be taken in using the ceremonial note form to preserve the third person through 
out. Such a mistake would reflect upon the writer s knowledge of a very 
simple rule of syntax and composition. Mr. and Mrs. Smith s compliments, 

&c We should be glad to have you come early, would be manifestly 

incorrect. Person not familiar with this form had better not attempt it. 

The materials of notes should as a rule be of superior quality and in weight, 
tint and size according to prevailing tastes. A single fold across the sheet and 
a corresponding sized envelope is in good taste. It is always admissible to 
use white stationery. Tinted paper among lady friends is in taste. Flashy 
materials or flourishes, even in penmanship, are taudry. Monograms on note 
paper and envelopes are always suitable. 

While notes embrace the general forms of invitations, they may be varied 
to suit the taste of the writer and circumstances of the occasion. Among inti 
mate friends a familiar style may be used, such as would be used in a friendly 
letter. 

In the composition of notes on general subjects, the good taste and culture 
of the writer has an excellent field. A happy mode of expression, and due 
regard to the propriety of the subject or occasion should be observed. 



278 COMMON LAW OF CORRESPONDENCE. 

The general rules applicable to letters will apply to notes. 

When, in the same city, it is optional to send notes by messenger or 
through the mail; the former being more elegant. To persons residing in 
another locality, the post is proper. 

PHRASES AND ABBREVIATIONS. In social corresponder.ee certain 
phrases or their abbreviations in French or English, have been adopted. 
Those in vogue are as foLo\vs,any form being admissible: 

/ cpondcz ill vous plail. R. S. l~. P. Answer if you please. 

Pour prendrc conge. P. P. C. To take leave. Or Four dire adieu. P. D. A. 
To say adieu. The former is most used. 

En Ville. E. V. In the city. 

Addressed, Present, or Presented, old forms for notes by hand. 

City, for mail delivery. 

COMMON LAW OF SOCIALCORRESPONDENCE. There are certain 
rules governing the execution and use of le:ters and notes in social and 
official intercourse, which should be observed. 

The stationery of letters should have reference to their objects. In letters 
of a purely social character it should be of fine quality. 

All letters, unless offensive, should be answered promptly, if they require 
an answer, or are of a complimentary character. 

In a reply always acknowledge the letter received, by date, and then answer 
all the points which require a reply. 

In social or official letters a whole sheet of paper should be used. In busi 
ness letters a half sheet is proper. 

If exclusively on your own business it is proper to enclose a postage stamp. 

Never seal a letter referring to the bearer, and particularly letters of Intro 
duction or Recommendation. 

Never use figures in letter writing, except for dates and large sums of 
money. 

Never use abbreviations, except such as are allowed by custom, otherwise 
they arc a sign of indolence and a discourtesy. 

In til social or official correspondence the following should begin with capital 
letters: The principil words of the heading, address, salutation, signature, 
title, address, and superscription, and in the body of the letter; every 
paragraph; every quotation; every sentence; all the important words in the 
title of a book, or historical event; all proper names of individuals; every 
proper name of a person or place; the cardinal points of the compass with 
their compounds and abbreviations, or the adjectives, formed from them; the 



COMMON LAW OF CORRESPONDENCE. 279 

days of the month and of the week; the names of the Diety, or pronouns 
representing it; the pronoun I and interjection O. 

In punctuation use the comma in the divisions of a sentence, or where 
xvords are used without expressing the conjunction; the semicolon between the 
divisionsvof a sentence which state distinct proposition, but still hive a relation 
or dependence; the colon to separate the parts of a sentence, complete cs a 
proposition, but dependent upon each other for their full force and meaning; 
the period at the end of every sentence and after every initial and abbrevia 
tion ; the parenthesis or bracket at the beginning and end of a wo. d or clause 
interjected into another sentence; the points of exclamation to denote emo 
tion ; of interrogation after every question ; a dash, sometimes used as a paren 
thesis, to indicate the omission of something; the hyphen to connect two 
words used as one; the ellipsis, a dot, dash or star to denote omission; the 
apostrophe to indicate the possessive case; the quotation, that the words, sen 
tences or paragraphs are taken from another; the caret to indicate where 
words omitted should be inserted; the brace to join two or more names on 
different lines under a common name; the paragraph to indicate where a new 
line should begin ; the use of underscoring is to emphasize certain words or 
expression, one line indicating italics, two, small capitals, and three, capitals. 

Foreign quotations, except on technical subjects, should be used as little as 
possible, as they are often more apt to expose the writer s ignorance than his 
learning. 

Slang expressions and words, in letters, indicate questionable taste, and 
in most cases are signs of vulgar associations. Bad grammar is an evidence of 
linii.ed education. Big words in letter writing are always suggestive of a dic 
tionary, and are not as elegant in style, expression or force, as those of simpler 
construction and more familiar use. 

Short sentences possess greater perspicuity than long ones. 

Letters written to offend the recipient had better not be answered. In the 
discretion of the recipient, they might be returned. 

Postscripts should be avoided, though they are allowable. Cultivate a clear, 
concise style. Use your own thoughts and expressions, and do not borrow 
the thoughts and expressions of others and palm them off as your own. The 
chief features of successful letter writing, are naturalness of phraseology, 
clearness of style, originality of thought. 






W 
O O; 



I 






W a 



Pi 

o> c 



\^- "n 
CO (0 



Oj 



II 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
LIBRARY 




Acme Library Card Pocket 

Under Pat. " Ref . Index File." 
Made by LIBRAKY BUREAU